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APUSH Semester 1 & 2 Final Timeline

  • 1492

    The Columbian Exchange

    The Columbian Exchange
    The Spanish invasion of the Americas triggered a global ecological transformation through the vast exchange of crops, animals, and diseases across the Atlantic known as the Columbian Exchange. A triangular trade was established in which America's sugar and tobacco was sent to Europe, Europe's processed goods sent to Africa, and Africa's slaves sent to America. This trade also resulted in the exchange of diseases, such as smallpox and influenza, which eliminated Indian communities in America.
  • The Jamestown Settlement

    The Jamestown Settlement
    In 1606, the Virginia Company of London was given all of the lands from present-day North Carolina to southern New York by King James I. The company was a joint-stock corporation that sent all males to the region to search for gold. However, when the colonists arrived at Jamestown no gold was found and more than half of them died due to disease and famine. To stir immigration, the Virginia Company granted settlers land. This led to a rush of colonists that sparked the Indian War of 1622.
  • Navigation Acts

    Navigation Acts
    The Navigation Acts were a series of English laws that were enforced to benefit the British Empire's economy. Using mercantilist strategies, they imposed restrictions on colonial trade by declaring that the North American colonies could only export its commodities and import its goods to/from England. This ultimately prevented the colonies from trading with other European countries. These acts contributed to rising anti-British sentiment and incited the outbreak of the American Revolution.
  • Bacon's Rebellion

    Bacon's Rebellion
    Like Metacom's War, Bacon's Rebellion emerged due to conflict between settlers and Native Americans. The revolt transpired when Governor William Berkeley refused to support the rebels -both blacks and whites- in their clash against the Indians. Nathaniel Bacon, the leader of the rebels, and his rebel army started attacking Native Americans and burned down the settlement of Jamestown. The rebellion concurred with the time when Virginia planters shifted from indentured servants to slaves.
  • Two Treatises of Government

    Two Treatises of Government
    Due to the lapse of the Licensing Act, an era known as the Print Revolution had begun. Newspapers, pamphlets, sermons, novels, and other types of prints led to the transfer of modern ideas which created the European movement known as the Enlightenment. John Locke, an English philosopher, contributed heavily to the movement with his Two Treatises of Government, writing that preached the revolutionary theory that every person had natural rights and the power to alter government.
  • Stono Rebellion

    Stono Rebellion
    The Stono Rebellion in South Carolina -the largest slave uprising in the mainland colonies- was caused by the harsh restrictions placed on the ensalved by white plantation owners. The governor of Spanish Florida provoked the revolt by promising freedom to fugitive slaves. During the rebellion, a group of slaves armed themselves, wrecked plantations, and killed twenty colonists. Subsequently, slave imports were cut and a stricter slave code was passed in a law known as the Negro Act.
  • Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God

    Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God
    As the Enlightenment transpired, a Christian movement called The Great Awakening occurred in the colonies. This crusade aroused a religious revival in which ministers shared religious experiences and used raw emotions to stir an explosion of faith. Jonathan Edwards, a Puritan minister, terrified his listeners into following God's will with his sermon, Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God. The speech declared that unbelievers would face the wrath of God unless they confess their sins.
  • The Albany Congress

    The Albany Congress
    The Albany Congress was a conference in which representatives from seven of the colonies met to gain the support of the Iroquois during the French expansion. Benjamin Franklin proposed the Albany Plan of Union that stated that one central government should be created to unify the colonies. The plan failed, however, it is considered crucial as it was the first proposal that viewed the colonies as a collective whole united under the government. The French & Indian War was on the horizon.
  • The Stamp Act of 1765

    The Stamp Act of 1765
    The aftermath of the French and Indian War had led to the end of salutary neglect for the colonies. Great Britain imposed various taxes on the colonies to pay off their debt from the war. The Stamp Act enforced a tax on all printed items and aroused much more resistance than the Sugar Act. It also led to the assembly of the Stamp Act Congress which argued the loss of American liberties and petitioned for a repeal. While some boycotted, the Sons of Liberty turned to violence.
  • Boston Tea Party

    Boston Tea Party
    In 1770, a deadly riot, known as the Boston Massacre, arose between a mob of patriots and British soldiers. When Parliament passed the Tea Act soon after, colonists rebelled by staging the Boston Tea Party. This was a protest in which rebels, led by Samuel Adams, dressed up as Indians and threw tea into Boston's harbor. In response, the British government passed the Coercive Acts to tighten regulations on the colonies. This led to the convention of the First Continental Congress.
  • Declaration of Independence

    Declaration of Independence
    As disputes between the colonists and Parliament amplified, Thomas Paine published his pamphlet, Common Sense. It urged for independence and a republican form of government, rejecting the traditional monarchy. Encouraged by the publication, the Second Continental Congress approved the Declaration of Independence, a document listing grievances and professing its separation from Britain. The Declaration sets the nation towards the path of the American Revolution and independence.
  • Battle of Saratoga

    Battle of Saratoga
    The American victory at the Battle of Saratoga was a turning point of the American Revolution. The British had devised a three-pronged attack on New York, intending to meet up with two other armies. When the other armies didn't show up, British General John Burgoyne and his army were surrounded by the Continental army and forced to surrender. This feat boosted patriot morale, improved the hope for independence, and secured the Treaty of Alliance, providing the colonies with foreign support.
  • Battle of Yorktown

    Battle of Yorktown
    Outnumbered by the French and American troops during a three-week siege in Yorktown, Virginia, General Cornwallis surrenders his army. This American victory leads to the end of fighting in the Revolutionary War and brings about peace negotiations. The Treaty of Paris is signed after two years and recognizes American independence and states the lands lost by the British. Ultimately, it had been the currency taxes paid by ordinary citizens that financed the American military victory.
  • Articles of Confederation

    Articles of Confederation
    The American independence led to the Articles of Confederation, a document that defined the structure of the government. It stated that the Union was a confederation of equal and sovereign states, the federal government had limited power, and there was no executive authority. The Confederation also had its weaknesses such as having no chief judiciary, no standing army, and no power to tax the citizens. This resulted in a nearly bankrupt central government and the need for a national tax system.
  • The Great Compromise

    The Great Compromise
    After the failures of the Articles of Confederation, delegates decided to consider the Virginia Plan. It aimed at a three-branch government in which representation in Congress was determined by the population of each state. Concerned for the smaller states, the New Jersey Plan was drafted and noted that each state would receive one vote. This led to the Great Compromise. In this, the House of Representatives would use the Virginia Plan and the Senate would use the New Jersey Plan.
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    George Washington Presidency

    Vice President: John Adams
  • Hamilton's Financial Plan

    Hamilton's Financial Plan
    As Washington's secretary of treasury, Alexander Hamilton designed policies to refine national authority and support financiers. His Report on the Public Credit advised that the federal government should assume state debt to pay off the national debt, making America creditworthy, not debt-free. He also urged Congress to charter the Bank of the United States to foster stability of the economy. Lastly, Hamilton created the Report on Manufactures which levied tariffs on foreign imports.
  • The Cotton Gin

    The Cotton Gin
    The burst of major inventions during the Industrial Revolution, such as the cotton gin, transformed the cotton industry. It removed the seeds from cotton fiber and created a boom in the production of cotton in the south. This made the cultivation of cotton less labor intensive and led to an increase in slaves. The cotton-based agricultural economy in the South continued to thrive as the cotton complex was established, binding southern cotton production with northern cloth-making.
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    John Adams Presidency

    Vice President: Thomas Jefferson
  • Naturalization, Alien, and Sedition Acts

    Naturalization, Alien, and Sedition Acts
    When Republican immigrants started attacking Adams' policies, Federalists passed the Naturalization, Alien, and Sedition Acts to limit individual rights. The Naturalization Act extended the residency requirement for immigrants to become citizens. The Alien Act allowed the deportation of any alien deemed dangerous. Lastly, the Sedition Act made it illegal to print material that insulted the president or members of Congress. States condemned these acts in the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions.
  • Election of 1800- "The Revolution of 1800"

    Election of 1800- "The Revolution of 1800"
    During the Election of 1800, Jefferson won a tight victory over Adams and marked the first peaceful transfer of power from one political party to another. It displayed that governments could be shifted in an orderly manner, even during partisan conflict. This caused the end of the Federalist Era and initiated the Jeffersonian Era. Throughout Jefferson's presidency, the size of the U.S. had doubled with the Louisiana Purchase. However, the Embargo Act had damaged the American economy.
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    Thomas Jefferson Presidency

    Vice President: Aaron Burr
  • Marbury v. Madison

    Marbury v. Madison
    After losing the election of 1800, Adams tries to hold onto the judicial branch by filling the courts with federalists. Jefferson finds a letter granting John Marbury a federal judgeship and refuses to deliver it. Marbury sues causing Marbury v. Madison, a Supreme court case in which parts of the Judiciary Act were found to be opposing the Constitution. In doing this, the court claims the right of judicial review and accepts authority to overrule other branches of the government.
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    James Madison Presidency

    Vice President: George Clinton, Elbridge Gerry
  • Battle of Tippecanoe

    Battle of Tippecanoe
    The British violated the Treaty of Paris and Jay's Treaty by trading with Indians in the Ohio River Valley. This allowed Tecumseh, the Shawnee chief, to arrange an alliance of Native American tribes and attack Americans -using British provisions- that swamped their native lands. Upon hearing this, Henry Harrison initiated the Battle of Tippecanoe at the holy village, Prophetstown. The dispute ended with great casualties for both sides, the demolition of the town, and an American victory.
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    James Monroe Presidency

    Vice President: Daniel D. Tompkins
  • Panic of 1819

    Panic of 1819
    When the Bank of the United States' charter expired in 1811, the Republican Jeffersonian Congress declined its renewal. By 1816, when a new national bank was chartered, hundreds of state-chartered banks were issuing notes without enough specie reserves, making loans to insiders, and carrying out generous loans. This provoked the Panic of 1819, the periodic boom and bust natural to a market economy. Bankruptcies, unemployment, lost mortgages, and collapsed investments ensued across the nation.
  • The Election of 1824

    The Election of 1824
    Founding the American Colonization Society and designing the Missouri Compromise, Henry Clay ran in the Election of 1824 and based his candidacy on the American System. None of the four candidates received an absolute majority and the vote went to the House. Being the Speaker of the House, Clay drops out of the race and uses his power to vote John Q. Adams into presidency. Jackson's allies regard this as a corrupt bargain and oppose Adam's term and Clay's rise to the presidency.
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    John Quincy Adams Presidency

    Vice President: John C. Calhoun
  • Freedom's Journal

    Freedom's Journal
    By the 1830s, African Americans began to work with white antislavery activists to claim justice and emancipation. Free blacks were encouraged to "elevate" themselves through piety, education, temperance, and hard work. In 1827, Freedom's Journal, the first African American newspaper, was published. It symbolized the resolved African American community building across the North and led to Free African Societies. These organizations caused the increase of abolitionism through the nation.
  • The Tariff of Abominations

    The Tariff of Abominations
    Jackson won the Election of 1828 by advocating for equality and Jeffersonian ideals to convey egalitarianism. The election was the first modern political campaign and gave rise to the first political party- the Democrats. During Jackson's presidency, the Tariff of Abominations was reenacted and met with harsh resistance from the south. South Carolina soon formed an Ordinance of Nullification that professed the tariffs to be void. To appease the south, Jackson secured a tariff reduction.
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    Andrew Jackson Presidency

    Vice President: John C. Calhoun, Martin Van Buren
  • Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints/Mormons

    Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints/Mormons
    Founded by Joseph Smith in 1830, the most successful religious utopia emerged- Mormonism. Smith organized the Church of Mormons and highlighted the value that family was the heart of religious and social life. He believed in a church-directed society that practiced frugality, hard work, enterprise, and plural marriage. Compared to Shakerism and Fourierism (other utopian movements of its era), Mormonism was inspired by the Second Great Awakening and mixed radical theories.
  • The Trail of Tears

    The Trail of Tears
    By the 1820s, colonists demanded the resettlement of Native Americans west of the Mississippi River. Hence, Jackson forced the Indian Removal Act of 1830 through Congress. The Cherokees refused to relocate and took their situation to the Supreme Court in the case Worcester v. Georgia. At odds with the court, Jackson expelled the Indians by force and required them to endure the Trail of Tears. This infamous journey led to the death of thousands of Natives due to starvation and exposure.
  • The American Anti-Slavery Society

    The American Anti-Slavery Society
    In 1829, the radical pamphlet David Walker's Appeal was published. It objected slavery and racial injustices, called for African American unity, and foreshadowed a revolt of slaves. Soon after, Nat Turner's Revolt -an uprising in which Nat Turner and a group of rebel African Americans killed white civilians- proved the accuracy of the warning. Unlike the violent rebellions, the American Anti-Slavery Society was the first interracial social justice movement that supported abolitionism.
  • Battle of the Alamo

    Battle of the Alamo
    When Mexico adopted a new constitution for a stronger central government, its American citizens soon formed the "war party," a group of rebels declaring Texas' independence. Fighting broke out and in the Battle of the Alamo, the Mexican army crushed the Texas garrison defending the Alamo. This struggle became a symbol of the Texans' fight against oppression and would lead to the U.S.-Mexico War. The battlecry, "Remember the Alamo" would be remembered long after Texas gained it independence.
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    Martin Van Buren Presidency

    Vice President: Richard M. Johnson
  • Oregon Trail

    Oregon Trail
    In 1842, American attraction to Oregon grew rapidly due to accounts of its fine harbors, mild climate and rich soil. "Oregon fever" broke out and thousands of families endured the six-month trek along the Oregon Trail, many dying on account of diseases and Indian attacks. This expansion westward was a result of the belief Manifest Destiny, the idea that Euro-Americans had been destined by God to settle the western lands and claim racial superiority over those already inhibiting the area.
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    William Henry Harrison Presidency

    Vice President: John Tyler
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    John Tyler Presidency

    Vice President: n/a
  • The Election of 1844

    The Election of 1844
    During the Election of 1844, John Tyler hoped to annex Texas into the Union. Afraid of elevating the issue of slavery, the other presidential candidates Democrat Martin Buren and Whig Henry Clay opposed. Doubtful of Tyler and Buren, Democrats nominated James K. Polk to run against Clay. Polk advocated for the annexation of Texas and occupation of Oregon, "Fifty-four forty or fight!" becoming his cry. Upon being elected, Polk admitted Texas into the Union using a joint resolution of Congress.
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    James K. Polk Presidency

    Vice President: George M. Dallas
  • Wilmot Proviso

    Wilmot Proviso
    The Wilmot Proviso was proposed to ban slavery in any territories gained from the U.S.-Mexico War. Two years later, Polk signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo and Congress formed the Oregon Territory. Debates arose over whether slavery was suitable in these lands. When the proviso was rejected by the Senate, many viewed southern politicians to be leading a "slave power" conspiracy. Ordinary northerners joined the free soil movement, regarding slavery as a risk to republicanism.
  • Seneca Falls Convention

    Seneca Falls Convention
    By the 1830s, the ideal of domesticity limited the lives of middle-class women to the roles of mothers/homemakers under the power of their husbands. This began the women's rights movement in which women's education and reform work were challenged. The Female Moral Reform Society was founded and many women also joined the antislavery movement. In 1848, the Seneca Falls Convention was planned and triggered the Declaration of Sentiments, stating that all men and women are created equal.
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    Zachary Taylor Presidency

    Vice President: Millard Fillmore
  • Compromise of 1850

    Compromise of 1850
    The Compromise of 1850, formed by Henry Clay, was composed of four main laws. The first one, The Fugitive Slave Act, satisfied the southerners and allowed the capture of any runaway slave. To pacify the northerners, California was admitted into the Union as a free state and the slave trade -not slavery- was abolished in the capital. Lastly, the other newly captured Mexican lands were turned into the territories of New Mexico and Utah. There, slavery was dealt with by popular sovereignty.
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    Millard Fillmore Presidency

    Vice President: n/a
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    Franklin Pierce Presidency

    Vice President: William R. King
  • Kansas-Nebraska Act

    Kansas-Nebraska Act
    The Missouri Compromise forbade any slave states in the land gained by the Louisiana Purchase. The area was reserved for Indian territory. However, President Douglas wanted to utilize the land for a transcontinental railroad and created the Kansas-Nebraska Act. This law divided the Indian lands into Kansas and Nebraska and revoked the Missouri Compromise. The territories would decide the subject of slavery upon popular sovereignty, leading to the intense conflict of Bleeding Kansas.
  • The Dred Scott Decision

    The Dred Scott Decision
    The Dred Scott decision was a Supreme Court ruling that stated the Missouri Compromise and Northwest Ordinance were unconstitutional. The Court ruled against Dred Scott who argued that living in a free territory made him a free man. This case claimed that African Americans weren't citizens and couldn't sue in federal court. Chief Justice Taney declared the Republicans' plans to impede the expansion of slavery with legislation to be unconstitutional. Kansas was admitted as a slave state.
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    James Buchanan Presidency

    Vice President: John C. Breckinridge
  • Election of 1860

    Election of 1860
    During the Election of 1860, the Democrats had split up, the northerners voted for Stephen Douglas and the southerners chose a proslavery candidate. Hence, Republicans, and their candidate Abraham Lincoln -a man moderate towards slavery-, won the election. The South felt threatened by Lincoln since he warned them that the U.S. had to either keep slavery or get rid of it entirely. Fearful of this, South Carolina seceded the Union and the Civil War commenced with the battle at Fort Sumter.
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    Abraham Lincoln Presidency

    Vice President: Andrew Johnson
  • Battle of Antietam

    Battle of Antietam
    One of the key turning points of the Civil War, the Battle of Antietam was the bloodiest day in U.S. history. After defeating the Union troops in the Second Battle of Bull Run, General Lee split his force and secured a defensive position before the Union army struck. Outnumbered, Lee fought McClellan -the Union general- until reinforcement arrived. Horrified by the Union casualties, McClellan allowed Lee to retreat. This battle gave Lincoln the chance issue the Emancipation Proclamation.
  • The Homestead Act

    The Homestead Act
    Hoping to inhabit and urbanize more western lands, Republicans passed the Homestead Act that gave 160 acres of land to any applicant. The only conditions were to occupy, farm, and improve the property. This led to the West becoming rapidly developed and brought in a surge of immigrants. Americans encroached upon the lands of the Indians, resulting in numerous conflicts and the creation of Indian reservations. The U.S. started to exploit the western areas for minerals, wood, and other resources.
  • Battle of Vicksburg

    Battle of Vicksburg
    As the northern support for the war was declining, General Grant plotted to split the Confederacy in half. He crushed two Confederate armies and laid siege to the city of Vicksburg, Mississippi. After about six weeks, the fatigued and famished Confederate garrison surrendered. As a result, Union forces gained control of the Mississippi River and cut Louisiana, Arkansas, and Texas from the rest of the Confederacy. Cutting off trade with the Confederacy, the Union completed the Anaconda Plan.
  • Gettysburg Address

    Gettysburg Address
    The Union victory at the Battle of Gettysburg -with the success at Vicksburg- was a military and political climax of the Civil War. Lincoln delivered his Gettysburg Address and devoted a national cemetery at the battlefield, hoping that the Union would win the war. He expressed that such a victory would uphold the nation's principal ideal that "all men are created equal." Lincoln urged Americans to bring about "a new birth of freedom" and honor the dead by continuing to fight for the cause.
  • Sherman's March

    Sherman's March
    General Sherman of the Union army conquered Atlanta and wrecked its rail links to the South. This caused the Confederate army to abandon the city and lead the Union closer to victory. Soon, Congress approved the Thirteenth Amendment and ended slavery in the U.S. To assert their power, the Union army marched 300 miles towards Georgia's coast, razing everything in their path. Confederate soldiers fled their armies and, in 1865, the Union forced them to surrender at the Appomattox Courthouse.
  • The Wade-Davis Bill

    The Wade-Davis Bill
    During the Civil war, Lincoln proposed his Ten Percent Plan, however, Congress felt that it was too lenient and instead proposed the Wade-Davis Bill. This mandated an oath of allegiance by 50% of each state's voters, governments only formed by those who hadn't opposed the Union, and the disenfranchisement of Confederate leaders. Lincoln pocket vetoed the bill, intending a compromise. After his death, southern state legislatures passed Black Codes, forcing former slaves back into labor.
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    Andrew Johnson Presidency

    Vice President: n/a
  • Civil Rights Act of 1866

    Civil Rights Act of 1866
    In 1865, Congress had established the Freedmen's Bureau to aid blacks/war refugees and end southern abuses. Similarly, the Civil Rights Act of 1866 was passed, counteracting Black Codes and stating that African Americans had equal protection of the law, with access to the courts. Congress then approved the 14th Amendment, making all people born or naturalized in the U.S. citizens and banned states from taking away their rights. Power had now shifted to the Radical Republicans.
  • Election of 1868

    Election of 1868
    A Republican idol and war hero, Ulysses Grant was nominated for the presidential election in 1868. Grant won by an immense margin as Democrats still hadn't overcome accusations of treachery and Johnson's impeachment left him unpopular. After the election, Republicans formed the 15th Amendment that prohibited states to refuse citizens the right to vote due to their race, color, or "previous condition of servitude." Despite protests, a poll tax and literacy requirements were necessary to vote.
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    Ulysses S. Grant Presidency

    Vice President: Schuyler Colfax, Henry Wilson
  • Enforcement Laws

    Enforcement Laws
    Trying to regain power, ex-Confederates terrorized Republicans and African Americans, hanging, shooting, and even beating them to death. They were determined to sustain white supremacy and formed the first Ku Klux Klan group in 1865. This society used various forms of violence against blacks, immigrants, and other radicals. In response, Congress passed the Enforcement Laws aimed to defend freedmen's rights. With the use of military intervention, these laws succeeded in shutting down the KKK.
  • Yellowstone National Park

    Yellowstone National Park
    Due to the Homestead Act, Americans began to fear that the west would be overdeveloped. Congress started to preserve sites of natural beauty as public land, evicting Indians from these areas. Wyoming's Yellowstone Valley became the U.S.'s first national park and assisted in encouraging railroad tourism. The Northern Pacific Railroad greatly benefitted from the park as it provided a means of transportation for tourists. Yellowstone was a crucial step to respect land and conserve wildlife.
  • Minor v. Happersett

    Minor v. Happersett
    The 15th Amendment didn't allow women voting rights since Republican policymakers refused to shift their focus from black men's suffrage. Thus, Elizabeth Stanton and Susan Anthony developed the National Woman Suffrage Association. When its members tried to vote, a lawsuit arose and a suffrage advocate claimed that her 14th Amendment rights had been breached. The Supreme Court ruled that suffrage rights weren't a part of citizenship and state legislatures could deny voting rights to women.
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    Rutherford Birchard Hayes Presidency

    Vice President: William A. Wheeler
  • The Ghost Dance movement

    The Ghost Dance movement
    Many Natives continued to practice their traditions secretly, while others adopted white customs. This cultural blending led to the Ghost Dance movement, a spiritual practice that merged Christianity and traditional Native American religion. The Indians felt that they had upset the gods by accepting too many white ways. Through sacred dances, they hoped to resurrect the bison and drive away the whites. Trying to subdue this movement, the U.S. army killed hundreds of Indians at Wounded Knee.
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    Chester A. Arthur Presidency

    Vice President: n/a
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    James A. Garfield Presidency

    Vice President: Chester A. Arthur
  • Pendleton Act

    Pendleton Act
    Following the assassination of President Garfield, Congress passed the Pendleton Act, building a nonpartisan Civil Service Commission to fill federal jobs by inquiry. The act was a major blow to the "spoils system" since it ensured that government positions were filled with trained employees. It became a symbol of a non-corrupt government and brought stability as officials didn't lose their jobs if their party lost power. Civil service laws further led to Bureaus of Labor Statistics.
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    Grover Cleveland Presidency

    Vice President: Thomas A. Hendricks
  • Haymarket Square Riot

    Haymarket Square Riot
    When police arrive to break up a labor rally near Haymarket Square, a bomb detonates, killing several policemen. Officers responded with gunfire, killing many people in the crowd. This incident discredited the labor movement and put a halt on the works of the Knights of Labor, who sought to transform America into a cooperative commonwealth. The riot also created panic that led to increased anti-labor hysteria, anti-immigrant sentiment, and suspicion of the international anarchist movement.
  • The Dawes Severalty Act

    The Dawes Severalty Act
    As settlers moved onto Native American lands, conflicts such as the Sand Creek massacre and the Battle of Little Big Horn ensued. In an effort to prevent this, reformers wanted to assimilate Indians through the Dawes Severalty Act. This plan was similar to the Homestead Act as it gave Indians 160 acres of land if they farmed it. As a result, tribal lands were divided and Indians were forced onto individual property. Tribal ties were broken and Natives began to practice white views.
  • The Gospel of Wealth

    The Gospel of Wealth
    Dominating the American steel industry with Carnegie Steel, Andrew Carnegie became one of the richest men in America. In his essay, The Gospel of Wealth, he argued that corporate titans deserved their wealth as they had attained it through talent. Inspired by Darwin's "survival of the fittest," Carnegie believed that his success showed his "fitness" to lead society and that he was superior to the lower classes. He was considered a "Captain of Industry" as he used his fortune for the public good.
  • Hull House

    Hull House
    Urban reformers began to focus on social settlement, welfare centers that investigated the plight of the urban poor and advocated for change. One of the first and most famous of these settlements was Hull House, founded by Jane Addams and Ellen Starr. It served as a fuse for community improvement and political reform. The Hull House inspired similar social settlements and progressive experiments. It also had an impact on the work of Margaret Sanger who launched a crusade for birth control.
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    Benjamin Harrison Presidency

    Vice President: Levi P. Morton
  • Sherman Antitrust Act

    Sherman Antitrust Act
    Briefly gaining control of Congress, Republicans ceded to rising public fury over trusts by passing the Sherman Act to forbid anti-competitive business activities. This act required the federal government to investigate trusts and companies engaged in monopolistic practices. The law led to the Clayton Antitrust Act, giving more power to the Justice Department to pursue antitrust cases. The newly formed Federal Trade Commission could decide fairness and issued "cease and desist" orders.
  • "City Beautiful" Movement

    "City Beautiful" Movement
    The disease and pollution problem of the big city rose, leading to countless deaths. Cities began integrating more public health projects such as clean-water and hygiene initiatives and sewage systems. Jacob Riis photographed tenement houses and wrote the book How The Other Half Lives, depicting how they contributed to the issue of garbage and unsanitary conditions. Americans worked to make the industrial cities healthier by defending landscape beautification, playgrounds, and urban parks.
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    Grover Cleveland Presidency

    Vice President: Adlai E. Stevenson
  • Election of 1896

    Election of 1896
    The national Democrats embraced parts of the Populists' radical farmer-labor program, rejecting President Cleveland. They nominated free silver advocate William Jennings Bryan who supported farmers and workers. Populists endorsed Bryan in their campaign, yet their power was waning. Rural voters now pursued reform through the new Bryan wing of the Democratic Party. Republicans denounced his platform as anarchistic and nominated William McKinley who won by both the electoral and popular vote.
  • Plessy v. Ferguson

    Plessy v. Ferguson
    This case was a landmark U.S. Supreme Court decision that upheld racial segregation based on the "separate but equal" doctrine. It allowed Jim Crow segregation laws to stand, ruling that they didn't violate the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. Black leaders such as Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. Du Bois combated these injustices through both lenient and immediate political action. They brought about the Tuskegee Institution, talented tenth, and NAACP.
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    William McKinley Presidency

    Vice President: Garret A. Hobart, Theodore Roosevelt
  • Williams v. Mississippi

    Williams v. Mississippi
    Amid the Populist challenge to the Democratic one-party rule in the South, a campaign to deprive blacks of the right to vote was spreading. Southern Democrats looked for new ways to enforce white supremacy and in Williams v. Mississippi, the Court ruled in favor of poll taxes and literacy tests. Southern states adopted these measures to hinder African American and poor white voting. This reduced voter turnout, increased segregation laws and lynchings, and expanded the convict lease system.
  • Sinking of the U.S.S. Maine

    Sinking of the U.S.S. Maine
    Inventor of yellow journalism, William Randolph Hearst incited war with Spain in his New York Journal when the U.S.S. Maine exploded and sunk in Havana harbor. No evidence tied Spain with this affair, yet the media inflated events, provoking war fever in America. The incident snowballed into the Spanish-American War with the U.S. supporting the Cuban rebellion and issuing the Teller Amendment. The war ended with the Treaty of Paris and Spain lost control of its overseas empire.
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    Theodore Roosevelt Presidency

    Vice President: Charles W. Fairbanks
  • Roosevelt's Presidency Campaign: Square Deal

    Roosevelt's Presidency Campaign: Square Deal
    Teddy Roosevelt's Square Deal, was based on the "3 Cs," protection of the consumer, control of large corporations, and conservation of natural resources. He busted trusts and authorized the Hepburn Act, allowing the federal Interstate Commerce Commission to set rates whenever railroads unfairly set prices. A conservationist, Roosevelt supported the Newlands Reclamation Act and other environmental laws. He also protected consumers with the Meat Inspection and Pure Food and Drug Acts.
  • Standard Oil Company

    Standard Oil Company
    Utilizing ruthless business tactics, John D. Rockefeller built the Standard Oil Company, dominating 95% of the nation's oil refining capacity. Succeeding through vertical and horizontal integration, Rockefeller created a new legal form, the trust. After driving competitors out of business with predatory pricing, he invited them to merge their local companies into his corporation. Wrecking the enterprises of many businessmen, Rockefeller was labeled a "Robber Baron" of the Gilded Age.
  • The Jungle

    The Jungle
    Muckraker and journalist, Upton Sinclair exposed extreme forms of labor exploitation in this novel. He illustrated the atrocious conditions in Chicago meatpacking plants with descriptions of rotten meat and the foul packing environment. As a result, Congress passed the Pure Food and Drug Act and created the FDA to oversee the new law. The book demonstrated how urban reformers could affect national politics and inspired progressive organizations such as the National Consumers' League.
  • Muller v. Oregon

    Muller v. Oregon
    This Supreme Court case upheld a law that confined women's workday to ten hours, due to the need to protect their health for motherhood. As it only promoted the health and welfare of female workers, the law didn't shield male laborers who continued to endure long work hours. It also divided women's rights activists as some viewed the law as discriminatory since it highlighted the ideal that women existed only to produce babies. Following this case, many states established mothers' pensions.
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    William H. Taft Presidency

    Vice President: James S. Sherman
  • Triangle Shirtwaist Fire

    Triangle Shirtwaist Fire
    A disastrous fire broke out at the Triangle Shirtwaist Company in NYC, killing 146 people, mainly young immigrant women. An outpour of anger and grief ensued and the state assigned a factory commission to develop a labor reform program. These laws dealt with issues such as fire hazards, unsafe machines, and wages/working hours for women and children. Tammany Hall politicians responded to the incident, proving that the problems of the industrial city had outgrown the power of party machines.
  • Election of 1912

    Election of 1912
    Teddy Roosevelt's campaign required a New Nationalism and enhanced public welfare with child labor laws, labor rights, and women's suffrage. Republicans had chosen Taft as their nominee, causing Roosevelt to establish the Progressive Party. The other two candidates were Eugene V. Debs representing the Socialist Party and Woodrow Wilson portraying the Democrats. The Republicans' division among Taft and Roosevelt caused Wilson's victory, allowing him to pursue his New Freedom program.
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    Woodrow Wilson Presidency

    Vice President: Thomas R. Marshall
  • America's Entry into WWI

    America's Entry into WWI
    At the start of WWI, President Wilson called on Americans to be "neutral in fact as well as in name." However, the sinking of Lusitania by German U-boats prompted Wilson to reconsider neutrality. Although American opinion was still not in favor of the war, Wilson endorsed a $1 billion military buildup. Germany's continual of unrestricted submarine warfare and the Zimmermann telegram led Wilson to ask Congress for a declaration of war, arguing that Germany had trampled on American rights.
  • Eighteenth Amendment

    Eighteenth Amendment
    Protestants and anti-alcohol organizations had long advocated for a national prohibition on alcohol, hailing temperance as good for health and Christian virtue. Congress soon passed the Eighteenth Amendment prohibiting the manufacture, sale, or transportation of liquor, enforcing it under the Volstead Act. Immigrants and the middle-class greatly opposed Prohibition, finding illegal ways to obtain alcohol, such as speakeasies and smugglers. The act led to the creation of the FBI and NASCAR.
  • Sedition Act of 1918

    Sedition Act of 1918
    President Wilson stifled wartime dissent by forming the Committee on Public Information to educate citizens on democracy and assimilate immigrants. Congress passed the Sedition Act of 1918 -a rebirth of the Sedition Act of 1798- banning behavior that promoted defiance to the U.S. Due to this and a former Espionage Act, countless people were convicted of treason by the Justice Department. Accordingly, many wartime legal battles were launched to protect free speech and civil liberties.
  • Treaty of Versailles

    Treaty of Versailles
    Ending WWI, the treaty gave Germany the sole responsibility of the war, leaving it with a war debt of $33 billion. Wilson influenced the agreement by incorporating it with his Fourteen Points to form nine new nations as a buffer to shield Western Europe from communist Russia. He also proposed the creation of the League of Nations to "end all wars." The Versailles treaty developed conditions for future bloodshed and was a major catastrophe. The U.S. never ratified it or joined the League.
  • Red Scare

    Red Scare
    After WWI, the Russian Revolution presented the rise of the communist party and aroused anticommunist hysteria in America. The fear soon turned to violence with anarchist bombings targeting government officials and causing the Palmer raids. This era was also marked by anti-radicalism and anti-immigrant sentiment that ensued in the Sacco and Vanzetti case. Meanwhile, the Great Migration sparked white supremacist terrorism and racial riots, a period of unrest called the Red Summer.
  • Period: to

    Warren G. Harding Presidency

    Vice President: Calvin Coolidge
  • Period: to

    Calvin Coolidge Presidency

    Vice President: Charles G. Dawes
  • Immigration Act of 1924

    Immigration Act of 1924
    Nativists began to state that there were too many European immigrants who eroded Protestantism and induced anarchism and socialism. As a response, Congress passed a law limiting annual immigration from each country to only 2% of the number of people from that country in the U.S. in 1890. The measure greatly restricted European immigrants. The Ku Klux Klan -rising once again- avidly supported this act, targeting immigrants, Catholics, and Jews with intimidation, arson, and economic boycotts.
  • The Rise of the Automobile

    The Rise of the Automobile
    The automobile played a major role in the decade's economic surge as it was made affordable for the public to buy on credit. By developing the assembly line, Henry Ford was able to reduce the production time and price of the Model T. While damaging the railroad industry, the auto led to a boom in the production of steel, glass, oil, and rubber, creating 3.7 million jobs. Transforming the American middle-class, cars eventually lead to the Great Depression, a result of consumer credit.
  • Emergence of "New Women"

    Emergence of "New Women"
    After the Nineteenth Amendment gave them the vote, activist women focused on social welfare and securing legal equality with men. They advocated for laws that helped women fight gender discrimination and workplace abuses in a sex-segregated labor market. The support for reproduction rights was also beginning to occur as Margaret Sanger founded the American Birth Control League. Hollywood, magazines, and advertisements began to build idealized images and roles of an American "new woman."
  • Period: to

    Herbert Hoover Presidency

    Vice President: Charles Curtis
  • Smoot-Hawley Tariff

    Smoot-Hawley Tariff
    Amidst the Great Depression, President Hoover and Republicans in Congress felt that high tariffs could stimulate American manufacturing. Therefore, Hoover signed the Smoot-Hawley Tariff, despite countless economists warning of a catastrophe. The law provoked retaliatory tariffs in other countries, further hindering global trade and greater economic contraction. Hoovers firm belief in limited government curbed recovery and led Americans to view him as insensitive to the deep economic misery.
  • Hundred Days

    Hundred Days
    The first hundred days of FDR's administration created great activity in which Congress enacted fifteen major bills to fight the depression. The legislation regarded banking failures, agricultural overproduction, the manufacturing slump, and high unemployment. In his first fireside chat, FDR assured his supporters that their money was safe due to the Emergency Baking Act. Roosevelt's New Deal went on to pass an immense amount of legislation, providing the nation with a sense of hope.
  • Period: to

    Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidency

    Vice President: John N. Garner, Henry A. Wallace, Harry S. Truman
  • Indian Reorganization Act

    Indian Reorganization Act
    The New Deal sought to address the plight of Native Americans since the government's ongoing policy of forced assimilation had left most tribes poor. To handle this issue, the Indian Reorganization Act was passed, reversing the Dawes Act of 1887. This new legislation promoted a greater deal of religious freedom for Natives and tribal governments regained their status as semi-sovereign dependent nations. However, the BIA and Congress continued to intrude upon international Indian affairs.
  • Court Packing Scandal

    Court Packing Scandal
    While Roosevelt's New Deal was welcomed by many, some individuals, businesses, and states began to question the constitutionality of a few of its parts. This resulted in the Supreme Court declaring 22 different provisions of the measure unconstitutional. To counter this, FDR proposed to expand the Supreme Court by adding six new judges, ensuring that New Deal legislation would stand. His opponents argued that he was trying to "pack" the Court in his favor and Congress rejected this attempt.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor

    Attack on Pearl Harbor
    When Japan ordered a full-scale invasion of Indochina, Roosevelt froze Japanese assets in the U.S. and stopped all trade with Japan, including vital oil shipments. This led Japan to strategize war against the U.S. On December 7, 1941, Japanese warplanes bombed Pearl Harbor in Hawaii, the headquarters of the American Navy's Pacific Fleet. Killing nearly 2,400 Americans, the assault was vile, yet it united Americans. On the same day, Roosevelt asked Congress for a declaration of war against Japan.
  • The Birth of the Atomic Bomb

    The Birth of the Atomic Bomb
    Physicists Leo Szilard and Albert Einstein coaxed FDR to fund research on atomic weapons, warning that German scientists were working on nuclear reactions. After Pearl Harbor, Roosevelt brought scientists and military personnel to work on weapons development, an initiative code named the Manhattan Project. When Truman assumed office, he authorized the use of atomic bombs against Japanese cities, leading to the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. This caused Japan's surrender in WWII.
  • Executive Order 9066

    Executive Order 9066
    Instantly after the attack on Pearl Harbor, Americans began to fear spies, sabotage, and further assaults that generated racial animosity toward Asian immigrants. Anti-Japanese sentiment spread and President Roosevelt responded by issuing Executive Order 9066, forcing Japanese Americans into relocation camps for the duration of the war. The policy was flawed and a labor shortage required seasonal farmworkers to leave the camps. This period stressed the lack of civil liberties during wartime.
  • "Double V" Campaign

    "Double V" Campaign
    Comparing anti-Semitism in Germany and racial discrimination in the U.S., black leaders waged a campaign, calling for victory over Nazism abroad and Jim Crow racism at home. The struggle defended the end of job and housing discrimination and denounced black voter suppression in the South. Wanting to avoid public protest, Roosevelt issued Executive Order 8802 and established the Fair Employment Practice Committee. Wartime developments planned the foundation of the civil rights revolution.
  • GI Bill of Rights

    GI Bill of Rights
    During the Great Depression, many veterans had difficulty assimilating into civilian life and making a living. This could result in another depression and widespread economic instability similar to the stock market crash of 1929. Hence, Congress authorized new government benefits for veterans such as funds for education, unemployment insurance, housing, health care, and loans. The bill put higher education, job training, and home ownership within the reach of millions of WWII veterans.
  • D-Day/Invasion of Normandy/"Operation Overload"

    D-Day/Invasion of Normandy/"Operation Overload"
    The turning point in WWII, D-Day brought together the land, air, and sea forces of the allied armies in the largest seaborne invasion in history. The operation issued naval assaults on five beaches of Normandy, France and included 5,400 ships, 12,000 planes, and 156,000 Allied troops. Advancing into Germany, the Allied troops faced the gruesome effects of the Holocaust. The fighting on the western front led to the defeat of German Nazi forces, liberated Western Europe, and ended the war.
  • Period: to

    Harry S. Truman Presidency

    Vice President: Alben W. Barkley
  • Truman Doctrine

    Truman Doctrine
    During the Cold War, the U.S. developed the containment strategy, containing communism within its current geographic boundaries. The U.S. tried to limit Soviet influence to Eastern Europe while restoring democratic governments in Western Europe. The president soon declared the Truman Doctrine, a commitment to "support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or outside pressures." This justified U.S. intervention into several countries during the Cold War.
  • Korean War

    Korean War
    At the end of WWII, Truman and Stalin had agreed to occupy the Korean peninsula jointly. However, the Soviets supported a Communist government in North Korea and the U.S. backed a right-wing Nationalist. The North Koreans launched a surprise attack across the 38th parallel and Truman sent U.S. troops to Korea. When the U.S. invaded Inchon, China was drawn into the war, resulting in a stalemate and resembling WWI trench warfare. An armistice was signed three years later, ending the war.
  • Brown v. Board of Education

    Brown v. Board of Education
    Linda Brown -a young black student in Kansas- was forced to attend a segregated school farther from her house rather than a nearby white school. Before the court, Thurgood Marshall argued that this segregation was unconstitutional as it denied Brown the "equal protection of the laws" of the Fourteenth Amendment. The Supreme Court agreed, overturning the "separate but equal" doctrine established in Plessy v. Ferguson. This landmark case gradually led to the process of desegregation.
  • The Kinsey Reports

    The Kinsey Reports
    Americans during this era struggled to adjust new freedoms with moral traditions, especially with regard to sex. Performing two controversial studies, Alfred Kinsey -known as the "sex doctor"- forced questions about sexuality into the open. By taking a scientific approach, he recorded the full range of sexual experiences of thousands of Americans, breaking several taboos such as homosexuality and marital infidelity. Confronting morality, Kinsey's research began the national conversation of sex.
  • Period: to

    Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidency

    Vice President: Richard M. Nixon
  • Origin of the Beats

    Origin of the Beats
    Many Baby Boomers start to rebel against the conformity of their parents' generation and begin to seek more individuality. A small group of literary figures start rejecting mainstream culture and instead praise personal freedom, which often included drug consumption and sexual adventurism. Calling themselves the Beats, they despised bright middle-class outlooks in favor of existential searching. Using poems such as Howl, the Beatniks glorified spontaneity and rebellious spirituality.
  • National Interstate and Defense Highways Act

    National Interstate and Defense Highways Act
    Catalyzing suburbanization, the automobile was now owned by over seventy million Americans. The federal government realized the necessity for more roads and passed the Interstate and Defense Highways Act, approving $26 billion for the construction of 42,500 miles of new highways. The act played on Cold War fears as the highways doubled as emergency runways, making evacuation easier in the event of a nuclear attack. The interstate system became the largest public works project in history.
  • National Defense Education Act

    National Defense Education Act
    The Cold War resulted in an arms and space race, weaving science, industry, and government together. When the Soviet Union launched the world's first satellite, Sputnik, in 1957, the alarmed U.S. went into high gear to catch up. Under Eisenhower, the National Defense Education Act was passed, channeling millions of dollars into American universities and their research. This helped institutions such as Stanford and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology become principal research centers.
  • Election of 1960

    Election of 1960
    After serving in WWII, John F. Kennedy decided to run for president, using his youth and personality to attract voters. His opponent was Eisenhower's vice president, Richard Nixon, a skilled politician. The campaign occurred with a series of four nationally televised debates. Nixon -not so photogenic- appeared pasty and unshaven on television. Voters who viewed the debate favored Kennedy and those who heard it on the radio backed Nixon. Kennedy won with the narrowest of electoral victories.
  • Period: to

    John F. Kennedy Presidency

    Vice President: Lyndon B. Johnson
  • Cuban Missile Crisis

    Cuban Missile Crisis
    A year after the Bay of Pigs invasion, Kennedy revealed in a televised address that the U.S. intelligence received news of Soviet missiles in Cuba capable of striking the U.S. He stated that the U.S. would impose a "quarantine on all offensive military equipment," the Cuba Quarantine Proclamation. After tense negotiations, Kennedy pledged not to invade Cuba and the Soviet Union agreed to dismantle the missile bases. This crisis marked the closest the Cold War came to a nuclear exchange.
  • March on Washington

    March on Washington
    Wanting to mark the centennial of the Emancipation Proclamation, civil rights leaders organized a march in which a quarter of a million people paraded to the Lincoln Memorial. They demanded that Congress end Jim Crow racial discrimination and advocated for the launch of a major jobs program to bring employment to black communities. During this event, Martin Luther King Jr. delivered his captivating "I have a dream" speech, making him the leading spokesperson of the civil rights movement.
  • Period: to

    Lyndon B. Johnson Presidency

    Vice President: Hubert H. Humphrey
  • Civil Rights Act of 1964

    Civil Rights Act of 1964
    Passed under President Johnson, this civil rights law was the most far-reaching bill since Reconstruction. It answered the demands of the civil rights movement and outlawed discrimination in employment on the grounds of race, religion, national origin, and sex. The law also ensured equal access to public accommodations and schools. It allowed enforcement powers to the U.S. attorney general and established the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. This led to the Voting Rights Act of 1965.
  • Black Panther Party

    Black Panther Party
    The Black Panther Party was a radial nationalist group devoted to shielding African Americans from police violence. They followed in the footsteps of the late Malcom X, embracing black empowerment and self-defense and inspired groups such as the Young Lords Organization. The party outlined its Ten Point Program for black liberation, including calls for employment, decent housing, and an end to police brutality. Their belief in armed self-defense led to violent encounters with the police.
  • American Indian Movement

    American Indian Movement
    The American Indian Movement was established to tackle the problems Indians faced in American cities, such as poverty and police harassment. The organization staged protests to bring light to the indigenous issues, such as Indians being forced to leave reservations by the federal government. Similar to societies such as the Black Panther Party, the movement allowed Natives to gain a greater control over their cultures and communities. Their outcry led to government action on tribal issues.
  • Period: to

    Richard M. Nixon Presidency

    Vice President: Spiro T. Agnew, Gerald R. Ford
  • The Watergate Scandal

    The Watergate Scandal
    At Washington's Watergate Office Building, five men were arrested for breaking into the headquarters of the Democratic National Committee. They were connected to President Nixon's reelection campaign, wiretapping phones and stealing documents. Although this incident wasn't directly linked to Nixon, he took aggressive steps to cover up the crime. However, his role in the conspiracy was uncovered, leaving him to resign in 1974. This scandal led Americans to question the presidency more critically.
  • Period: to

    Gerald R. Ford Presidency

    Vice President: Nelson Rockefeller
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    Jimmy Carter Presidency

    Vice President: Walter F. Mondale
  • Jimmy Carter's Agenda

    Jimmy Carter's Agenda
    Domestically, President Carter's greatest challenge was the economy, specifically widespread stagflation. He moved in the direction of a free-market by getting rid of the New-Deal-era legislation of the airline, trucking, and railroad industries. This deregulation stimulated competition and cut prices, yet drove firms out of business and hurt unionized workers. Carter failed to reignite economic growth as the Iranian Revolution diminished oil supplies and gas prices skyrocketed once again.
  • Period: to

    Ronald Reagan Presidency

    Vice President: George Bush
  • Election of 1984

    Election of 1984
    During the election of 1984, the economy had greatly recovered from the deep recession of 1981–1982, boosting Ronald Reagan's approval rating. He toured the country promoting his tax policies and the nation's restored prosperity. Democrats nominated former vice president Walter Mondale who symbolized the New Deal and had strong ties to labor unions as well as a variety of racial groups. Reagan won a landslide victory, yet Democrats maintained their majority in the House and won back the Senate.