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AP USH Timeline- Lakshmi Vardhan Yepuri

  • The Sugar Act Enacted

    The Sugar Act Enacted
    The Sugar Act was one of the first taxes that the British placed upon the colonists after the 7 Year War against the French. The Sugar Act put a duty on sugar and molasses imported into the colonies. This affected cities like Boston and the New England region as they used sugar to make rum. This act prompted many in New England to the colonist to boycott British imports and led to colonists realize that they needed to rely less on British goods.
  • The Stamp Act Enacted

    The Stamp Act Enacted
    The Stamp was another tax the British placed upon the colonies the repay the debt they had for the 7 Year War against France. The Stamp Act placed taxes on all printed materials such as newspapers, magazines, and legal documents. These materials had to be printed on official British stamped paper otherwise they will not be viewed as legal documents. Many landowners lost money as they had to pay for their documents to be seen as legal. This outraged many and the act was soon protested.
  • The Townshend Acts Enacted

    The Townshend Acts Enacted
    The Townshend Acts were a series of taxes that were first enacted in 1767 to repay British debt. They placed indirect taxes on imported British goods such as glass, lead, paper, and tea in the colonies. Many colonists protested the acts again as they felt it was interfering with their own individual rights. The British government had to send troops to enforce taxes upon the colonists in order for Britain to collect those taxes.
  • The Boston Massacre Occurs

    The Boston Massacre Occurs
    The Boston Massacre was a confrontation in Boston in which a group of nine British soldiers shot five colonists out of a crowd of close to four hundred people who were harassing them verbally and throwing various projectiles at them. The colonists were protesting against the Townshend Acts but soon led to disaster as colonists began heckling the British soldiers. Soon, one of the officers was injured and the captain "ordered fire" on the crowd. This would show the colonies the need to unite.
  • The Boston Tea Party Occurs

    The Boston Tea Party Occurs
    The Boston Tea Party was a protest that occurred at the Boston Harbor where American colonists dumped 342 chests of tea into the ocean dressed up as Mohawk Indians. This tea was imported by the British East India Company and was done to protest against the taxation Britain imposed upon the colonists. Many colonists wanted "no taxation without representation" as they would feel representation in the Parliament in Britain. This protest was organized by the Sons of Liberty in Boston.
  • The Intolerable Acts Enacted

    The Intolerable Acts Enacted
    The Intolerable Acts were a series of laws passed by the British Parliament against the colonies to repay the Boston Tea Party. This included 5 acts including the Quartering Act which allowed British soldiers to stay/live in colonists' homes any time they want. It also included the Boston Port Act which ordered the citizens to pay a large fine for the Boston Tea Party's actions and closed the port of the Boston Harbor. Most of these acts were made to punish the people of Boston.
  • Battle of Lexington and Concord

    Battle of Lexington and Concord
    The Battle of Lexington and Concord was the starting battle of the American Revolutionary War. The British army had intelligence that the American militia was stockpiling weapons at Lexington. So, they marched to Lexington to intercept those weapons, however, militiamen blocked their tracks in order to stop their march. Both sides were told not to fire until someone shot first. What was known as "the shot hear around the world" started the American Revolutionary War for independence and freedom.
  • The United States Announce Independence

    The United States Announce Independence
    The Second Continental Congress unanimously decide to announce the United States' independence from Britain through the Declaration of Independence. It stated that the US was an independent country and the jurisdiction of the British government didn't respect the rights of the colonists. It also states that a good government must be placed in order to protect the rights of the people. The Declaration included the ideas of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness available for all white men.
  • The Battle of Saratoga

    The Battle of Saratoga
    The Battle of Saratoga was considered a turning point in the American Revolutionary War as the Americans were able to beat the superior British army which further secured hope for independence. It also helped secured foreign support from France and Spain to help the Americans win the war. With this decisive victory over Britain, the US was ready to push Britain out of the colonies. The American casualties included 90 killed and 240 wounded while the British had 440 killed and nearly 700 wounded.
  • The Ratification of the Articles of Confederation

    The Ratification of the Articles of Confederation
    The Articles of Confederation was the "first constitution" that was created by the Second Continental Congress. The Articles created a constitution meant to allow states to govern their own people while the central government could only work when all states were in agreement. The Articles were meant as an early way to establish the functions of the government before declaring independence. However, its strengths were its weaknesses as the states had more power over the central government.
  • The Siege of Yorktown Ends

    The Siege of Yorktown Ends
    The Siege of Yorktown lasted close to a month, starting in late September and ending in mid-October. This was effectively the last battle of the American Revolutionary War as the British were surrounded by the Continental Army on land and the French. The British could do nothing, but surrender most of the northern British forces were left in America and were squeezed at Yorktown. General Cornwallis, the commander of the British, surrendered. This ended the war and led to independence for the US.
  • The Treaty of Paris is Signed

    The Treaty of Paris is Signed
    The Treaty of Paris is signed in Paris by representatives of Britain and the United States of America to officially declare the end to the American Revolutionary War. It also formally recognized the United States as an independent nation. Britain granted the Northwest Territory and the Great Banks to the United States. This opened the Mississippi River to navigation for the Americans and the Britains. With the borders being defined, the US was officially an independent nation with much to gain.
  • Ratification of the Constitution

    Ratification of the Constitution
    The Constitution of the United States was created after the failure of the Articles of Confederacy to define the rights of the government. The Constitution creates a national government consisting of a legislative, an executive, and a judicial branch with a system of checks and balances among the three branches. It divides the power between the federal government and the states and states what they can do. Most importantly, it protects the individual rights and liberties of American citizens.
  • The First Presidential Cabinet is Created

    The First Presidential Cabinet is Created
    The Presidential Cabinet was created by George Washington and Congress as one can't control the affairs of the whole country. The first Cabinet included Alexander Hamilton as Secretary of the Treasury, Thomas Jefferson as Secretary of State, Henry Knox as Secretary of War, and Edmund Randolph as Attorney General. Each member helped advise President George Washington on any subject related to their duty of respective office. Although it was optional, it set the standard for presidents to come.
  • First National Bank of the United States is Opened

    First National Bank of the United States is Opened
    The First National Bank of the United States is finally opened after much pressure on George Washington by Alexander Hamilton. This was greatly needed as the government had a debt to pay off from the Revolutionary War. Another problem was that each state had a different form of currency. By creating the bank, a national currency was also created, thus the creation of the dollar. It also served as a repository of federal funds and serve government fiscal agents to help those in need of money.
  • The Cotton Gin is Created

    The Cotton Gin is Created
    The cotton gin was created by Eli Whitney during the era of the Industrial Revolution to help speed up the process of removing the cotton seeds from the cotton fiber. This revolutionized the production of cotton as it was now easier to manufacture cotton, but this meant an increase in labor to manufacture more cotton. As slavery was starting to die out, it came back since labor was needed more than ever to make cotton, especially in the South. Soon, cotton was America's leading export.
  • Alien and Sedition Acts

    Alien and Sedition Acts
    The Alien and Sedition Acts were a set of laws that were meant to address citizenship and speech. The Alien Acts state that the residency required for citizenship was to be raised from 5 to 14 years. It also authorized the president to deport "aliens", permit their arrest, imprisonment, and deportation. The Sedition Acts made it a crime for American citizens to print, utter, or publish false or scandalous writing about the Government. These acts were meant to show the power of the president.
  • The Louisiana Purchase is Done

    The Louisiana Purchase is Done
    The Louisiana Purchase was an acquisition offered to the United States by France. Originally, the United States wanted to buy the port of New Orlean from France to control the Mississippi River. They offered a price of 3 million, but the French instead gave the US a chance to own 828,000 square miles of land for 15 million. This included present-day Louisiana, all the way to Montana. The deal was accepted and doubled the nation's size. It was an incredible deal as an acre costed only 4 cents.
  • Lewis and Clark Expedition Ends

    Lewis and Clark Expedition Ends
    The Lewis and Clark Expedition was the United States expedition to cross the new western portion of the country after the Louisiana Purchase. The expedition was arranged by the Corps of Discovery. The Corps was a unit from the United States Army. The Corps mapped uncharted land, rivers, and mountains. They bought back journals filled with details about Native American tribes and new plants and animals. These notes and details about the land they purchased made them learn about the land they had.
  • The Embargo Act of 1807 is Enacted

    The Embargo Act of 1807 is Enacted
    The Embargo Act of 1807 was a general trade embargo on the French and the British in particular. As the British and French were in the middle of another conflict, the British threatened the declare war on the US if they took any of the French's goods. The same was said by the French who would also declare war on the US if they took any of the British's goods. Jefferson then issued the embargo act to stop all trade with them. This would ruin the US economy, but this would promote their industry.
  • The War of 1812 Begins

    The War of 1812 Begins
    The War of 1812 was fought by the United States and the United Kingdom and their allies in present-day Canada. This war was mainly fought over British violations of US maritime rights including the impressment of American seamen and ships and restricting US trade. Soon, even the French joined and started to impress American sailors. After much harassment, the US finally declared war on Britain. This was to show that the US was indeed an independent nation and had the powers of other nations.
  • The Burning of the Capitol

    The Burning of the Capitol
    As the War of 1812 raged on, invading British troops marched into Washington and set fire to the US Capitol, the President's Mansion, and many other landmarks. During President James Madison's dinner, news came that the British were marching toward Washington. Dolly Madison, the First Lady, saved many important documents from the burning Capitol. This marked the first and only time since the American Revolutionary War that a foreign power captured and occupied the capital of the US.
  • The War of 1812 has Ended

    The War of 1812 has Ended
    The Treaty of Ghent was signed in modern-day Belgium in December of 1814 and came into effect the coming February. This formally ended the War of 1812 and declared the result of the war was a draw. Since not much could be done on the American front, both forces were engaged in a deadlock which meant that both sides couldn't really do much. This also stated that British forces were to be withdrawn from the United States and all conquered land was to be given back. This effectively ended the war.
  • The Adams-Onis Treaty is Signed

    The Adams-Onis Treaty is Signed
    The Adam-Onis Treaty of 1819, also known as the Florida Treaty, was a treaty between the United States and Spain in 1819 that ceded Florida to the US and defined the boundaries between the two nations. Florida started to become a burden to Spain as they could not afford to send settlers there anymore. So, they decided to secede the territory from the US in exchange for setting the boundary dispute near present-day Texas. This gave the US a modern shape of a nation in the East and a peninsula.
  • Missouri Compromise is Ratified

    Missouri Compromise is Ratified
    The Missouri Compromise was a federal legislation of the US that was meant to balance the desires of slavery in the county. The Compromise admitted Missouri as a slave state and Maine as a non-slave state at the same time. This would make the ratio between the slave states and the free states equal. However, it also outlawed slavery above the 36º 30' latitude line in the remainder of the Louisiana Territory. This was ruled unconstitutional as Congress had no power to prohibit the use of slavery.
  • The Monroe Doctrine is Addressed

    The Monroe Doctrine is Addressed
    The Monroe Doctrine was addressed in President James Monroe's 1823 annual message to Congress which contained the Doctrine. It says that European powers are not to interfere in the affairs of the Western Hemisphere. It also says that the United States would not get involved in European affairs. The Doctrine stated that no other nation could form a new colony in the Western Hemisphere. The Doctrine declared that if any European nation tried to control the Western Hemisphere, it is a hostile act.
  • Presidential Election of 1828 Ends

    Presidential Election of 1828 Ends
    The presidential campaign of 1828 was a crucial period as the development of two major parties controlling the party system was starting to solidify and become a system similar to today. The election also started
    to bear resemblance to the modern campaigning system. This started to show the importance and strength of the power of the president and the executive branch. All American white men were able to vote regardless of class during the election. This increased the number of voters.
  • Indian Removal Act is Signed

    Indian Removal Act is Signed
    The Indian Removal Act was signed into law by President Andrew Jackson making Indian Tribes move from their existing land to the lands granted to them in the West. As more and more people were moving westward, many tribes' land was being overrun by the colonists. In order to "mediate" the conflict, the tribes would be moved to the West where there were not as many colonists located there. As the tribes moved from their native lands, they lost their culture, traditions, and lands that owned.
  • Nat Turner's Rebellion Ends

    Nat Turner's Rebellion Ends
    Nat Turner was an enslaved man who led a rebellion of enslaved people. He sought to find freedom, but also realize that wasn't enough. He realized that he had to free his own brothers and sisters in order to be truly free. He rebelled against the system of slavery and wanted to liberate them from their tyrannical owners. His actions set off a massacre of up to 200 Africans and a wave of oppressive legislation prohibiting the education, movement, and assembly of enslaved people.
  • The Battle of Gonzales Ends

    The Battle of Gonzales Ends
    The Battle of Gonzales was the first military engagement and the first battle of the Texas Revolution over a cannon that was disputed between the Mexicans and colonists. Although the battle was small, it marked the break between the colonists and the Mexican government. This was considered the start of the Texas Revolution as colonists wanted to become their own independent nation. It was considered the "Lexington of Texas" as a group of colonists were facing an entirely new nation.
  • Battle of the Alamo Ends

    Battle of the Alamo Ends
    The Battle of the Alamo was a pivotal event in the Texas Revolution for the colonists. In December of 1835, a group of colonists led by George Collinsworth forcefully overwhelmed a Mexican garrison at the Alamo and captured the fort. Mexican troops reclaimed the Alamo fort in a battle between both sides. Most of the colonists died in combat, resulting in a Mexican victory. This soon rallied the rest of Texas to fight against the Mexican army and fight for annexation from Mexico.
  • The Battle of San Jacinto Ends

    The Battle of San Jacinto Ends
    The Battle of San Jacinto was fought in present-day Pasadena, Texas. It was the final and decisive battle of the Texas Revolution. The Texan Army was led by General Samuel Houston and faced up against General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna's Mexican Army. The fight was infamously fought for only 18 minutes and resulted in a Texan Victory. This ensured Texas its independence from Mexico against all odds. This in turn also ended the Texan Revolution as they finally achieved independence.
  • The Cherokees are Forced to Move

    The Cherokees are Forced to Move
    Many Indian tribes were forced to move as part of the Indian Removal Act, however, the Cherokee tribes were hit the hardest as they had to move more than any other tribe in the US. On May 26, 1838, General Floyd of the US army rounded up more than 3,000 Cherokees from their home in present-day Georgia and sent them to Tenessee camps. They would be soon moved all the way to Oklahoma in the west. This would eventually lead to the Trail of Tears as many Indians made the journey across the nation.
  • The First Message is sent by the Telegraph

    The First Message is sent by the Telegraph
    The Telegraph was created by Samuel Morse and was designed to connect the entire country by a telegraph system. The system sent out a series of dots and dashes, each combination represented one letter of the alphabet and became known as Morse code. This would soon connect the whole nation and make communication from one place to another much faster. It was the modern telephone line and revolutionized the way people communicated. Its creation was the backbone for the telephone and cellphone.
  • Annexation of Texas

    Annexation of Texas
    Texas was annexed by the United States and became the 28th state in the Union. This helped the United States gain a huge amount of territory westward. It was also a controversial decision as Texas enter the US as a slave state. This made big differences in the United States over the issue of slavery and its expansion in the West. Democrats supported it as it would give them more representation in the House of Representatives and the Senate. This also eventually set off the Mexican- American War.
  • Seneca Falls Convention Starts

    Seneca Falls Convention Starts
    The Seneca Falls Convention was the first women's rights convention. It advertised itself as "a convention" to discuss the social, religious, and civil conditions and rights of women. It spanned two days and was organized by Elizabeth Cady Stanton. During the conference, Stanton drafted the Declaration of Sentiments, which called for women's equality and the right to vote. This type of convention was the first of its kind. It would be credited for affecting the path of women's suffrage.
  • Fugitive Slave Act is Enacted

    Fugitive Slave Act is Enacted
    The US Congress passed the Fugitive Slave Act as part of the Compromise of 1850. It mainly sided with the Southern slave owners' interests in slavery. The act required that slaves be returned to their owners, even if they were in a free state. This also made the federal government responsible for finding, returning, and trying escaped slaves. There was controversy to this act as it denied a fugitive's right to a jury trial. Many risked their lives helping a fugitive slave and could face prison.
  • Kansas-Nebraska Act is Ratified

    Kansas-Nebraska Act is Ratified
    The Kansas-Nebraska Act was a territorial act that created the territories of Kansas and Nebraska. The territories allowed popular sovereignty which would decide if they would be proslavery or antislavery. This would lead to the violent uprising known as "Bleeding Kansas". Many other outbreaks of violence would be done in order for the two territories to become slave states or free states. The act also angered the South because it violated the Missouri Compromise's balance on pro/anti-slavery.
  • Dred Scott v. Sandford Decision Issued

    Dred Scott v. Sandford Decision Issued
    Dred Scott v. Sandford was a landmark decision of the United States Supreme Court that was held by the United States Constitution. Dred Scott and his wife sued for their freedom based on the fact that they were freed due to their residence in a free territory where slavery was prohibited. The decision declared that African Americans, free or not, do not have standing in federal courts because they were not US citizens. The decision also declared the Missouri Compromise to be unconstitutional.
  • The Presidential Election of 1860 Ends

    The Presidential Election of 1860 Ends
    The Presidential Election of 1860 was between the Republican candidate, Abraham Lincoln, and the Democratic candidate, Stephen Douglas. The election turned on a number of issues including secession from the Union, slavery, and abolition. This was significant as Abraham Lincoln won the election, becoming the first Republican president. However, the winning of his election was soon followed by the Civil War as the South realized that slavery would be "abolished" under Lincoln's presidency.
  • South Carolina Secedes From the Union

    South Carolina Secedes From the Union
    Following the Presidential Election of 1860, the state of South Carolina became the first state to secede from the Union. The reason they seceded was that the non-slaveholding states had "denounced" the institution of slavery and had "encouraged" them to leave their homes and incite insurrection. What soon followed, in order, was the secession of Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Texas, Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina and the creation of the Confederacy.
  • The Battle of Fort Sumter Ends

    The Battle of Fort Sumter Ends
    The Battle of Fort Sumter was the bombardment of Fort Sumter near Charleston, South Carolina by the South Carolina militia. The battle ended when the US Army surrendered and began the American Civil War. To arm with supplies, the South Carolina militia went to Fort Sumter to reclaim their fort. When the US Army refused, the militia could do nothing but bombard them. This was considered the first battle of the Civil War and began the struggles between the Union and the Confederacy for power.
  • The Homestead Act is Passed

    The Homestead Act is Passed
    The Homestead Act provided any adult citizen who never had never borne arms against the US government could claim up to 160 acres of surveyed government land. The land claimants were required to live on the land and improve it by cultivating the land. The land that they were given was in the west. President Lincoln wanted the west to be more productive while eradicating the overpopulation in the East. By doing this, he was able to make the West more useful and the East less overcrowded.
  • The Battle of Antietam Ends

    The Battle of Antietam Ends
    The Battle of Antietam provided President Lincoln with the opportunity to declare the Emancipation Proclamation due to the Union victory at Antietam. It was also known as the bloodiest one-day battle in American military history. This victory pushed the Confederacy out of Maryland where they were close to even taking the capital. With this crucial victory for the North, the Confederacy took a blow as they lost many indisposable men. This meant they had to be defensive throughout the war.
  • The Emancipation Proclamation is Issued

    The Emancipation Proclamation is Issued
    The Emancipation Proclamation was a presidential proclamation and executive order issued by President Abraham Lincoln during the Civil War. The proclamation declared that all people held as slaves within the Confederate states are free from captivity. Although it did not formally free slaves, it transformed the reason the war was being fought. It also stopped the Europeans from trying to intervene the war as they wanted their supply of cotton from the South as they were being blocked.
  • The Battle of Gettysburg Ends

    The Battle of Gettysburg Ends
    The Battle of Gettysburg was fought for 3 days in and around the town of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, and was the bloodiest single battle of the conflict with casualties of 50,000 on both sides of the battle. This battle served as a reminder to Europe that they could no longer intervene in the United States' actions. This battle wiped out more than a third of the Confederacy's army. After this battle, the South had to fight a defensive front and hope that the Election of 1864 could save them.
  • The Siege of Vicksburg Ends

    The Siege of Vicksburg Ends
    The Siege of Vicksburg occurred for two months and finally ended with a Union victory by General Ulysses S Grant. Grant wanted to split the Confederacy into two pieces and control the Mississippi River in order to starve the Confederacy of resources and goods. This officially was called the Anaconda Plan. By taking the city of Vicksburg, they were able to achieve the plan and cut off the route of supplies for the Confederacy. This was also considered the final major military campaign of the war.
  • Sherman's March to the Sea Ends

    Sherman's March to the Sea Ends
    Sherman's March to the Sea was a military campaign conducted through Georgia for a month and led by Major General William Sherman of the Union Army. The march was meant to frighten the Confederates in Georgia to abandon the Confederate cause. They stole food and livestock and burned the houses and barns of people who tried to fight back. They destroyed railroads in the South to ensure they could not transport goods. This destruction of the campaign inflicted a cost of $100 million.
  • General Robert E. Lee Surrenders

    General Robert E. Lee Surrenders
    The Civil War effectively ended in the Spring of 1865 when General Robert E. Lee surrenders his troops to General Ulysses S. Grant at the Appomattox Court House in Virginia. After the loss of many troops and resources, General Robert Lee was struggling to make dues with the forces he had. As the North kept on having victory after victory, the South was unable to keep them at bay. Even if the South did win a battle, there would be many casualties. General Lee has no option, but to surrender.
  • The Reconstruction Act are Passed

    The Reconstruction Act are Passed
    The Reconstruction Act was a statute passed during the Reconstruction Era addressing the need for the Southern States to be readmitted to the Union after the Civil War. In order to be drafted back into the Union, each state was required to write a new constitution, which was to be approved by a majority of voters. In addition, each state was also required to ratify the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Amendments of the Constitution. This act restored all the Confederate states back into the Union.
  • Purchase of Alaska

    Purchase of Alaska
    The purchase of Alaska in 1867 marked the end of Russian efforts to expand trade and settlements to the Pacific coast of North America. It became an essential step in the United States rise as a great power in the Asia-Pacific region. As the United States expanded westward in the early 1800s, Americans soon found interest in the region of Alaska. The Russians offered a deal to buy the land but were postponed due to the Civil War. After the war, the US purchased Alaska for almost $7.2 million.
  • The Transcontinental Railroad is Finished

    The Transcontinental Railroad is Finished
    The building of the transcontinental railroad opened up the American West to more rapid development. With the completion of the track, the travel time for making the 3,000-mile journey across the United States was cut from a matter of months to under a week. Connecting the two American coasts made the economic export of Western resources to Eastern markets easier than ever before. However, this also escalated conflicts between the Native Americans and the settlers who has access to the railroad.
  • Yellowstone National Park Protection Law is Signed

    Yellowstone National Park Protection Law is Signed
    Early in 1872, Congress moved to set aside some 2 million acres of public land straddling the future states of Wyoming, Montana, and Idaho as America’s first national park. President Grant signed the bill into law on this day in 1872. The Yellowstone Act of 1872 designated the region as a public pleasuring ground which would be preserved from injury or spoilation, of all timber, mineral deposits, natural curiosities, or wonders within. This act popularized the idea of national parks in the US.
  • The Battle of Little Bighorn Ends

    The Battle of Little Bighorn Ends
    On June 25, 1876, Native American forces led by Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull defeat the U.S. Army troops of Lt. Col. George Custer in the Battle of the Little Bighorn near southern Montana’s Little Bighorn River. Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull, Lakota Sioux leaders, strongly resisted the mid-19th-century efforts of the U.S. government to confine their people to reservations. In 1875, after gold was discovered in South Dakota’s Black Hills, the U.S. Army ignored previous treaty agreements.
  • Thomas Edison Receives his Patent for the Electric Lightbulb

    Thomas Edison Receives his Patent for the Electric Lightbulb
    On January 27, 1880, Thomas Edison received the historic patent embodying the principles of his incandescent lamp that paved the way for the universal domestic use of electric light. The Patent Office granted Thomas Edison a patent for his "electric lamp." Edison's patent was an improvement on electric lamps, not the invention of them, but because Edison’s design changes and the materials he used such as carbon filaments patent allowed for an electric lamp that was reliable, safe, and practical.
  • The Immigration Act of 1882 is Signed

    The Immigration Act of 1882 is Signed
    The Chinese Exclusion Act was approved on May 6, 1882. It was the first significant law restricting immigration into the United States. In the spring of 1882, the Chinese Exclusion Act was passed by Congress and signed by President Chester A. Arthur. This act provided an absolute 10-year ban on Chinese laborers immigrating to the United States. For the first time, federal law proscribed entry of an ethnic working group on the premise that it endangered the good order of certain localities.
  • The Pullman Strike Ends

    The Pullman Strike Ends
    The most famous and far-reaching labor conflict in a period of severe economic depression and social unrest, the Pullman Strike began May 11, 1894, with a walkout by Pullman Palace Car Company factory workers after negotiations over declining wages failed. These workers appealed for support to the American Railway Union (ARU), which argued unsuccessfully for arbitration. On June 20, the ARU gave notice that beginning June 26 its members would no longer work trains that included Pullman cars.
  • The Haymarket Square Riot Ends

    The Haymarket Square Riot Ends
    The Haymarket Riot (also known as the “Haymarket Incident” and “Haymarket Affair”) occurred on May 4, 1886, when a labor protest rally near Chicago’s Haymarket Square turned into a riot after someone threw a bomb at police. At least eight people died as a result of the violence that day. The Haymarket Riot was viewed as a setback for the organized labor movement in America, which was fighting for rights like the eight-hour workday. The riot slowed the train for worker's rights and equality.
  • The Dawes Act is Passed

    The Dawes Act is Passed
    On February 8, 1887, Congress passed the Dawes Act, named for its author, Senator Henry Dawes of Massachusetts. Also known as the General Allotment Act, the law authorized the President to break up reservation land, which was held in common by the members of a tribe, into small allotments to be parceled out to individuals. Thus, Native Americans registering on a tribal "roll" were granted allotments of reservation land. This was an attempt to assimilate Native Americans into US society.
  • Sherman's Antitrust Act is Passed

    Sherman's Antitrust Act is Passed
    The antitrust laws proscribe unlawful mergers and business practices in general terms, leaving courts to decide which ones are illegal based on the facts of each case. Courts have applied antitrust laws to changing markets, from a time of horse and buggies to the present digital age. This law helped prevent monopolies from growing in the industry. This law was the aftermath of John Rockefeller's Standard Oil company monopolizing the oil industry. At one time, it controlled 90% of the oil market.
  • The Wounded Knee Massacre Occurs

    The Wounded Knee Massacre Occurs
    The Wounded Knee Massacre was a cause of the crackdown on the growing religion of Ghost Dance. Government officials arrested a band of Lakota people and confined them at a camp near the Wounded Knee Creek. When trying to confiscate the weapons from them, one of the guns discharged. Thinking that they were being shot at, soldiers fired their guns at a crowd of innocent Lakota people. Almost three hundred Lakota women, men, and children were killed in this disastrous incident of confusion.
  • The Parliment of World Religion's First Meeting Occurs

    The Parliment of World Religion's First Meeting Occurs
    The 1893 World’s Parliament of Religions held in conjunction with the Columbian Exposition in Chicago took place at the Permanent Memorial Art Palace, now known as the Art Institute of Chicago. The Parliament opened with international representatives of the world’s religions present. An Indian delegate, Swami Vivekananda, riveted the audience with his call for religious tolerance and an end to fanaticism. For years, this meeting helped make the Freedom of Religion in the US ever opening.
  • Plessy V. Ferguson Ends

    Plessy V. Ferguson Ends
    The Supreme Court ruled in the case of Plessy v. Ferguson that "separate but equal" facilities were considered sufficient to satisfy the Fourteenth Amendment. This decision established a pattern in American society, until May 17, 1954, when the Court reversed the Plessy decision. In the case of Brown v. the Board of Education of Topeka, the Court held that segregation of public schools is a denial of equal protection under the law. However, the Separate Car Act was still constitutional.
  • The Annexation of Hawaii

    The Annexation of Hawaii
    Supported by John Stevens, the U.S. Minister to Hawaii, and a contingent of Marines from the warship, U.S.S. Boston, the Committee overthrew Queen Lili'uokalani in a bloodless coup. The Committee of Safety proclaimed itself to be the Provisional Government. Without permission from the U.S. State Department, Minister Stevens recognized the new government and proclaimed Hawaii a U.S. protectorate. President Benjamin Harrison signed a treaty of annexation with the new government.
  • The Spanish American War Ends

    The Spanish American War Ends
    The Spanish-American War was an 1898 conflict between the United States and Spain that ended Spanish colonial rule in the Americas and resulted in the U.S. acquisition of territories in the western Pacific and Latin America. Spain’s brutally repressive measures to halt the rebellion were able to grow sympathy for the Cuban rebels. The growing popular demand for U.S. intervention as the US Maine was "sunk" by the Spanish. The phrase "Remember the Maine!" stuck for the entirety of the war.
  • President William McKinley is Assassinated

    President William McKinley is Assassinated
    The assassination of President William McKinley was a shock to the nation as McKinley becomes the first president to become assassinated. The proprietor, Leon Czolgosz, was an anarchist and shot McKinley as he believed that McKinley was the head of a corrupt government. After President McKinley passed away, the Secret Service was designated to protect the president at all times. The nation was in fear that anarchism could ruin its democratic government. This fear went on for decades to come.
  • The First Powered Airplane Flies

    The First Powered Airplane Flies
    The Wright brothers inaugurated the aerial age with the world's first successful flights of a powered heavier-than-air flying machine. The Wright Flyer was the product of a sophisticated four-year program of research and development conducted by Wilbur and Orville Wright beginning in 1899. After building and testing three full-sized gliders, the Wrights' first powered airplane flew at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, making a 12-second flight, traveling 36 m. This revolutionized technology forever.
  • Lochner V. New York Ends

    Lochner V. New York Ends
    The owner of a bakery in the New York city of Utica, Joseph Lochner, was charged with violating a state law known as the Bakeshop Act. This law set maximum hour requirements for bakery employees at 10 hours per day and 60 hours per week, in addition to regulating sanitary conditions. This case would go to the Supreme Court as Lochner V. New York. The case would then end with the Court invalidating the New York Law of the Bakeshop Act. This case revolutionized the struggle for an 8-hour work day.
  • The First Ford Model T is Manufactured

    The First Ford Model T is Manufactured
    Henry Ford's Ford Motor Company introduces the Ford Model T costing $850.00, this was nearly 3 of the price of any other car on the market but still not cheap enough for the masses. Over the next few years, he perfected assembly line production bringing the cost down to $368.00 in 1916 making it much more affordable and consequently selling hundreds of thousands more cars than any other company. With the creation of a mass-produced vehicle, the car industry was able to grow into a big industry.
  • The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire Occurs

    The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire Occurs
    The fire at Triangle Waist Company on March 25, 1911, is widely considered a pivotal moment in history, leading to the transformation of New York State's labor code and the adoption of fire safety measures that served as a model for the whole country. Instrumental in this transformation was the work of the New York Factory Investigative Commission, which wrote thirty-six of the new labor-related bills that the state legislature eventually adopted. Agencies adopted fire safety measures.
  • Archduke Franz Ferdinand is Assasinated

    Archduke Franz Ferdinand is Assasinated
    The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand set off a rapid chain of events, as Austria-Hungary immediately blamed the Serbian government for the attack. As large and powerful Russia supported Serbia, Austria asked for assurances that Germany would step in on its side against Russia and its allies, including France and possibly Great Britain. On July 28, Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia, and the fragile peace between Europe’s great powers collapsed. Thus, World War I officially started.
  • The US Joins World War I

    The US Joins World War I
    When World War I erupted in Europe in 1914, the 28th U.S. president pledged neutrality, in sync with prevailing American public opinion. But while Wilson tried to avoid war for the next three years, favoring instead a negotiated collective approach to international stability, he was rapidly running out of options. In early April 1917, with the toll of sunken U.S. merchant ships and civilian casualties rising, Congress thus voted to declare war on Germany, effectively joining the Great War.
  • The Treaty of Versailles is Signed

    The Treaty of Versailles is Signed
    The Treaty of Versailles was signed by Germany and the Allied Nations on June 28, 1919, formally ending World War One. The terms of the treaty required Germany to pay financial reparations, disarm, lose territory, and give up all of its overseas colonies. It also called for the creation of the League of Nations, an institution that President Woodrow Wilson strongly supported and had originally outlined in his Fourteen Points address. The Treaty of Versailles was rejected by the US Senate.
  • The 19th Amendment is Passed

    The 19th Amendment is Passed
    Women demanded political equality even before the nation's founding, but not until 1878 did a member of Congress formally submit a proposal to amend the Constitution to allow women to vote. The Senate debated what came to be known as the Susan B. Anthony Amendment periodically for more than four decades. Approved by the Senate on June 4, 1919, and ratified in August 1920, the Nineteenth Amendment marked one stage in women's long fight for political equality. The women's right to vote was passed.
  • Sacco and Vanzetti Trial Ends

    Sacco and Vanzetti Trial Ends
    On August 23, 1927, Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti were executed after being sentenced to murdering a paymaster and a security guard in South Braintree, Massachusetts. The trial and proceedings leading up to their executions are famous in United States history because of the significance it held in revealing the judicial process as xenophobic. Alongside their being immigrants, both Sacco and Vanzetti were also anarchists, which at the time loaded their case with political uneasiness.
  • Immigration Act of 1924 is Passed

    Immigration Act of 1924 is Passed
    The Immigration Act of 1924 limited the number of immigrants allowed entry into the United States through a national origins quota. The quota provided immigration visas to two percent of the total number of people of each nationality in the United States as of the 1890 national census. It completely excluded immigrants from Asia. As many immigrants were coming to the US to settle, they had to continue putting rules. Many were worried that their ideals from Europe and Asia could affect the US.
  • The Great Depression Begins

    The Great Depression Begins
    The Stock Market Crash of 1929, when Wall Street investors traded some 16 million shares on the New York Stock Exchange in a single day. Billions of dollars were lost, wiping out thousands of investors. In the aftermath of that event, sometimes called “Black Tuesday,” America and the rest of the industrialized world spiraled downward into the Great Depression, the deepest and longest-lasting economic downturn in the history of the Western industrialized world up to that time, including Europe.
  • The Bonus Army Conflict Occurs

    The Bonus Army Conflict Occurs
    Jobless WWI veterans organized a group called the Bonus Expeditionary Forces to march on Washington, DC. The veterans set up camps and occupied buildings in various locations in Washington, DC. On July 28, Attorney General William Mitchell ordered the DC police to remove the protesters from government property. At the time, about 50 protesters occupied buildings along Pennsylvania Avenue. When police arrived to move them out, a riot erupted, and police shot and killed two protesters.
  • The Social Security Act has Passed

    The Social Security Act has Passed
    The Social Security Act, signed into law by President Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1935, created Social Security, a federal safety net for the elderly, unemployed, and disadvantaged Americans. The main stipulation of the original Social Security Act was to pay financial benefits to retirees over age 65 based on lifetime payroll tax contributions. Tens of millions of people in the United States have received financial assistance through the Social Security Act since its creation.
  • World War II Begins

    World War II Begins
    The instability created in Europe by the First World War set the stage for another international conflict: World War II. Rising to power in an economically and politically unstable Germany, Adolf Hitler, leader of the Nazi Party, rearmed the nation and signed strategic treaties with Italy and Japan to further his ambitions of world domination. Hitler’s invasion of Poland in September 1939 drove Great Britain and France to declare war on Germany, marking the beginning of World War II.
  • Pearl Harbor is Attacked by Japan

    Pearl Harbor is Attacked by Japan
    Pearl Harbor was the scene of a devastating surprise attack by Japanese forces. On December 7, 1941, hundreds of Japanese fighter planes descended on the base, where they managed to destroy or damage nearly 20 American naval vessels, including eight battleships, and over 300 airplanes. More than 2,400 Americans died in the attack and another 1,000 people were wounded. The day after the assault, President Franklin D. Roosevelt asked Congress to declare war on Japan.
  • The Invasion of D-Day Occurs

    The Invasion of D-Day Occurs
    During World War II, the Battle of Normandy resulted in the Allied liberation of Western Europe from Nazi Germany’s control. D-Day began when some 156,000 American, British, and Canadian forces landed on five beaches along a 50-mile stretch of the heavily fortified coast of France’s Normandy region. The invasion was one of the largest amphibious military assaults in history and required extensive planning. The Normandy landings have been called the beginning of the end of the war in Europe.
  • Atomic Bombs are Dropped

    Atomic Bombs are Dropped
    n American B-29 bomber dropped the world’s first deployed atomic bomb over the Japanese city of Hiroshima. The explosion immediately killed an estimated 80,000 people; tens of thousands more would later die of radiation exposure. Three days later, a second B-29 dropped another A-bomb on Nagasaki, killing an estimated 40,000 people. Japan’s Emperor Hirohito announced his country’s unconditional surrender in World War II in a radio address on August 15, citing the devastating power of the bombs.
  • World War II Ends

    World War II Ends
    World War II ended six years and one day after Germany’s invasion of Poland sparked the 20th century’s second global conflict. By the time it concluded on the deck of an American warship on September 2, 1945, World War II had claimed the lives of an estimated 60-80 million people, approximately 3 percent of the world’s population. The vast majority of those who died in history’s deadliest war were civilians, including 6 million Jews killed in Nazi concentration camps during the Holocaust.
  • The Truman Doctrine is Announced

    The Truman Doctrine is Announced
    The Truman Doctrine was a de facto declaration of the Cold War. Truman’s address outlined the broad parameters of U.S. Cold War foreign policy: the Soviet Union was the center of all communist activity and movements throughout the world; communism could attack through outside invasion or internal subversion; and the United States needed to provide military and economic assistance to protect nations from communist aggression. Many would say that his speech helped start the Cold War into action.
  • The Korean War Begins

    The Korean War Begins
    The Korean war began on June 25, 1950, when some 75,000 soldiers from the North Korean People’s Army poured across the 38th parallel, the boundary between the Soviet-backed Democratic People’s Republic of Korea to the north and the pro-Western Republic of Korea to the south. This invasion was the first military action of the Cold War. By July, American troops had entered the war on South Korea’s behalf. It was a war against the forces of communism and the spread of communism as well.
  • Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka Ends

    Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka Ends
    Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka was a landmark 1954 Supreme Court case in which the justices ruled unanimously that racial segregation of children in public schools was unconstitutional. Brown v. Board of Education was one of the cornerstones of the civil rights movement and helped establish the precedent that “separate, but equal” education and other services were not, in fact, equal at all. By doing so, this case overturned the decision made by the Plessy v. Ferguson case.
  • The Montgomery Bus Boycott Ends

    The Montgomery Bus Boycott Ends
    The Montgomery Bus Boycott was a civil rights protest during which African Americans refused to ride city buses in Montgomery, Alabama, to protest segregated seating. The boycott is regarded as the first large-scale U.S. demonstration against segregation. Four days before the boycott began, Rosa Parks, an African American woman, was arrested and fined for refusing to yield her bus seat to a white man. The U.S. Supreme Court ultimately ordered Montgomery to integrate its bus system.
  • Sputnik is Launched

    Sputnik is Launched
    Visible with binoculars before sunrise or after sunset, Sputnik transmitted radio signals back to Earth strong enough to be picked up by amateur radio operators. Those in the United States with access to such equipment tuned in and listened in fear as the beeping Soviet spacecraft passed over America several times a day. In January 1958, Sputnik’s orbit deteriorated and the spacecraft burned up in the atmosphere. It raised many security concerns for America and started the space race.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis Ends

    Cuban Missile Crisis Ends
    Leaders of the U.S. and the Soviet Union engaged in a tense political and military standoff over the installation of nuclear-armed Soviet missiles on Cuba, just 90 miles from U.S. shores. Many people feared the world was on the brink of nuclear war. However, disaster was avoided when the U.S. agreed to Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev’s offer to remove the Cuban missiles in exchange for the U.S. promising not to invade Cuba. Kennedy also secretly agreed to remove U.S. missiles from Turkey.
  • The March on Washington

    The March on Washington
    The March on Washington was a massive protest march that occurred in August 1963, when some 250,000 people gathered in front of the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C. Also known as the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, the event aimed to draw attention to continuing challenges and inequalities faced by African Americans a century after emancipation. It was also the occasion of Martin Luther King Jr.’s now iconic “I Have a Dream” speech. This was the march to try and solve their issues.
  • President John F. Kennedy is Assassinated

    President John F. Kennedy is Assassinated
    First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy accompanied her husband. Beside him, Texas Governor John Connally and his wife, for a 10-mile motorcade through the streets of downtown Dallas. As their vehicle passed the Texas School Book Depository Building, Lee Harvey Oswald allegedly fired 3 shots from the sixth floor, fatally wounding President Kennedy and seriously injuring Governor Connally. Kennedy was pronounced dead 30 minutes later at Dallas’ Parkland Hospital. The whole world was shocked by this news.
  • Civil Rights Act is Passed

    Civil Rights Act is Passed
    The Civil Rights Act of 1964, which ended segregation in public places and banned employment discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, or national origin, is considered one of the crowning legislative achievements of the civil rights movement. First proposed by President John F. Kennedy, it was then signed into law by Lyndon B. Johnson. In subsequent years, Congress expanded the act and passed additional civil rights legislation such as the Voting Rights Act of 1965.
  • Martin Luther King Jr. is Assassinated

    Martin Luther King Jr. is Assassinated
    Martin Luther King Jr. was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee an event that sent shock waves reverberating around the world. King had led the civil rights movement since the mid-1950s, using a combination of impassioned speeches and nonviolent protests to fight segregation and achieve significant civil rights advances for African Americans. His assassination helped speed the way for an equal housing bill that would be the last significant legislative achievement of the civil rights era.
  • Apollo 11 has Landed on the Moon

    Apollo 11 has Landed on the Moon
    On July 20, 1969, American astronauts Neil Armstrong (1930-2012) and Edwin "Buzz" Aldrin (1930-) became the first humans ever to land on the moon. About 6 and a 1/2 hours later, Armstrong became the first person to walk on the moon. As he took his first step, Armstrong famously said, "That's one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind." The Apollo 11 mission occurred eight years after President John F. Kennedy announced a national goal of landing a man on the moon by the end of the 1960s.
  • Watergate Scandal Begins

    Watergate Scandal Begins
    Several burglars were arrested in the office of the Democratic National Committee. They were connected to President Richard Nixon’s reelection campaign, and they had been caught wiretapping phones and stealing documents. Nixon took aggressive steps to cover up the crimes, but when Washington Post reporters Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein revealed his role in the scandal, Nixon resigned. The Watergate scandal changed American politics forever and changed the view of the president.
  • Jimmy Carter Wins the Election

    Jimmy Carter Wins the Election
    The United States presidential election of 1976 followed the resignation of President Richard Nixon in the wake of the Watergate scandal. It pitted incumbent President Gerald Ford, the Republican candidate, against the relatively unknown former governor of Georgia, Jimmy Carter, the Democratic candidate. Ford was saddled with a slow economy and paid a political price for his pardon of Nixon. Carter ran as a Washington outsider and reformer and won a narrow victory. It was a very close election.
  • Iranian Hostage Crisis Begins

    Iranian Hostage Crisis Begins
    On November 4, 1979, a group of Iranian students stormed the U.S. Embassy in Tehran, taking more than 60 American hostages. The immediate cause of this action was President Jimmy Carter’s decision to allow Iran’s deposed Shah to come to the United States for cancer treatment. However, the hostage-taking was about more than Shah’s medical care: it was a dramatic way for the student revolutionaries to declare a break with Iran’s past and an end to American interference in its affairs.
  • Reagan Announces the Strategic Defense Initiative

    Reagan Announces the Strategic Defense Initiative
    From the start, politicians and scientists argued that SDI was overambitious. The technical hurdles required to achieve SDI, which included a number of proposed designs and weapons, seemed so incredible at the time that Massachusetts Senator Edward Kennedy referred to it as ''reckless 'Star Wars' schemes.'' Over the course of 10 years, the government spent up to $30 billion on developing the concept. It was formally scrapped by President Bill Clinton in 1993 for being too ridiculous.
  • The Space Shuttle Challenger Explodes

    The Space Shuttle Challenger Explodes
    The NASA space shuttle Challenger exploded on January 28, 1986, just 73 seconds after liftoff, bringing a devastating end to the spacecraft’s 10th mission. The disaster claimed the lives of all seven astronauts aboard. It was later determined that two rubber O-rings, which had been designed to seal the sections of the rocket booster, had failed due to cold temperatures on the morning of the launch. The tragedy and its aftermath prompted NASA to temporarily suspend all shuttle missions.