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APUSH Semester 1 Final Timeline ( including 50 (fifty) different events throughout the majority (around 1607 to 1990) of American History as well as a description for each event (maximum of 500 characters per description), and finally pictures that match)

  • Founding of Jamestown

    Founding of Jamestown
    Jamestown was the first successful British settlement in North America. It would be the foundation for the Virginia Company and would set the basis for many of the future British funded colonies. Originally founded by John Smith, the colony was not very successful at first, but after some time it became one of the more profitable colonies on the Continent with the discovery of the tobacco crop. This crop became main crop for the South and the colonies until cotton took over.
  • Mayflower Compact

    Mayflower Compact
    The Mayflower Contract was created by the Pilgrims during the voyage to the Americas. Written by all the male members on the ship, the Contract existed as a way to ensure that the new colony was able to survive on its own. It laid out an early form of self-governance that wasn't seen on the continent before this. It also served as the first set of laws for the new colony, and lasted until 1691.
  • Molasses Act

    Molasses Act
    The Molasses Act was one of the first mercantilist taxes put on the new American colonies. The Act made that products like molasses, sugar, rum, etc. would be taxed if they came from a non-British source. This act was obviously passed to make the colonists buy their sugar and molasses from the British Caribbean plantations so that the money would go to the British Crown. This Act laid a foundation for what would become the series of taxes leading to the Revolution.
  • Treaty of Paris (1763)

    Treaty of Paris (1763)
    The Treaty of Paris in 1763 was the official end to the 7 Years' War, or the French and Indian War. The war was originally started in Europe over the Austrian Succession, but much of the fighting was done in the American colonies. Britain was the victor over the French, and so the treaty benefitted them greatly. The French had to give up their land west of the Appalachians to the Mississippi as well as some islands. However, the war but Britain in a debt the colonists would have to repay.
  • Proclamation of 1763

    Proclamation of 1763
    The Proclamation of 1763 followed to result of the French and Indian War. Not wanting to upset the Indians that lived in the Ohio Valley or other tribes west of the Appalachians, the British Crown made this Proclamation. It stated that it was illegal for any colonists to live or travel west of the mountains so they conflict with the natives could be avoided. This upset many colonists who thought they deserved to live in the land they fought for, and some broke it and lived on the frontier.
  • Sugar Act

    Sugar Act
    The Sugar Act was one of the many acts that the American colonists viewed as taking away their economic freedoms. However, this act wasn't actually a tax, but a tax cut. A revision of the Molasses Act of 1733, the Sugar Act actually lowered the tax on molasses and sugar when compared to the original. Despite this, many colonists were still very upset by the fact that their was a tax at all, and many continued to smuggled in foreign goods like they had originally under the Molasses Act.
  • Stamp Act

    Stamp Act
    The Stamp Act was seen as one of the more harsh taxes placed on the colonists during this time. This Act made it so that any official legal document, newspaper, or commercial document needed a stamp on it. This stamp was heavily taxed, making the price of these paper goods very expensive. The tax was mostly supposed to affect the rich of the colonies as they were the ones who got the most paper goods. However, this tax made a large majority of the population, not just the rich, very upset.
  • Townshend Acts

    Townshend Acts
    The Townshend Acts, like the Stamp Act, was a high tax placed on certain items in order to raise funds and loyalty for the British government. The items taxed included imports on paint, paper, glass, lead, and most importantly, tea. Like mentioned, the tax was intended to fund the British governments in the colonies and the hope was that the people would be more loyal because of the new funding to the government. However, this act saw some of the most protests out of any act before it.
  • Boston Massacre

    Boston Massacre
    The Boston Massacre could been seen as the culmination of the colonists' anger at the British government prior to the Revolution. It started when a mob of colonists began harassing an officer, who called for reinforcements. There was a standstill between the mob, throwing snowballs and chunks of ice, and the British Army. After someone yelled fired, a round of shots killed several people in the mob. Using newspapers, colonial leaders spun the event into the basis for Anti-British Sentiment.
  • Boston Tea Party

    Boston Tea Party
    The Boston Tea Party was volatile protest against the tax on tea that was introduced during the Townshend Acts. The protest was carried out by the Sons of Liberty, a group of colonists that were against the British rule in the colonies. At night, they raided a British ship and threw a large quantity of tea overboard. This outraged the British Crown who, instead of backing down like the Sons of Liberty at hoped, tightened control on the colonies.
  • First Continental Congress

    First Continental Congress
    The First Continental Congress was the first meeting between twelve of the thirteen colonies. Each state, except Georgia, sent a delegate to Philadelphia to discuss British rule over the colonies, and especially boycotting British goods and for American rights under British rule. After delegating for a month, the delegates came up with a plan to boycott British goods as to avoid the taxes that were being put on them and to stop funding the government.
  • Battles at Lexington and Concord

    Battles at Lexington and Concord
    The Battles at Lexington and Concord were the first battles of the American Revolution for the official start. The British knew of the rebellion and sent the Army to go to a weapons reserve and wanted to stop the rebellion before it happened. The rebel militia intercepted them at Lexington and Concord, and the first shot of the revolution, called the shot heard 'round the world. The battles were surprisingly a victory for the Colonists, with only 93 casualties compared to 300.
  • Second Continental Congress

    Second Continental Congress
    The Second Continental Congress was very similar to the First, but this time, delegates came from every state. This was formed as a sort of first government for the Revolution, which had officially started with the battles at Lexington and Concord. They first tried to reunite with England with the Olive Branch Petition, but the King rejected it. Eventually they cut ties with England. This government was the first democratic government of the colonies and was the basis for our American government
  • Declaration of Independence

    Declaration of Independence
    The Declaration of Independence was the last resort of the Second Continental Congress after the Olive Branch Petition failed. It was written by Thomas Jefferson and ratified by the Congress after a vote of nine to two. While not the start of the Revolution War, it was the point where the United States was officially born and now they weren't just fighting for rights, but for independence.
  • Battle of Saratoga

    Battle of Saratoga
    The Battle of Saratoga was the turning point of the war for the Americans. A British army, led by General Burgoyne, were trying to meet up with other British armies to cut off the Northeast. The plan as nearly successful, but logistical problems, as well as some overconfidence by General Howe, meant that the army led by Burgoyne was defeated at Saratoga. Overall, the battle was a major turning point because it led to the French agreeing to help the revolution, leading top victory.
  • Articles of Confederation

    Articles of Confederation
    The Articles of Confederation was the first version of the constitution that we have today. The first version of the Articles was created in 1776, but fears over what it would do kept it from being ratified at first. Its goal was to make a form of unity between the states to create one unified country. However, none of the states wanted to give up their power. In this sense, the Articles failed because of the fear of a strong central government made it extremely weak during crises.
  • Battle of Yorktown

    Battle of Yorktown
    The Battle of Yorktown was the last battle of the Revolutionary War. The British Army was led by General Cornwallis, who was met by a combined American and French force at Yorktown. Eventually, the American-French army was able to successfully siege the city, and Cornwallis surrendered. This surrender was such a lost to Britain, that the already war exhausted Parliament agreed to the end of the war.
  • Treaty of Paris (1783)

    Treaty of Paris (1783)
    The Treaty of Paris in 1783 was the treaty that ended the Revolutionary War. After the Battle of Yorktown, the British Parliament had already agreed to end the war, and so the treaty was officially signed by King George III and the US representatives. The treaty was fairly simple. It recognized the US's independence from Britain and gave a large amount of Britain's colonial holdings in America to them as well, although they kept Canada.
  • Northwest Ordinance

    Northwest Ordinance
    The Northwest Ordinance was the Founding Fathers' method for administering new states into the Union, and set the foundation for future expansion over the Continent. The Ordinance was focused on the Northwest Territory and gave certain population goals for the territories to hit before they could apply for statehood. It also laid out the relationship with the Indian population, giving them land they could live on, but saying that colonists could live there as well.
  • Invention of the Cotton gin

    Invention of the Cotton gin
    The cotton gin was one of the most influential machines to be invented up to that point, at least in the US. Up until that point, cotton was extremely unprofitable, as it was very hard to get all the seeds out. For this reason, most plantations farmed tobacco. However, after the cotton gin's invention by Eli Whitney, cotton became very, very profitable, and so the South started growing it. This was important because slavery was going out of fashion, but after this, it surged in popularity.
  • Alien and Sedition Acts

    Alien and Sedition Acts
    The Alien and Sedition Acts were created under the Presidency of John Adams. Adams was fearful of losing his power, and since the Federalists were becoming more and more unpopular over time, he started taking drastic measures to assure his reelection. The Acts made it harder for immigrants to vote, raising the amount of time one had to spend in the country to become a citizen. It also pretty much got rid of freedom of the press and allowed the President to deport any immigrant he wanted.
  • Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions

    Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions
    The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions were laws passed by the governments of the two states in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts. Kentucky and Virginia were largely Anti-Federalists, so they didn't support Adams' attempt to seize power. The Resolutions introduced the idea of nullification, the idea that states had to power to declare Federal laws null and void. Although in this case nullification was used on a terrible law, it would later create an issue during Andrew Jackson's presidency.
  • Revolution of 1800

    Revolution of 1800
    The election of 1800 is sometimes referred to as the Revolution of 1800 because it was the first time that a party was democratically overthrown in US history. Since Adams pretty much had no chance of winning, it came down to if the election would result in a peaceful transfer of power. After the election, Jefferson was labelled as the victor and became President in a seemingly perfect transfer. However, behind the scenes, Adams had tried to create one more grab at keeping Federalist power.
  • Marbury v Madison

    Marbury v Madison
    The night before Jefferson's inauguration as the president, Adams and the Federalists created a number of new courts that were to be filled with Federalist judges, a way to hold power. A letter to one of these judges, Marbury, was discovered by James Madison, who took it to Jefferson. Marbury attacked Madison in court stating that he had the right to the commission. In the end, Marbury won, and the Supreme court created the idea of judicial review, an idea that is instrumental to our government.
  • Louisiana Purchase

    Louisiana Purchase
    The Louisiana Purchase was the largest ever land acquisition ever made by the US. Jefferson hoped to secure the Mississippi River, so he sent James Madison to make a deal with Napoleon of France. Napoleon upped his deal, offering the entire French American territory for $15 million. After much deliberation, Jefferson accepted the deal, and the US gained land from the Mississippi to what was owned back then by Mexico, opening up a whole world of growth for the US.
  • Embargo Act of 1807

    Embargo Act of 1807
    With the Napoleonic Wars in full swing, Thomas Jefferson had a choice to make: either refuse trade to the British or the French. Whichever he choice risked war with the other. Jefferson's choice was the Embargo Act, which denied US trade with any foreign power. In this way, he did avoid a war with either of the superpowers, but he also inhibited the United States' growth. The Act got a ton of backlash and Jefferson left the Presidency feeling that he failed.
  • Battle of New Orleans

    Battle of New Orleans
    The Battle of New Orleans was the last battle of the War of 1812, since the war ended prior to the battle. The American troops were led by Andrew Jackson and they had the goal of repelling a British invasion of New Orleans. Using pretty ingenious tactics of a trench wall around the only place the British could attacking and having everyone reload while only the best shots actual did the shooting, the battle was an American victory and propelled Jackson into popularity.
  • Monroe Doctrine

    Monroe Doctrine
    The Monroe Doctrine was a US policy regarding Europe's affairs in the Western Hemisphere. Wanting to protect US influence in the Caribbean and Latin America, James Monroe created what would be known as the Monroe Doctrine, in simple terms stating that Europe should stay out of North and South America or else. This philosophy would dominate US foreign policy for a long time, and would be the basis of imperialism in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
  • Corrupt Bargain (Election of 1824)

    Corrupt Bargain (Election of 1824)
    The Election of 1824 was a very close race between John Quincy Adams and Andrew Jackson, but it really wasn't. Jackson won the election in every sense, but a combination of a split voting population and third party candidates made it so that no one got the required number of electoral votes. The election was decided by the House of Representatives after Henry Clay struck a deal that said he would support Adams if he became Secretary of State. This made Jackson and the Democrats furious.
  • Tariff of Abominations

    Tariff of Abominations
    The Tariff of Abominations was called that by many Democrats and Southerners because of how much it hurt the Southern economy. Passed under John Quincy Adams, its goal was to support the Northern and Western economies by making the country more reliant on their goods. However, it ended up making it very expensive to live in the South and was one of the reason why John Quincy Adams' Presidency was despised by many of time, leading to Jackson's victory in 1828.
  • Indian Removal Act

    Indian Removal Act
    The Indian Removal Act is one of the more talked about events in US history and led to the Trail of Tears. President Jackson did not like the Native population of the country at all and wanted to rid them from their lands in order to grow the US. This act gave the President the power to forcefully relocate the Native tribes into existing territory. The Act was a success for the US, as many tribes decided to move, but some, like the Seminoles, resisted and some managed to stay in their lands.
  • Bank War (End of the Second Bank of the United States)

    Bank War (End of the Second Bank of the United States)
    Another pet peeve of Jackson's was the Second National Bank. When Congress sent him a bill that extended the life of the Bank by 15 years, he vetoed it, stating that it was unconstitutional and taking advantage of the working American. He also planned to weaken the bank by creating a number of small state banks and forcefully moving all of the money in the National Bank into these smaller banks. After the Bank's closure, the country went into a serious economic crash that ruined the Democrats.
  • Battle of the Alamo

    Battle of the Alamo
    Texas, a state of Mexico, had recently opened its borders to any US citizen that wanted to live there. Mexico was hoping that they could increase the productivity of the region. However, the American population eventually got fed up with the requirements to live in Texas and revolted. The Alamo was a stronghold defended by Texan troops and some American heroes, all of which were killed in the battle. The result was that the US would join the war on the Texan's side, winning their independence.
  • Gag Rule

    Gag Rule
    The gag rule was an official rule of the US House of Representatives and Congress to never bring up the issue of slavery. This was because slavery was such a debated issue during this time that any mention of it would create so much tension that a brawl or massive argument would ensue. The gag rule hoped to keep Congress from breaking out in pure pandemonium and kicked actually trying to solve the problem even further down the road.
  • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

    Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
    The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was the end of the Mexican-American War. The war was started because of President James K. Polk and his desire to gain California and a Pacific border for the US. The war went extremely well for the US, and in a very short amount of time they were able to capture Mexico City and force a Mexican surrender. The treaty gave America a ton of western territory, including California, and allowed the country to trade with nations in Asia as well as Europe.
  • Seneca Falls Convention

    Seneca Falls Convention
    The Seneca Falls Convention was a meeting for the purpose of the women's suffrage movement and the official start of it. The goal of the Convention was to create a group that would try to change the inequality that women faced at that time. The convention was a success, but it wasn't so much for the abolition movement. Many supporters of abolition were also supporters of women's rights, but the convention caused a rift between those who prioritized freeing slaves or women's suffrage.
  • Compromise of 1850

    Compromise of 1850
    The Compromise of 1850 was the last attempt to kick the issue of slavery down the road. The previous compromise, the Missouri Compromise, stated that any state above a certain line would be slave and above would be free. However, that was not enough for the South. Henry Clay's Compromise introduced the idea of popular sovereignty. It also created the Fugitive Slave Law, let California into the Union as a free state, and illegalized the selling of slaves in Washington DC.
  • Kansas-Nebraska Act

    Kansas-Nebraska Act
    The Kansas-Nebraska Act was created by Stephen Douglas in order to create a railroad that would go through his home state of Illinois. The Act would create the states of Kansas and Nebraska and would allow them to choose whether to allow slavery or not based on popular sovereignty. The idea of popular sovereignty was a good idea on paper, but it would lead to Bleeding Kansas, where many from outside Kansas swarmed in to change the results of the vote towards their side.
  • Dred Scott v Sandford

    Dred Scott v Sandford
    The Dred Scott case was one of, if not the worst, Supreme Court decision in history. The case was started by Dred Scott when his and wife, both slaves at the time, were moved to Minnesota by their owner. Despite the fact that Minnesota was a free state, they were still slaves, and this was their basis for the legal attack. The Court's decision was in favor of Sandford, stating that no slave was ever free, even if they go to a free state.
  • Battle of Fort Sumter

    Battle of Fort Sumter
    The Battle of Fort Sumter was the first true battle of the Civil War. The fort was positioned on South Carolina's coast, who had recently seceded from the Union. Fearful that the Union would use the Fort as a way to invade the state, the South Carolinian army attacked the Fort. The Battle was over fairly quickly, as the troops defending did not have any way to reinforce or supply themselves. The Battle had little significance towards the outcome of the war, but is important for being the first.
  • Battle of Bull Run

    Battle of Bull Run
    The Battle of Bull Run was the first major battle of the Civil War and a major shock to the Union. They had gone into this battle believing that it would be an easy win and that the war would be over very quickly. However, the Confederate army manage to surprise the Union forces by fighting very well and managed to win the battle, forcing a Union retreat. The takeaway from the battle was that the Civil War would not be a quick and easy win for the Union, and showed the weakness in the Union army
  • Pacific Railway Act (Transcontinental Railroad)

    Pacific Railway Act (Transcontinental Railroad)
    The Pacific Railway Act, and the Transcontinental Railroad, was one of the most important developments for the US's economy. Despite the fact that the Union was struggling with the Civil War, Lincoln still created the Act to make a Railroad from St. Louis Missouri to Sacramento. The job was split between two companies and they both got land and money depending on how much track they laid. After the railroad's construction, it became much easier for people and goods to travel from east to west.
  • Emancipation Proclamation

    Emancipation Proclamation
    With the Civil War finally turning toward a Union victory, Lincoln found it the right time to declare the official meaning of the war to be about freeing the slaves. The Proclamation made it so that any slave that was in captured territory prior to the proclamation was free, although it didn't free slaves in already captured territory. This did two things. One, it freed a lot of the slaves and led the border states to do the same thing. Two, it made sure foreign powers would intervene in the war
  • 13th Amendment

    13th Amendment
    The 13th Amendment was the law that finally outlawed slavery in the United States. At this point the war was as good as over, and the Emancipation Proclamation had done its fair share when it came to freeing the slaves. The 13th was the nail in the coffin for slavery that ended it everywhere in the US, even if the state laws still allowed for slavery. Despite its success, the 13th did not help with making sure the new free blacks had any way to start their new life, leaving them on their own.
  • Surrender at Appomattox

    Surrender at Appomattox
    The Surrender at Appomattox was pretty much the end of the Civil War, even though some minor battles were fought here and there. The Battle of Appomattox was between the Union forces led by Grant and the Confederates led by Lee. Lee's army was severely outmatched by the Union forces, and so the Battle was over fairly quickly with Lee surrendering at the Appomattox Courthouse. With Lee's army out, the Confederacy had no hopes of fighting back, and the attempt at secession was over.
  • 14th Amendment

    14th Amendment
    The 14th Amendment was the follow up to the 13th Amendment that tried to help the new freed population out a little bit. After slavery was outlawed, many in the South feared that the new black voting population would lead to a "Colored Empire". White supremacists groups started killing blacks and those in power passed Black Codes that limited the right to vote and was pretty much slavery in everything but name. The 14th made it so that no law could limit the rights of anyone born in the US.
  • 15th Amendment

    15th Amendment
    The 15 Amendment was another amendment created to try and protect blacks in the South. This Amendment states that no law could limit any man's right to vote. It was popular with freedmen, but garnered controversy among women, who believed that it would be very easy to grant them to right to vote as well through this Amendment. However, many man in power believed that it was best for women if they did not vote, and they would have to wait another 30+ for that right.
  • Crime of 1873

    Crime of 1873
    The Crime of 1873 was another bill that led to an economic collapse. Previously, the country's currency was based on silver coins, but this law changed that and instead based the country's currency on the gold standard. It outlawed the use of silver as currency and made every dollar based instead on gold reserves that the country had. This bill was obviously met with backlash, hence the name, and resulted in one of the worst economic depressions in history.
  • Battle of Little Bighorn

    Battle of Little Bighorn
    The Battle of Little Bighorn, also known as Custer's Last Stand, was a battle between Sioux Indians, led by Sitting Bull, and American forces, led by General Custer. Custer had been trailing the Sioux army for a while and believed he could wipe them out. However, he was surprised by their numbers and, after splitting his army, was completely wiped out. This battle turned out to be the last time a Native army defeated the US and fueled Anti-Native feelings in the states.
  • Arrest of Boss Tweed

    Arrest of Boss Tweed
    In the middle of the 19th century, the political machine known as Tammany Hall, run by Boss Tweed, was the largest in the country and controlled the political system of New York. However, this power came crashing down with the embezzlement of funds for the reconstruction of the NYC Court House. The fraud was exposed by the New York Times and political cartoonist Thomas Nast, and in 1976, Boss Tweed was arrest and Tammany Hall shut down, showing the populace no longer supported political machines
  • Invention of the Edison Light Bulb

    Invention of the Edison Light Bulb
    Although not the invention of the light bulb itself, Edison's bulb was the first long lasting and commercially viable light bulb. This invention was just one of the many inventions created by Thomas Edison out of his workshop in Menlo Park, which employed other inventors like Nikola Tesla. The long lasting light bulb itself is a great invention and changed the way that life was lived. Now, large parts of cities could be lit at night and people could easily and safely light up their homes
  • Haymarket Square Riot

    Haymarket Square Riot
    This riot started as a protest headed by leaders of the Knights of Labor union. As the days went on and the ground grew larger, the speakers and protesters themselves started to morph the ideas of the protest into more pro-socialist and anarchist views. As this happened, the crowd started to become more violent, and the Chicago police stepped in. The riot ended with 7 dead police officers and a large decline in the public image of unions since they were now seen as anarchists and violent
  • Dawes Act

    Dawes Act
    The Dawes Act was a law regarding Indian territory in the West. Many in the US wanted to rid the Natives from their land in order to take it for themselves. To do this, the Dawes Act offered any Indian who took them up 160 acres of land to farm outside of their tribal lands. Those who took up the offer became isolated from their tribe and started to act more American. This was the intended effect of the Dawes Act, as it made the Indian tribes fractured and easier to move onto reservations.
  • Hull House Opens

    Hull House Opens
    Hull House was a settlement house in Chicago founded by Jane Addams. Settlement houses were communal buildings that often offered basic luxuries to the homeless, the poor, and/or immigrants that came to the US with very little possessions. These offerings included things like food, a gym, a small library or school, or even a place for staff or visitors to sleep. What made Hull House special was that it did not discriminate based on ethnicity, gender, or religion, making it truly diverse.
  • "Cross of Gold" Speech

    "Cross of Gold" Speech
    Given by William Jennings Bryan at the Democratic National Convention, the Cross of Gold speech was a rallying cry in favor of free silver and opposed to the idea of the Gold Standard Act, which was eventually passed by McKinley in 1900. This speech was in favor of bimetallism and supported the use of both silver and gold as acceptable forms of currency, which was being supported by the Bland-Allison Act. Bryan feared that switching to the gold standard would "crucify" America on a cross of gold
  • Sinking of the USS Maine

    Sinking of the USS Maine
    The USS Maine was a US battleship stationed off the coast of Cuba to try and force Spain to stop putting down Cuban protests. However, one night, it mysteriously exploded, and with war and imperial fever at an all time high, along with yellow journalists like William Hearst, the American populace used the phrase "Remember the Maine! To hell with Spain!", leading to a war that would end with the US's first foray into imperialism with the Philippines and its growth into a major world power..
  • Assassination of President McKinley

    Assassination of President McKinley
    Done by a Polish-American anarchist, the assassination of President McKinley was important because it put then vice president Teddy Roosevelt in charge. Under McKinley, the Republican party was very accepting of big business and often took large donations and rarely took action to stop large trusts from forming. However, with Teddy Roosevelt now in charge, someone the Party feared as being uncontrollable, the Progressive Era began, bringing with it lots of social and political change.
  • Anthracite Coal Strike

    Anthracite Coal Strike
    Shortly after taking office, TR had to deal with a large coal strike at a mine in Pennsylvania. Neither the workers nor the mine owners wanted to compromise and thus the strike continued for months and got bad enough that TR felt that he had to step in. However, for the first time, TR decided to support the workers instead of the business, showing his progressivism. He threatened to use the military to take over the mine if no compromise was found, which could be seen as a abuse of federal power
  • Roosevelt Corollary

    Roosevelt Corollary
    The Roosevelt Corollary is an addition to the Monroe Doctrine that stated that the US would intervene in the internal affair of Latin American countries if they have any internal issues that would put US influence at risk. As an example of Big Stick Diplomacy, it was often used as a means of protecting Latin America from European countries trying to collect debts, but at the same time protecting US investors and interest by threatening foreign powers with military force if they didn't mediate.
  • The Jungle's publication

    The Jungle's publication
    The Jungle, by Upton Sinclair, was a book written foremost to promote communism and to show the brutality of the workplace. However, the book's effect was that readers were given an extremely descriptive and disgusting view of the meat packing industry. This effect was realized and double-checked by TR, who then worked to get the Meat Inspection Act and the Pure Food and Drug Act, which were made to clean up the industry and created the FDA, an important administration even in modern times.
  • Triangle Shirtwaist Fire

    Triangle Shirtwaist Fire
    One of the deadliest industrial disasters in US history, the Triangle Shirtwaist Fire started in a trashcan under a machine and flared up, killing 146 people, aged 14 to 46. More than just a terrible disaster, the fire showed to many the cruelty of the factory owners and their unwillingness to give rights or proper workplace safety to their workers, as many deaths could have been saved if the factory had a proper fire escape. Following this, workers' and women's' groups grew in size and activity
  • Federal Reserve Act

    Federal Reserve Act
    The Federal Reserve Act created the Federal Reserve, hence the name, whose goal was to create a better and more flexible form of currency and to try and stop financial crisis by raising interest rates. The Federal Reserve accomplished its goals and provided a lot of much needed confidence in the banking system. Much like the Pure Food and Drug Act and the FDA, the Federal Reserve was very important then and continues to support the dollar and raise interest rates to stop inflation and crisis.
  • Panama Canal is finished

    Panama Canal is finished
    The Panama Canal was started in 1904 following Panama's split from Colombia. The US had wanted a canal in Panama, which Colombia owned, and when they refused, the US funded the Panamanian rebels. After the split, Panama gladly accepted the building of a canal with the promise that the canal would be open to everyone, not just the US. This canal would prove to be extremely important for military and of course economic reasons and was the perfect showing of US influence in Latin American affairs.
  • Sinking of the Lusitania

    Sinking of the Lusitania
    With the war raging in Europe, the US stayed committed to isolationism. However, many investors had put a lot of money in the Allies and it benefitted the country to see them win. To help, goods and materials were transported to the Allies on ships, including passenger ships. To combat this, Germany used unrestricted submarine warfare, resulting in the sinking of the Lusitania, and the death of 123 Americans. This soured US-German relations and Germany was forced to stop unrestricted sub warfare
  • Wilson's 14 Points

    Wilson's 14 Points
    Wilson's vision for the treaty that would end the war resulted in his 14 points, and including ideas like banning secret treaties. The main themes of the speech were that no one country should be blamed for the start of the war and that the fate of countries should be left to self-determination. His idea was to avoid Britain and France putting to harsh of conditions on Germany, like they ended up doing. The last point was the creation of a League of Nations that would work to stop future wars.
  • 18th Amendment

    18th Amendment
    Similarly to the Women's Suffrage Movement, Prohibitionists had been fighting, sometimes literally with hatchets, for a ban of alcohol in the US for quite some time. With WW1 having put a massive reduction on alcohol's production and with many women and prohibitionists gaining rights and support in Congress, the 18th Amendment was created, starting Prohibition. Although a good idea on paper, the ban of alcohol was largely hated and rarely followed, leading to the growth of organized crime.
  • Treaty of Versailles

    Treaty of Versailles
    The Treaty of Versailles was the treaty that officially ended WW1. Despite Wilson's wishes, the British and French wanted Germany to pay heavily for the war, resulting in a massive amount of war reparations as well as almost completely demilitarizing them. Along with this, the League of Nations was created, but the US refused to ratify the treaty or join the League. Thus, it couldn't do much and the harshness of the treaty left Germany broken and perfect for the rise of fascism.
  • 19th Amendment

    19th Amendment
    The 19th Amendment, along with the 18th and 14th, were some of the most fought for laws in American history. The 19th gave women the free right to vote. Political support for women's suffrage was finally realized due to the way that women stepped into the workforce during WW1. While many men were not supportive of women in the workplace, they proved to many that women were supportive and loving of their country. This made fears of voting women subside for the most part and the amendment passed.
  • The Charleston premiers

    The Charleston premiers
    The musical theme of the 1920's was without a doubt jazz. The idea of jazz had origins in the music of the slaves in the South, and with the Great Migration seeing a lot of movement of African Americans to the North to fill jobs during WW1, music like jazz and blues came to the big cities. After some time, the music become very popular with a lot of people. One of the most popular songs was The Charleston, a song that had its own very popular dance named after and set the tone of the decade.
  • National Origins Act

    National Origins Act
    The National Origins Act was an act passed under Silent Cal that dealt with what many called an immigration problem. Many Americans, especially on the East coast, were concerned with the growing number of "New Immigrants", immigrants from South-East Europe that were usually poor, non-Protestant, and didn't speak a lot of English. This Act limited the amount of these immigrants to 2% of that ethnicity's population already in the US per year, and completely banned Asian immigrants.
  • Scopes Monkey Trial

    Scopes Monkey Trial
    The Scopes Monkey Trial was a perfect case of the changing social dimension of the US versus the old. With new, non-Christian doctrines on the rise in the country, Protestant political leaders wanted to put a stop to it,leading to a law in Tennessee that banned the teaching of evolution in schools. However one teacher, John Scopes, taught it anyway and was sued by the state. Although he was found guilty, the trail was riveting and sparked debate over the issue between the old and new generations
  • Black Tuesday

    Black Tuesday
    Although the US economy was flourishing during the 20's, the prosperity was accompanied with large amounts of debt, or credit, that banks were lending out for people to buy stocks on margin. This worked well for a while, but once one piece came out and a bank went broke due to over lending, the whole system fell apart. In a very quick process over the course of just a month, culminating on Black Tuesday, the US economy dropped drastically, leading to the Great Depression of the 1930's.
  • Bonus Army

    Bonus Army
    Often called Cox's Army, the Bonus Army was protest by WW1 veterans demanding that they should get their payment the government promised to give them for fighting in the war. Although the government said they would pay it by 1945, the Great Depression had put a strain on the veterans, and many desperately needed the money. In response to the protesters, Herbert Hoover called in the US guard and dispersed them, denying them of the money and making him even more hated by the people than before.
  • Election of 1932

    Election of 1932
    With the Great Depression officially starting in 1929, many US citizens were left out of a job and with little to no money to support themselves or there families. In response, Herbert Hoover had done very little, believing that the economy would right itself based on the idea of the invisible hand. However, this got him the reputation as a Do-Nothing President, so when Democrat FDR ran against him promising the enact major reform to bring the US out of the depression, he won handily.
  • National Recovery Act of 1933

    National Recovery Act of 1933
    This act, along with the subsequent creation of the National Recovery Association and Public Works Administration, did a lot of work to create a more balanced and fair industrial work setting. It's major goals were to reduce unemployment, create fair trade codes, and to ultimately regulate the industry to remove inequality and prevent another collapse. It set a minimum wage for many jobs as well as, more importantly, creating industry standard prices to keep companies in check.
  • Works Progress Adminstration

    Works Progress Adminstration
    The WPA was created by Executive Order 7034 and the Emergency Relief Appropriation Act. The goal of the WPA was to create a large amounts of jobs to meet the even larger amount of unemployed Americans. At this, it certainly succeeded, employing over 8 million at its height. These new jobs would help to benefit local communities by fixing and building roads, bridges, and other public works projects. Funded by Keynesian economics, the WPA got a lot of working Americans back on their feet.
  • Social Security Act

    Social Security Act
    The Social Security Act is one of the most influential New Deal Act for the modern world, since Social Security is still around, although evermore obsolete. However, at the time it was very beneficial. The act had one major effect: getting the elder out of their jobs. Since they got paid by the government for retiring, Americans over 65 could leave to work force, making more room for the young working age Americans who desperately needed it, essentially creating jobs by getting rid of others.
  • Court Packing Scandal

    Court Packing Scandal
    Although the New Deal was helping out the American populace right-leaning politicians despised it, saying that it gave too much power to the federal government. This extended even to the Supreme Court, which overturned many New Deal Acts as unconstitutional. To try and get his way, FDR created an act that would let him add new judges for every current judge over 70. While it didn't pass, and became quite the stain on his term, he eventually did get to pack the court after some judges retired.
  • Bombing of Pearl Harbor

    Bombing of Pearl Harbor
    At this point, WW2 had been officially raging on in Europe and Asia for 2 years. The Japanese, allied with the Germans, wanted complete control over the Pacific, which meant that they would have to take over US islands like Hawaii. This culminated in the bombing of Pearl Harbor, a surprise air bombing of a US naval base. Prior to this, FDR supported the Allies, but many in the US and Congress didn't want a war. This was enough for FDR to convince Congress to declare war meaning the US was in WW2
  • Executive Order 9066

    Executive Order 9066
    Following the bombing of Pearl Harbor, anti-Japanese sentiment hit an all-time high. With many Americans fearing that many Japanese on the west coast were spies working for the Emperor, FDR passed Executive Order 9066 that forced Japanese citizens of the West Coast into Internment Camps for a majority of the war. This was devastating for many families, as they were allowed limited possessions and time to sell houses, meaning by the time the war was over they had no home or money to return to.
  • Dropping of the Atomic Bomb

    Dropping of the Atomic Bomb
    With the Manhattan Project complete, the US had the capability to destroy entire cities with the atomic bomb. The war in Europe had ended, and Japan was the only country still standing against the Allies. While they were losing, Truman realized that the only way to make them surrender was a complete invasion of the mainland. This would have costed the lives of a million American soldiers, and seeing it as the best option, he decided to drop the nuke on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, ending the war.
  • Truman Doctrine

    Truman Doctrine
    Although the war was over, the US faced another problem: the USSR and the spread of communism. With Eastern Europe under the control of the USSR, the US feared that they would try to spread to other capitalist nations. A plan to stop this came up in the form of the Truman Doctrine, defined in a speech to Congress to convince it to give funds to support anticommunists in Greece and Turkey. Using the idea of containment, the US would use economic and military support to stop communism abroad.
  • Marshall Plan

    Marshall Plan
    The Marshall Plan, like the Truman Doctrine, was a form of containment to stop the spread of communism into the free world. The idea of the plan was that by giving a ton a American money to the nations recovering from WW2, like Germany, Japan, and France, they will see that capitalism is what provides the funds to save the country and thus reduce the threat of communism. Overall, this plan saw billions given freely to recovering nations, who saw massive improvements in infrastructure and economy
  • Executive Orders 9980 and 9981

    Executive Orders 9980 and 9981
    Although not seemingly pro-civil rights, Truman did a great deal for getting the movement going by creating EO 9980 and 9981, which ended discrimination in the workforce and military. Civil Rights bills had been sent to Congress and the Senate before, but unwilling Southern Democrats filibustered them or lobbied to get them voted out. By using an executive order, Truman was able to do what no President had done since Reconstruction and set the scene for the the civil rights movement in the 50s.
  • NATO is formed

    NATO is formed
    Following the splitting of Europe between the capitalist west and communist east, the two sides were on edge about an attack. Many in the US feared that the Soviets would try to spread communism by attack smaller capitalist nations. To stop this possibility, much of western Europe agreed to create a defensive alliance, NATO, stating that an attack against one is an attack against all. While it may not have directly stopped a war it brought members closer together in the fight against communism.
  • Wheeling Speech

    Wheeling Speech
    With the Second Red Scare in full swing, the US population greatly fears Soviet spies and secret agents infiltrating the nation and government. This fear was never greater than during the McCarthyism, which started when Joseph McCarthy claimed to have a list of names of State Department that were secret communists. This took advantage of the public's paranoia, and hundreds of government employees were imprisoned on claims of current or past communist sympathy, despite the list being empty.
  • North Korea invades the South

    North Korea invades the South
    After Japan's surrender in WW2, Korea was split similarly to Germany with the communists controlling the north and the south being in the US sphere. Suddenly in 1950, the north starts a surprise invasion of the south, pushing forces quite far. However, the US, under command of General McArthur navally invaded behind enemy lines and pushed the north back to China. However, the Communist Chinese sent an army to help the Koreans, pushing the front back to near it was at the start of the war.
  • Rosenbergs Executed

    Rosenbergs Executed
    With McCarthyism and the Second Red Scare in the front of people's minds,fear of spies and communists in government was very strong. This led to the arrests of the Julius and Ethel Rosenberg. Julius had worked on the Manhattan Project and was charged with giving nuclear secrets to the USSR. It seemed to police that he was the leader of a circle of communist spies, as a series of confessions eventually led to him, although Ethel may have been the real brains. Both were executed via electric chair
  • Brown v Board of Education Decision

    Brown v Board of Education Decision
    After years of fighting segregation in court, Thurgood Marshall and other NAACP attorneys got their biggest case with Brown v BoE. The Browns had their daughter's access to school denied because it was an all-white school, and she was forced to go to a far away and worse quality black school. The decision was unanimously that the Board's actions were against the 14th amendment and unconstitutional, putting an end to the idea of "separate but equal" and leading to the desegregation of schools.
  • Little Rock Crisis

    Little Rock Crisis
    Following the Brown v BoE case, schools started to become desegregated, but not without pushback. When a group of nine blacks students became enrolled at Little Rock High School, local mobs and even the state governor came to block their entrance to the school. This led to a multi-day long crisis which got the attention of Eisenhower. He created EO 10730, which sent in troops to protect the students, showing that the government was willing to protect and further the civil rights movement.
  • Launch of Sputnik

    Launch of Sputnik
    The launch of Sputnik by the USSR is generally regarded as the start of the Space Race. This period would see a fight between the academics of the US and USSR to try and prove that one side was better than the other in terms of science and technology. While it has less than noble origins, the start of the space programs would prove to be greatly beneficial to technology and science as a whole, as well as being a source of great national pride whenever accomplishments were met before the other.
  • First Televised Presidential Debate

    First Televised Presidential Debate
    The first televised presidential debate where both candidates were present at the debate was between Nixon and JFK. While televisions weren't new, the amount of them in the public was, and thus Nixon, a seasoned politician, was unprepared for the television's affect. JFK came prepared for it, and this lead to mix results where those who listened to the debate claimed Nixon won and those who watched it thought JFK did, leading to the idea that JFK won out the election because of the television.
  • Soviet Missiles Discovered in Cuba

    Soviet Missiles Discovered in Cuba
    On a routine fly-over of Cuba, an American U2 spy plane took photographs that led many to believe that the Soviets were building missile bases in the country in order to attack the US. Another lower fly-over proved these ideas, starting the Cuban Missile Crisis, the closest the world has been to nuclear war. Following this, JFK took measures to stop the Soviet missiles from reaching Cuba, and a close two week standoff would end in the Soviets backing down and the leader of the nation removed.
  • Children's Crusade

    Children's Crusade
    The Children's Crusade consisted of thousands of children organizing to create a walk-out in Birmingham schools in order to protest unjust segregation laws in the city and to bring attention to the movement itself. After facing serious backlash and arrests from locals and police, they came back and did the same thing the next day. They faced more violent backlash, including being hosed and having dogs released on them. However, it was a success and soon after JFK vocally supported the movement.
  • "I Have a Dream" Speech

    "I Have a Dream" Speech
    The March on Washington was large rally at Washington DC that showcased a number of prominent civil rights leaders and showed just how large the movement had become. Almost 400,000 people from all around the country had come in buses to attend. The most prominent speak was Martin Luther King Jr., who gave his now famous "I Have a Dream" speech. While it didn't cause any immediate change, it stuck in people's minds and became a foundation of what the civil rights movement stood for.
  • Assassination of JFK

    Assassination of JFK
    During a political tour of Texas to rally support for his upcoming reelection campaign, JFK was shot and killed by Lee Harvey Oswald. Oswald had a past with radical organizations and was pro-communist. He had lived in the USSR for a time and had been the head of several pro-Castro groups. A violent man, he was trying to send a radical message by killing the President. Shortly after Kennedy's death, LBJ was sworn into office and, like JFK, became a vocal supporter of the civil rights movement.
  • Civil Rights Bill of 1964

    Civil Rights Bill of 1964
    Following the Children's Crusade and the Church Bombings in Birmingham, JFK had introduced a civil rights bill that officially ended discrimination and segregation based on race, skin color, or nation of origin. Although he had been assassinated, the Bill still made it to the desk of Lyndon Johnson, who signed it into law. This was the first civil rights bill since Reconstruction and was a massive leap forward. It was the official end of Jim Crow and saw the desegregation of the country.
  • Voting Rights Act of 1965

    Voting Rights Act of 1965
    Although the Civil Rights Bill of 1964 was extremely important, it didn't tackle the issue of blacks being refused the right to vote in many Southern states. This was brought up by protesters during the Selma to Montgomery march that garnered attention after they had been denied right to enter the city twice. Convinced that a bill to end voting discrimination was needed, LBJ passed one shortly after. This bill marked an end to a civil rights age, as it was the last major goalpost many had set.