72072650960  bbd6bb00 0ac2 40b1 abea ff263f3167ff

Full APUSH Timeline

By addie21
  • Jamestown was Established

    Jamestown was Established
    Jamestown, settled in 1607, was the first permanent English colony in North America. Its significance lies in being a foundation for future American colonies, establishing a foothold for English-speaking settlers and paving the way for the development of the United States. Additionally, Jamestown played a role in shaping early American history, experiencing hardships, adapting to the environment, and interacting with Native Americans, contributing to the broader narrative of colonization.
  • Headright System Devised

    Headright System Devised
    The headright system was a land distribution system that encouraged settlers to travel to America. Those who paid for their own or others' passage to the colonies were granted a headright- a land grant consisting of 50 acres per person. This policy aimed to address the labor shortage in the colonies by attracting colonists and played a crucial role in the economic development of the colonies. It facilitated the establishment of large plantations and encouraged the growth of the tobacco industry.
  • Pilgrims Came to America

    Pilgrims Came to America
    Separatists came to America seeking religious freedom and formed an early, permanent English colony in Plymouth. Their religious freedom quest laid foundation for future religious liberty and their Mayflower Compact set a form of self-government, serving as a step towards democratic government. Their relation with the Wampanoags can be seen as a symbol of cooperation/peaceful coexistence between the colonists and Native Americans. The Plymouth Colony’s success inspired new settlers.
  • Puritans came to America

    Puritans came to America
    Puritans aimed to purify the Church of England and established the Massachusetts Bay Colony to provide a haven for Puritans to practice their version of Protestantism. Their value of education and literacy laid the foundation for the establishment of Harvard College, the first institution of higher education in the American colonies. Focusing on hard work, their values contributed to the development of a Protestant work ethic that became a cultural hallmark in American society.
  • New England Confederation Created

    New England Confederation Created
    The New England Confederation was an alliance among the English colonies in the New England region: Massachusetts Bay, Plymouth, Connecticut, and New Haven. Its purposes were mutual defense against Indian threats, coordination on boundary disputes, and the possibility of unified action during external challenges. While short-lived, it was an early attempt at colonial unity and laid the groundwork for future cooperative efforts, which would be important as the colonies moved toward independence.
  • First Quakers Arrive in New England

    First Quakers Arrive in New England
    Quakers were a religious group diverged from Protestantism. Rejecting formal church structures, sacraments, and clergy, their ideas challenged social hierarchies. Their persecution increased discussions of religious freedom, resulting in the idea of separation of church and state gaining traction. They opposed slavery, supported Native American rights, and promoted equality regardless of gender or social status, which left a lasting print on American social movements.
  • Bacon's Rebellion

    Bacon's Rebellion
    Bacon's Rebellion was an uprising led by Nathaniel Bacon, a wealthy planter. Bacon and his followers were frustrated by the government’s scarce protection from natives and were economically distressed. Feeling shunned by wealthy elites, they marched to Jamestown and burnt the capital. In response, stricter racial and class-based laws were enacted, accelerating the transition from indentured servitude to slavery. Bacon’s Rebellion affected talk of government, representation, and class disparity.
  • Salem Witch Trials

    Salem Witch Trials
    The Salem Witch Trials were a series of trials, convicting citizens(mostly women) of witchcraft with usually inadequate evidence. All those accused would have either had to admit to the crime or be executed. A total of 20 citizens were executed, with 19 hanged and 1 pressed to death. Due to a flawed legal system and widespread fear none of the accused had a chance at being found innocent. The trials displayed the need for adequate evidence in a trial and the need for a fair jury.
  • New York Slave Revolt

    New York Slave Revolt
    The New York Slave Revolt contained enslaved Africans and natives rebelling against their masters in New York City. They set fire to a building, intending to create a distraction and draw colonists out of their homes. The rebellion was stopped by the authorities and the rebels were either captured, executed, or harshly punished. The rebellion increased colonist fears about the potential for slave uprisings. Stricter slave codes were enacted, worsening the already harsh conditions of slavery.
  • The First Great Awakening Begins

    The First Great Awakening Begins
    The First Great Awakening was a religious revival that emphasized the need for individuals to experience a personal and emotional conversion to Christianity and stressed a closer relationship with God. Traveling preachers avoided traditional church hierarchies, attracting followers with their dynamic preaching styles. The First Awakening stirred tensions and divisions, particularly between the New Lights (revivalists) and Old Lights (traditionalists) within existing congregations.
  • George Whitefield Began Preaching

    George Whitefield Began Preaching
    George Whitefield was a notable figure in the Great Awakening. He was known for a charismatic preaching style and had an emotional delivery, captivating audiences and drawing large crowds. While George Whitefield and Jonathan Edwards were both influential figures in the Great Awakening, they had different preaching styles. Whitefield's sermons had more emotion, where Edwards emphasized the intellectual aspects of revival. They both collaborated and supported each other to promote the revival.
  • Albany Congress Meets

    Albany Congress Meets
    The Albany Congress was a meeting of colonial representatives that regarded issues of the French and Indian War and a unified colonial defense against common threats. Benjamin Franklin proposed the Albany Plan of Union which would create a centralized colonial government and promote defense and coordinate colonial efforts in the war. The Albany Congress was an early attempt to achieve colonial unity and while it was not implemented, the idea of colonial unity gained traction in the future.
  • Stamp Act

    Stamp Act
    The Stamp Act ruled that an official stamp be placed on every official document used. Although the wealthy were more affected than the poor, the poor were riled up by the rich and hated it nonetheless. The act infuriated colonists as it represented taxation without representation. Colonial resistance played a significant role in growing unity among the colonies, marking an early instance where colonies acted collectively against a common threat.
  • Boston Massacre

    Boston Massacre
    The Boston Massacre was a dispute between colonists and British soldiers in Boston. It started when colonists began throwing snowballs at the soldiers, however, the situation escalated when the soldiers felt threatened. The soldiers fired into the crowd of colonists, killing 5. Propagandists portrayed British soldiers as aggressors and depicted the event as a deliberate act of violence against civilians. Paul Revere's famous engraving of the event contributed to the civilians' hate for redcoats.
  • Boston Tea Party

    Boston Tea Party
    The Boston Tea party was a protest in retaliation to the Tea Act. The Tea Party consisted of colonists dressed as Native Americans boarding a British ship and throwing 342 chests of tea into the water. In response to the Boston Tea Party, the British Parliament enacted the Coercive Acts in 1774. These measures, also known as the Intolerable Acts in the colonies, included the closure of the Boston Port, restrictions on colonial self-government, and the Quartering Act.
  • First Continental Congress

    First Continental Congress
    The First Continental Congress was a gathering of delegates from 12/13 colonies that met in response to the Coercive Acts. They discussed grievances, coordinated colonial resistance, and formulated a unified response to the British, including boycotts and armed resistance. This marked a large step toward colonial unity, as it brought together representatives from diverse colonies, fostering a sense of shared purpose and resistance against British oppression.
  • Second Continental Congress

    Second Continental Congress
    The Second Continental Congress was a gathering of colonial representatives that convened in Philadelphia. It emerged as a result of the escalating hostilities between the American colonies and British, particularly after the Battle of Lexington and Concord, which marked the beginning of the Revolutionary War. The Second Continental Congress played a crucial role in coordinating the war effort, making key decisions, and ultimately laying the groundwork for the Declaration of Independence.
  • Battle of Lexington and Concord

    Battle of Lexington and Concord
    The Battle of Lexington and Concord, which took place on April 19, 1775, marked the beginning of the American Revolutionary War. It was a series of skirmishes between British troops and colonial militia in the towns of Lexington and Concord, Massachusetts. This pivotal event had a profound impact on the course of the conflict and played a crucial role in shaping the early stages of the American Revolution.
  • Common Sense & American Crisis Published

    Common Sense & American Crisis Published
    Common Sense" and "The American Crisis" are two influential pamphlets written by Thomas Paine during the American Revolutionary War. They played significant roles in shaping public opinion, boosting morale, and fostering support for the American cause of independence. General Washington read "The American Crisis to his army to boost their morale and convince them their effort was worth it.
  • Battle of Saratoga

    Battle of Saratoga
    The Battle of Saratoga was a series of engagements fought between British forces and American Continental Army troops, along with their French allies during the Revolutionary War. The battle, often considered a turning point in the war, boosted morale and demonstrated that the Continental Army could defeat a major British force in a significant engagement.
  • Battle of Yorktown

    Battle of Yorktown
    The Battle of Yorktown, fought from September 28 to October 19, 1781, was the decisive engagement of the American Revolutionary War. It took place in Yorktown, Virginia, and marked the culmination of a series of strategic moves that ultimately led to the surrender of British forces under General Cornwallis. The impact of the Battle of Yorktown was profound and played a crucial role in leading to the end of the war.
  • Shay's Rebellion

    Shay's Rebellion
    Shays' Rebellion was an armed uprising that took place in Massachusetts from 1786 to 1787, named after its leader, Daniel Shays. The rebellion emerged as a response to economic hardships, high taxes, and perceived injustices faced by farmers in the aftermath of the American Revolutionary War. While the rebellion was eventually quelled, it displayed the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation and showed the need for an updated government.
  • Alexander Hamilton Argues for his Financial Plan(Plan of Assumption)

    Alexander Hamilton Argues for his Financial Plan(Plan of Assumption)
    Alexander Hamilton, the first Secretary of the Treasury under President George Washington, proposed a comprehensive financial plan to address the economic challenges facing the United States in the years following the American Revolutionary War. Hamilton's financial plan, outlined in a series of reports to Congress from 1790 to 1791, had a profound impact on shaping the economic policies of the new nation.
  • Cotton Gin Invented

    Cotton Gin Invented
    The cotton gin, short for "cotton engine," was an invention created by Eli Whitney in 1793. It revolutionized the process of separating cotton fibers from their seeds and had a profound impact on the Southern United States, particularly in relation to cotton production and the institution of slavery as slavery was on the decline until the cotton gin.
  • Whiskey Rebellion

    Whiskey Rebellion
    The Whiskey Rebellion was a protest that occurred in western Pennsylvania. It was sparked by the imposition of a federal excise tax on distilled spirits, particularly whiskey. The rebellion had implications for the authority of the federal government and highlighted tensions between federal power and local resistance. Contrasting with Shay's rebellion, the Whiskey Rebellion was ended much more efficiently, highlighting the effectiveness of the Constitution.
  • XYZ Affair

    XYZ Affair
    The XYZ Affair was a diplomatic incident that took place between the United States and France in the late 18th century, specifically from 1797 to 1798. It contributed to heightened tensions between the two nations as France refused to meet unless paid. The affair divided Americans as many wished for a stronger response to France instead of simply giving in to their requests.
  • Alien and Sedition Acts

    Alien and Sedition Acts
    The Alien and Sedition Acts were a series of four laws passed by the United States Congress in 1798 during the presidency of John Adams. These laws were controversial and aimed at addressing perceived threats to the government, particularly concerns about subversion and dissent during a time of tensions with France. In response to the Alien and Sedition Acts, Thomas Jefferson and James Madison authored the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions
  • Louisiana Purchase

    Louisiana Purchase
    The Louisiana Purchase was a significant land acquisition by the United States from France in 1803. It involved the purchase of the Louisiana Territory, a vast expanse of land west of the Mississippi River, doubling the size of the United States and profoundly impacting the nation's development.The fertile land in the newly acquired territory provided opportunities for agricultural expansion, promoting westward settlement.
  • Marbury vs. Madison

    Marbury vs. Madison
    Marbury v. Madison (1803) was a landmark United States Supreme Court case that established the principle of judicial review, affirming the Court's power to interpret the Constitution and declare acts of Congress unconstitutional. The case had a profound impact on the balance of powers among the branches of government and set the precedent for future cases where the Court would exercise its power of judicial review.
  • Embargo Act

    Embargo Act
    The Embargo Act of 1807 was a controversial piece of legislation enacted by the United States Congress and signed into law by President Thomas Jefferson. The primary aim of the Embargo Act was to respond to issues related to the impressiveness of American sailors and violations of U.S. neutrality during the Napoleonic Wars. However, its impact was significant and largely negative.
  • War of 1812 Begins

    War of 1812 Begins
    The War of 1812 was a conflict between the United States and Great Britain that lasted from 1812 to 1815. Several factors contributed to the outbreak of the war, including issues related to maritime rights, impressment, trade restrictions, and tensions between the United States and Britain.
  • Star Spangled Banner Written

    Star Spangled Banner Written
    The Star-Spangled Banner" was written by Francis Scott Key during the War of 1812. Key penned the lyrics after witnessing the bombardment of Fort McHenry by British forces in the Chesapeake Bay on the night of September 13-14, 1814. The poem was initially titled "Defence of Fort M'Henry" and was later set to the tune of a popular song of the time, "To Anacreon in Heaven."
  • Battle of New Orleans

    Battle of New Orleans
    The Battle of New Orleans was a significant engagement fought between the United States and Great Britain from January 8 to January 18, 1815, during the War of 1812. Although the Treaty of Ghent had been signed on December 24, 1814, officially ending the war, the news had not reached the combatants, and the battle proceeded. The Battle of New Orleans is notable for being a decisive American victory.
  • Henry Clay Brings up The American System

    Henry Clay Brings up The American System
    Henry Clay's American System was a comprehensive economic plan that he proposed to promote economic development and strengthen the United States in the early 19th century. Clay, a prominent American statesman and political leader, outlined this system, which included protective tariffs, a national bank, and infrastructure.
  • Tariff of Abominations

    Tariff of Abominations
    The Tariff of Abominations refers to the high protective tariff passed by the United States Congress in 1828. It was officially known as the Tariff of 1828. The term "Tariff of Abominations" was coined by its opponents, particularly in the Southern United States, who strongly objected to its provisions.
  • Indian Removal Act Passed (Trail of Tears begins)

    Indian Removal Act Passed (Trail of Tears begins)
    The Indian Removal Act was a U.S. federal law signed by President Andrew Jackson on May 28, 1830. The act authorized the removal of Native American tribes from their ancestral lands in the southeastern United States to lands west of the Mississippi River. Its primary goal was to open up valuable land for white settlement and agricultural development.
  • The Liberator Published

    The Liberator Published
    The Liberator" was an abolitionist newspaper founded by William Lloyd Garrison and first published on January 1, 1831. Garrison was a prominent abolitionist, and "The Liberator" played a crucial role in the movement to end slavery in the United States.
  • Jackson Vetoes Second Bank's Charter

    Jackson Vetoes Second Bank's Charter
    President Andrew Jackson vetoed the recharter of the Second Bank as he greatly feared federal power.The withdrawal of federal funds from the Second Bank contributed to a period of financial instability. State-chartered banks proliferated, leading to a fragmented and often chaotic banking system known as the "free banking" era.
  • Nullification Crisis

    Nullification Crisis
    The Nullification Crisis was a political conflict that was primarily centered around the issue of tariffs and the doctrine of nullification. The conflict arose when the state of South Carolina, led by Vice President John C. Calhoun, asserted the right to nullify, or declare void, certain federal laws within its borders. The primary focus was on the high protective tariffs imposed by the federal government.
  • Seneca Falls Convention

    Seneca Falls Convention
    The Seneca Falls Convention was a landmark event in the history of the women's rights movement in the United States. It took place on July 19-20, 1848, in Seneca Falls, New York. The convention is particularly notable for producing the Seneca Falls Declaration, which is often considered the foundational document of the American women's suffrage movement.
  • Compromise of 1850 Proposed

    Compromise of 1850 Proposed
    The Compromise of 1850 was a series of legislative measures aimed at addressing the sectional tensions between the Northern and Southern states over the issue of slavery. The compromise was a package of laws passed by the U.S. Congress in 1850. It was an attempt to maintain a delicate balance between the interests of free and slave states.
  • Bleeding Kansas

    Bleeding Kansas
    Bleeding Kansas" refers to a period of violent political and social conflict that took place in the Kansas Territory from the mid-1850s to the early 1860s. The conflict arose as a result of the debate over whether Kansas would enter the Union as a free state or a slave state. The events in Kansas were a precursor to the larger sectional tensions that ultimately led to the American Civil War.
  • Emancipation Proclamation Announced

    Emancipation Proclamation Announced
    The Emancipation Proclamation was a significant executive order issued by President Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War. It was announced on September 22, 1862, and became effective on January 1, 1863. The proclamation had profound implications for the course of the war as it made the war about slavery directly instead of just having the war be about preserving the Union.
  • Pacific Railroad Act

    Pacific Railroad Act
    The Pacific Railroad Act of 1862 was a crucial piece of legislation passed by the United States Congress during the American Civil War. It laid the foundation for the construction of the First Transcontinental Railroad, connecting the eastern and western coasts of the United States. The more railroads in the U.S. the more connected it was, making it easier for people and goods to travel. This contributed exponentially to the urbanization of the U.S.
  • War of Antietam

    War of Antietam
    The Battle of Antietam, also known as the Battle of Sharpsburg, was a crucial engagement fought during the American Civil War. It took place on September 17, 1862, near Sharpsburg, Maryland. The Battle of Antietam was the first major battle on Union soil and remains the bloodiest single-day battle in American history.
  • Homestead Act

    Homestead Act
    The Homestead Act was a landmark piece of legislation in the United States that provided a path for American citizens to acquire land in the West. It was signed into law by President Abraham Lincoln on May 20, 1862, during the Civil War. The Homestead Act was successful as many colonists were quick to move west and claim their land.
  • Morrill Land Grant Act

    Morrill Land Grant Act
    The Morrill Land-Grant Acts were a series of laws enacted by the United States Congress that provided federal support for the establishment of land-grant colleges and universities. The primary goal of these institutions was to promote education in agriculture, science, and engineering. The Morrill Land-Grant Acts played a crucial role in expanding access to higher education and fostering practical, hands-on learning in the agricultural and mechanical arts.
  • Battle of Vicksburg

    Battle of Vicksburg
    The Battle of Vicksburg was a significant military engagement during the American Civil War, fought from May 18 to July 4, 1863. The fall of Vicksburg gave the Union control of the entire Mississippi River, allowing them to complete the Anaconda Plan.The victory at Vicksburg, coupled with the Union victory at the Battle of Gettysburg, marked a turning point in the war. It boosted Union morale and set the stage for further successes.
  • Battle of Gettysburg

    Battle of Gettysburg
    The Battle of Gettysburg was a pivotal engagement fought during the American Civil War from July 1 to 3, 1863, near the town of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. The defeat at Gettysburg had a profound impact on the Confederate war effort. The Union victory weakened Lee's army and dealt a blow to Southern morale was a critical turning point in the war and is considered one of the largest and deadliest battles in North American history.
  • Dawes Act

    Dawes Act
    The Dawes Act, also known as the General Allotment Act of 1887, was a U.S. federal law aimed at assimilating Native American tribes into mainstream American society by encouraging individual land ownership. The act, sponsored by Senator Henry L. Dawes, was signed into law by President Grover Cleveland on February 8, 1887. Although in the eyes of the colonists, this was a great deal for natives, however, from the natives perspective it would deprive them of everything they value.
  • Plessy vs. Ferguson

    Plessy vs. Ferguson
    Plessy vs. Ferguson was a landmark United States Supreme Court case decided in 1896. The case dealt with the constitutionality of racial segregation in public facilities, particularly in the context of state-mandated segregation on trains. The decision had significant and long-lasting implications for the legal status of segregation in the United States as the "separate but equal" ruling allowed for racial segregation in public facilities.
  • USS Maine explodes and sinks in Havana Harbor

    USS Maine explodes and sinks in Havana Harbor
    The USS Maine was a U.S. battleship that sank in Havana Harbor, Cuba. At the time, it looked like the ship was sabotaged by Spain due to Hearst newspapers's propaganda. However, Later investigations suggested an internal explosion. The Maine sinking was a catalyst for the Spanish-American War, as it fueled public outrage and intensified calls for war with Spain. The slogan "Remember the Maine, to Hell with Spain!" became a rallying cry for war.
  • Start of Spanish American War

    Start of Spanish American War
    The Spanish-American War was a conflict between Spain and the United States in 1898. It arose from American intervention in the Cuban War of Independence. Although the war lasted only a few months, it had significant consequences. The U.S. emerged as a world power, gaining territories such as Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines. It also marked the end of Spanish colonial rule in the Americas. It also sparked debates about American imperialism and the country's role in global affairs.
  • "The Jungle" is published

    "The Jungle" is published
    "The Jungle" is a novel by Upton Sinclair. It exposed the harsh working conditions and unsanitary practices in the meatpacking industry. Sinclair intended to highlight the plight of the immigrant workers and the corruption in the industry, but the book's focus on the unsanitary conditions in meatpacking plants caused a public outcry. "The Jungle" prompted reforms, including the Pure Food and Drug Act and the Meat Inspection Act.These laws laid the foundation for modern food safety regulations.
  • National Association for the Advancement of Colored People

    National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
    The NAACP initially focused on combating racial discrimination and violence against African Americans, particularly through litigation and advocacy. The NAACP has played a crucial role in landmark legal battles, Brown v. Board of Education and the Civil Rights Act. The NAACP continues to advocate for racial equality, economic justice, and political empowerment, fighting against systemic racism and working to address voter suppression, criminal justice reform, and economic inequality.
  • Assembly Line Debut

    Assembly Line Debut
    The assembly line is a manufacturing process where parts are added to a product in a sequential manner as it moves along a conveyor belt. Pioneered by Henry Ford in the production of cars at the Ford Motor Company, the assembly line increased manufacturing efficiency by breaking down the production process into repetitive tasks. This made goods affordable and accessible to the general population, increased demand for unskilled workers, and led to concerns about the dehumanization of work.
  • Panama Canal

    Panama Canal
    The Panama Canal is a waterway constructed to provide a shortcut between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. The canal revolutionized global trade and transportation by reducing ship travel time. This lowered transportation costs and made trade more efficient. Control over the Panama Canal became a geopolitical issue, as it provided an advantage for maritime powers and generated revenue through tolls paid by ships passing through. Its construction was considered a remarkable feat for its time.
  • Sinking of the Lusitania

    Sinking of the Lusitania
    The Lusitania was a British ocean liner that was torpedoed by a German submarine. Nearly 1,200 people, including 128 Americans, lost their lives in the sinking of the Lusitania. This shocked the world and generated outrage and propaganda against Germany. The attack violated international laws regarding civilian treatment during wartime and contributed to the eventual entry of the U.S. into World War I on the side of the Allies.
  • Zimmerman Telegram

    Zimmerman Telegram
    The Zimmerman Telegram was a diplomatic communication sent by Germany to Mexico during WWI. In the telegram, Foreign Minister Arthur Zimmerman proposed an alliance between Germany and Mexico and suggested that Germany would support Mexico in recovering territories lost to the U.S. The telegram outraged public opinion and was seen as a direct threat to the U.S. The Zimmerman Telegram, combined with unrestricted submarine warfare, inevitably swayed the U.S. to enter WWI.
  • Espionage Act of 1917

    Espionage Act of 1917
    The Espionage Act was a U.S. federal law which made it a crime to convey information intended to interfere with the success of the armed forces or to promote the success of its enemies by criminalizing publishing or distributing "anti-American," materials leading to the prosecution of journalists, activists, and political opponents. The act raised concern for the limitation of civil liberties and freedom of speech, was criticized for its vague language, and set the stage for the Sedition Act.
  • Influenza (Spanish Flu) Pandemic

    Influenza (Spanish Flu) Pandemic
    The influenza pandemic was one of the deadliest pandemics in history as it infected about 500 million people, about one-third of the population, and resulted in the deaths of about 50 million. It was feared due to its rapid spread and high mortality rate and occurred during the closing stages of WWI, which facilitated its spread as soldiers traveled across borders. The pandemic had a profound impact on public health practices, leading to healthcare advancements and disease prevention measures.
  • 19th Amendment Grants Women's Suffrage

    19th Amendment Grants Women's Suffrage
    The 19th Amendment to the United States Constitution granted women the right to vote. Its impact was profound, as it marked a significant milestone in the fight for women's suffrage and equality. With the amendment in place, women gained a voice in the democratic process, enabling them to participate fully in elections and have a say in shaping public policy. The 19th Amendment paved the way for greater gender equality and expanded opportunities for women in politics and society at large.
  • Treaty of Versailles

    Treaty of Versailles
    The Treaty of Versailles was one of the peace treaties that ended WWI. The treaty imposed harsh penalties on Germany, including substantial territorial losses, demilitarization, and reparations payments. It officially ended the state of war between Germany and the Allied Powers and held Germany responsible for the war. The treaty also contributed to economic instability in Germany and contributed to the conditions that led to the rise of Adolf Hitler and the outbreak of WWII.
  • Beginning of The Red Scare

    Beginning of The Red Scare
    The Red Scare encompasses two periods of intense anti-communist fear in the United States: one post-World War I, sparked by the Russian Revolution, and another during the Cold War era. The first Red Scare led to government crackdowns on suspected radicals and fueled anti-immigrant sentiments. The second Red Scare saw heightened fears of communist infiltration, resulting in the infamous McCarthyism era, marked by accusations and blacklisting.
  • 18th Amendment (Volstead Act) Enacted

    18th Amendment (Volstead Act) Enacted
    The 18th Amendment enacted Prohibition, banning alcohol in the US. Its impact was multifaceted: it fueled organized crime, created economic opportunities in the underground market, sparked social and cultural shifts, and failed to improve public health as intended. Repealed in 1933 by the 21st Amendment due to widespread dissatisfaction, Prohibition's legacy includes increased alcohol regulation, ongoing policy debates, and lessons on the limitations of prohibitionist measures.
  • The Harlem Renaissance Begins

    The Harlem Renaissance Begins
    The Harlem Renaissance was a vibrant cultural movement in Harlem, NYC, where African American artists, writers, and musicians celebrated their heritage and challenged racial stereotypes. Through literature, music, and art, figures like Langston Hughes and Duke Ellington showcased African American talent and identity. It became a hub for intellectual exchange, fostering discussions on social justice, and left a lasting impact on American culture, contributing to broader cultural shifts.
  • Sacco and Vanzetti Court Hearing

    Sacco and Vanzetti Court Hearing
    The Sacco and Vanzetti case was a highly controversial trial where Italian immigrants and anarchists Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti were convicted of robbery and murder. Despite international attention and protests, they were executed in 1927, sparking debates on justice, immigration, and political beliefs. Their case remains a symbol of injustice, fueling advocacy for fair treatment within the legal system and contributing to the labor and civil rights movements.
  • Immigration Act of 1924

    Immigration Act of 1924
    The Immigration Act of 1924 imposed restrictions on immigration to the U.S. It established a quota system based on national origins, favoring immigrants from Northern and Western Europe over those from Southern and Eastern Europe and Asia. The Act drastically reduced overall immigration, reinforcing discriminatory attitudes and perpetuating xenophobia and nativism. This had lasting impacts on the U.S.'s social dynamics, and cultural identity, shaping immigration policy for decades.
  • Herbert Hoover Elected

    Herbert Hoover Elected
    Herbert Hoover's presidency is primarily remembered for the onset of the Great Depression. Initially praised for his business skills, Hoover's response to the Depression was criticized for being insufficient. Despite efforts such as public works projects, his popularity plummeted due to widespread suffering. He was soundly defeated by Franklin D. Roosevelt in the 1932 election, shifting American politics towards greater government intervention in the economy.
  • Great Depression Begins

    Great Depression Begins
    The Great Depression was a severe economic downturn originating with the stock market crash of 1929. It was caused by overproduction, speculation, and banking crises and led to widespread unemployment, bank failures, homelessness, and poverty. It yielded increased mental illness and social unrest as well as disrupted international trade. Roosevelt's New Deal implemented reforms for relief and recovery. The Depression reshaped the government's role in the economy and welfare policies.
  • The Dust Bowl Begins ("the dirty 30s")

    The Dust Bowl Begins ("the dirty 30s")
    The Dust Bowl was an environmental disaster primarily affecting the Great Plains. It was caused by drought, poor farming practices, and deforestation, leading to massive dust storms that displaced fertile topsoil. This devastation caused agricultural collapse, widespread poverty, and health issues. Many were forced to migrate in search of work. The government responded with conservation and relief programs, but the long-term effects included changes in farming practices and land management.
  • Bonus Army March

    Bonus Army March
    The Bonus Army March saw WWI veterans meet in Washington, D.C. and demand bonuses promised by the government. Facing financial hardship due to the Great Depression, they set up camps near the Capitol. Hoover ordered their eviction, leading to a violent confrontation with federal troops, resulting in casualties and public outrage. This damaged Hoover's reputation, highlighted veterans' struggles, and prompted changes in government policies towards veterans, culminating in the Bonus Act of 1936.
  • FDR's New Deal Implemented

    FDR's New Deal Implemented
    FDR's New Deal, was a comprehensive response to the Great Depression, including relief, recovery, and reform. Relief programs like the CCC, WPA, and FERA provided assistance to those affected. Recovery measures included the AAA and NIRA. Reform legislation, such as the SEC and SSA, addressed underlying causes and prevented future crises. The New Deal reduced poverty, yielded economic recovery, expanded government responsibility, and left a legacy of government intervention and social reform.
  • Social Security Act (SSA)

    Social Security Act (SSA)
    The Social Security Act, signed into law by Roosevelt, established the Social Security system in the U.S. It included Old-Age Insurance, providing retirement benefits to eligible workers; Unemployment Insurance, offering temporary financial assistance to unemployed workers; and Aid to Dependent Children. The Act reduced poverty among the elderly and vulnerable populations, stabilized the economy, and solidified Democratic Party support among workers.
  • Supreme Court Scandal (court-packing plan)

    Supreme Court Scandal (court-packing plan)
    The Supreme Court scandal occurred when President Franklin D. Roosevelt tried expanding the size of the Supreme Court to appoint justices sympathetic to his New Deal. Facing opposition for perceived encroachment on the judiciary's independence, Roosevelt's plan was rejected by congress, and sparked debate on presidential authority, judicial independence, and the Court's role. It influenced the Court's approach to New Deal legislation and shaped public perception of the judiciary's neutrality.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor

    Attack on Pearl Harbor
    The attack on Pearl Harbor, by the Japanese, was a surprise attack that inflicted significant damage on the American Pacific Fleet. Over 2,400 Americans were killed, and over 1,100 wounded. It led the U.S. to declare war on Japan, entering WWII on the Allies' side. It united the American people and resulted in changes to military strategy, and spurred massive mobilization efforts. It marked a turning point in WWII, weakening Japan's position and impelling efforts against the Axis powers.
  • D-Day

    D-Day was a military operation during WWII where Allied forces launched an assault on the beaches of Normandy under General Eisenhower's command. The goal was to establish a foothold in France and create a second front against Nazi Germany. Despite facing fortified German defenses and adverse weather, D-Day was a turning point in the war. It boosted Allied morale, dealt a blow to German morale, and paved the way for the liberation of France and the defeat of Nazi Germany.
  • GI Bill

    GI Bill
    The GI Bill was a landmark piece of legislation providing benefits to World War II veterans. It offered educational funding, home loan guarantees, and unemployment benefits. The bill dramatically expanded access to higher education, stimulated economic growth, and promoted social mobility by providing opportunities for veterans. Its legacy continues through subsequent veteran support programs, making it one of the most significant pieces of social legislation in American history.
  • Hiroshima

    Hiroshima was the target of the first atomic bomb used during WWII. Dropped by the U.S., the bomb, caused immediate destruction and tens of thousands of deaths. The immediate death toll is estimated at 75,000, with many more dying later from radiation illnesses, totaling over 100,000 casualties. Survivors suffered health effects from radiation. The bombing led to the end of WWII and initiated the nuclear arms race, posing ethical and moral questions about nuclear weapon use and their impact.
  • The Marshall Plan

    The Marshall Plan
    The Marshall Plan aimed to aid Western Europe's post-WWII recovery. It provided financial assistance, technical expertise, and resources to rebuild war-torn European economies. The plan sought to stimulate economic recovery, prevent communist influence, and foster political stability. Over four years, billions of dollars were allocated to 16 European countries for infrastructure, industry, and agriculture. The plan laid the foundation for NATO and strengthened U.S. influence.
  • NATO Created

    NATO Created
    NATO is a military alliance providing collective defense and security for its members. Formed in response to post-WWII tensions, it includes 30 member states committed to mutual defense. NATO involves collective decision-making, led by a secretary-general and military command. It has expanded membership, controversially including former Soviet bloc countries. NATO's influence lies in deterring aggression, promoting transatlantic cooperation, crisis management, and promoting democratic values.
  • Brown v. Board

    Brown v. Board
    Brown v. Board of Education was a landmark Supreme Court case that challenged racial segregation in schools. The Court ruled that segregation was unconstitutional, overturning the "separate but equal" doctrine. This marked the beginning of the end of legal segregation, inspiring the civil rights movement and prompting desegregation efforts nationwide. Brown v. Board of Education symbolizes the triumph of justice and remains a cornerstone in the fight for civil rights in the United States.
  • Vietnam War

    Vietnam War
    The Vietnam War was rooted in Vietnamese independence and the Cold War rivalry. U.S. involvement escalated and was marked by the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, leading to extensive military conflict characterized by guerrilla warfare and bombing campaigns. The war had millions of deaths and injuries and deeply divided American society, eroded public confidence in the government, and fueled anti-war sentiments. The war's legacy yields Vietnam's reunification under communist rule.
  • Montgomery Bus Boycott Starts

    Montgomery Bus Boycott Starts
    The Montgomery bus boycott, ignited by Rosa Parks' arrest, was a pivotal event in the civil rights movement. Led by Martin Luther King Jr., African Americans boycotted city buses for 381 days, causing significant economic strain and leading to a landmark legal victory when the Supreme Court ruled bus segregation unconstitutional in Browder v. Gayle. The boycott inspired similar protests nationwide, and propelled King to national prominence as a leader of nonviolent resistance.
  • National Highway Act

    National Highway Act
    The National Highway Act authorized the construction of an interstate highway system to improve transportation infrastructure, promote economic growth, and enhance national defense. It funded the construction of about 41,000 miles of high-speed roads, with the government paying for most of it. The highways spurred economic growth, urbanization, and tourism, while also facilitating national defense and strategic mobility. However, also led to environmental degradation and community displacement.
  • Little Rock 9

    Little Rock 9
    The Little Rock Nine were African American students who attempted to enroll at Central High School, marking a significant moment in the civil rights movement. Their enrollment faced opposition from racists, like Governor Orval Faubus, who ordered the Arkansas National Guard to stop their entry. Pres. Eisenhower, ordered the Federal National Guard to ensure the students' safety and escort them into the school. The students' courage symbolized the fight for civil rights and sparked social change.
  • U-2 Incident

    U-2 Incident
    An American U-2 spy plane was shot down over Soviet territory, leading to strained relations between the U.S. and the Soviet Union. It sparked an international crisis and resulted in the cancellation of a scheduled meeting between Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev and U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower. The U-2 incident exacerbated Cold War tensions and highlighted the risks of aerial espionage during the era of nuclear brinkmanship.
  • Freedom Rides Begin

    Freedom Rides Begin
    The Freedom Rides were nonviolent protests to challenge segregation laws in the Southern U.S. Despite violent opposition, including attacks and arrests, the Freedom Riders persisted in their efforts to integrate interstate transportation facilities. Their actions led to federal intervention and legal victories upholding desegregation laws. The rides became a symbol of resistance and solidarity in the civil rights movement, inspiring individuals to join the fight for racial equality and justice.
  • Engel vs. Vitale

    Engel vs. Vitale
    The Engel v. Vitale case, decided in 1962, addressed the constitutionality of state-sponsored prayer in public schools. The Supreme Court ruled 6-1 in favor of the plaintiffs, declaring the prayer policy unconstitutional under the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment. The ruling sparked debate over the role of religion in public life and reinforced the constitutional protection of religious freedom and civil liberties in the United States.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis

    Cuban Missile Crisis
    The Cuban Missile Crisis, occurring in October 1962, brought the United States and the Soviet Union to the brink of nuclear war over the discovery of Soviet ballistic missile installations in Cuba. Tensions escalated as President Kennedy imposed a naval blockade around Cuba, demanding the removal of the missiles. Diplomatic negotiations between Kennedy and Khrushchev led to a peaceful resolution, agreeing to dismantle the missiles if U.S. does not invade Cuba.
  • "Letter from a Birmingham Jail"

    "Letter from a Birmingham Jail"
    "Letter from Birmingham Jail" is a letter written by Martin Luther King Jr. while he was imprisoned in Birmingham, for his involvement in nonviolent protests against racial segregation. In response to criticism from white clergymen, King defended the strategy of nonviolent direct action and emphasized the urgency of achieving racial equality. The letter became a powerful call for justice, influencing the philosophy and practice of nonviolent resistance.
  • March on Washington

    March on Washington
    The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom took place in Washington, D.C., and advocate for civil rights legislation, economic justice, and an end to racial segregation and discrimination. It attracted about 250,000 participants and featured Martin Luther King Jr.'s "I Have a Dream" speech, emphasizing racial harmony and equality. The march contributed to the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965.
  • 16th St Baptist Church Bombing

    16th St Baptist Church Bombing
    The 16th Street Baptist Church bombing occurred in Birmingham, Alabama, targeting a prominent African American church and killing four young girls attending Sunday school. The bombing sparked national outrage, symbolizing the brutality of racial violence. It galvanized increased activism and led to renewed calls for civil rights reforms, ultimately contributing to the passage of landmark legislation like the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965.
  • Civil Rights Act

    Civil Rights Act
    The Civil Rights Act of 1964, was a landmark piece of legislation aimed at combating racial discrimination and segregation in the United States. It contained provisions prohibiting discrimination in various aspects of American life, including voting, public accommodations, federally funded programs, and employment. The act marked the end of legal segregation, expanded civil rights protections to include religion, sex, and national origin, and created enforcement mechanisms such as the EEOC.
  • Voting Rights Act

    Voting Rights Act
    The Voting Rights Act of 1965 was a significant federal legislation aimed at combating racial discrimination in voting and ensuring equal access to the ballot for all citizens. It addressed widespread disenfranchisement tactics like literacy tests and poll taxes used in Southern states to suppress minority voters. The act's provisions provided language assistance for minority voters. It expanded voting rights, increased minority voter registration, and dismantled Jim Crow laws
  • Moon Landing

    Moon Landing
    The Moon landing occurred during NASA's Apollo 11 mission, with Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin becoming the first humans to set foot on the Moon. Armstrong's famous words, "That's one small step for [a] man, one giant leap for mankind," marked the historic moment. The mission provided valuable scientific data, showcasing technological advancements and inspiring awe and pride globally.
  • Richard Nixon Elected

    Richard Nixon Elected
    Richard Nixon's presidency had large impacts on American politics, society, and foreign policy. He fulfilled his promise to end the Vietnam War through "Vietnamization," withdrawing troops and negotiating a peace agreement in 1973. Nixon's presidency also saw a historic thaw in relations with China, marked by his groundbreaking visit in 1972, leading to normalization of diplomatic relations. Domestically, Nixon established key agencies like the EPA and OSHA and signed environmental legislation.
  • Environmental Protection Agency

    Environmental Protection Agency
    The (EPA), is tasked with safeguarding human health and the environment by enforcing regulations and conducting research. It enforces laws like the Clean Air and Clean Water Acts, sets standards for pollution control, and oversees hazardous waste cleanup. The EPA conducts research, educates the public, and collaborates internationally to address global environmental issues. Its impact includes improving environmental quality and promoting environmental justice.
  • Watergate Scandal

    Watergate Scandal
    The Watergate scandal unfolded during Richard Nixon's presidency, stemming from a break-in at the Democratic National Committee headquarters in 1972. Nixon and his administration attempted to cover up their involvement, leading to investigations and Nixon's resignation in 1974. The scandal eroded public trust in government and prompted legal reforms to increase transparency and accountability.
  • Ronald Reagan is Elected

    Ronald Reagan is Elected
    Reagan's election marked a turn towards conservative ideology, advocating for limited government, deregulation, and free-market economics, known as the "Reagan Revolution."Reaganomics, characterized by tax cuts, deregulation, and reduced government spending, aimed to spur economic growth. It also led to increased income inequality and budget deficits. Reagan pursued a confrontational approach towards the Soviet Union, increasing military spending.