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APUSH Timeline

  • 1492

    The Colombian Exchange

    The Colombian Exchange
    The Spanish invasion permanently altered the natural and human environment with diseases like smallpox, influenza, measels, and more. This spread was part of a larger transformation known as the Columbian Exchange. The Columbian exchange was a massive global exchange of living things including, plants, animals, and even diseases. This exchange signifigantly increased agricultural yeilds and population.
  • Bacon's Rebellion

    Bacon's Rebellion
    Tensions after Metacom's War created conflict between colonists and the natives. Poor freeholders and landless former servants now wanted to settle, demanding the Natives be expelled or exterminated. Nathanial Bacon was the head of this rebellion, and when he was refused a military, he mobilized his neighbors and attacked the Natives. Bacon's army demanded legislative elections be held. This enacted reforms that curbed the power of the government and restored voting rights to landless freemen.
  • Deism and the Enlightenment

    Deism and the Enlightenment
    In the wake of the Enlightenment, many people began to believe in free will and natural rights. Deism was one of the many religions created by the influence of the enlightenment. It was the belief that God created the universe and then left it to run according to natural laws. It rejected the divinity of Christ and the authority of the bible. This added a secular dimension to colonial cultural life and made many questions the morality of the way they lived.
  • Sugar Act of 1764

    Sugar Act of 1764
    Britain was in extreme debt after the Great War for Empire, and they needed to collect taxes to pay for war costs. In 1764, The Sugar act was passed, a law that lowered the duty on French molasses and raised the penalties for smuggling. This act was not well received by the colonists and they raised constitutional objections to the act. The Sugar Act also revived old American fears that colonists would not be treated as equals to the English and played a big role in causing American Resistance.
  • Boston Massacre

    Boston Massacre
    American resistance was growing so Parliament stationed many British troops in Boston, hoping to. The troops made up 10% of the local population. On March 5, 1770, nine British redcoats fired into a crowd and killed 5 townspeople. The incident was labeled a "massacre" and used to rally sentiment against imperial power.
  • Boston Tea Party

    Boston Tea Party
    In 1773 a British act was passed that lowered the existing tax on tea in order to entice colonists to stop their boycott. The Sons of Liberty, (colonists who banded together to protest British acts), prevented East India company ships from delivering the tea to the colonies. They did this by disguising themselves as Indians, boarding 3 ships, and breaking open 32 chests of tea. They proceeded to toss all 32 crates into the harbor. This provoked parliament to pass the Coercive acts.
  • The First Continental Congress

    The First Continental Congress
    In response to the Coercive acts, Patriot leaders created the Continental Congress, and delegates of this conference gathered in Philadelphia. All having different agendas, they decided on a compromise, demanding that the coercive acts be repealed and that British control be limited to trade matters. William Pitt asked that Parliament view the Continental Congress as a lawful body, but Parliament refused, and Lord North imposed a naval blockade on American trade with foreign nations.
  • Thomas Paine's Common Sense

    Thomas Paine's Common Sense
    As tension and conflicts escalated, Americans became divided in their opinion of King George III. In January of 1776, a brief pamphlet was published by Thomas Paine titled Common Sense. It was a rousing call for Independence and a republican form of government. He urged Americans to create independent republican states. This pamphlet inspired Patriot conventions to urge a break from Great Britain, and declare their Independence.
  • Independence Declared

    Independence Declared
    With the continued debate about reconciliation with Britain, Loyalist and anti-independence moderates withdrew from the Continental congress. This encouraged Patriots to finally declare independence, and on July 4, 1776, Congress approved the Declaration of Independence. This document, written mainly by Thomas Jefferson, contained principles and grievances that declared separation from Britain. The declaration won wide support in both France and Germany.
  • Victory at Saratoga

    Victory at Saratoga
    After General Howe failed to achieve an overwhelming victory, Lord North launched another military campaign, involving a three-pronged attack converging in Albany, New York. This was a multistaged battle known as the Battle of Saratoga. It ended with the surrender of British general John Burgoyne. This Victory was a turning point in the war and it ensured the diplomatic success of American representatives in Paris. This won military alliance in France.
  • The Articles of Confederation

    The Articles of Confederation
    As the Patriots began to embrace their Independence, they began to envision a central government with limited power. This idea formed the Articles of Confederation which provided a loose union in which each state could retain its sovereignty, freedom, and independence. While the articles had great power on paper- they could declare war, make treaties with foreign nations, etc.- It also had many weaknesses. It did not have a chief executive or a judiciary. It also lacked the power to tax.
  • The Battle of Yorktown

    The Battle of Yorktown
    Nathanial Greene's soldiers fought Cornwallis's army, weakening them and forcing them to concede to the Carolinas. This battle is known as the Battle of Yorktown. Cornwallis continued to spar with American troops, and Washington was informed that France had finally sent a powerful fleet to North America. He marched an army to Virginia, while the French took control of Chesapeake Bay. By the time Cornwallis discovered the plan, he was surrounded forcing a surrender. This meant patriot victory.
  • The Treaty of Paris

    The Treaty of Paris
    After Yorktown's victory, diplomats took two years to conclude a peace treaty, finally agreeing on the Treaty of Paris and officially ending the Revolutionary War. By the terms of the Treaty, Great Britain formally recognized American independence and relinquished its claims to lands in the south of the great lakes and the Mississippi rivers.
  • The Philadelphia Convention

    The Philadelphia Convention
    Spurred on by Shay's rebellion, Congress called for a convention to revise the Articles of Confederation. Delegates arrived for the Philidelphia Convention. They decided to consider the Virginia Plan. This plan designed a powerful three-branch government, that would have overshadowed the voice of small states. Small states who opposed this plan offered the New Jersey plan, a plan that retained a single-house congress with one vote per state. This caused much debate among the delegates.
  • Creating a National Bank

    Creating a National Bank
    Secretary of Treasury, Alexander Hamilton, devised bold policies to enhance national authority with his financial program. One of the ways he wanted to do that was by creating a national bank. He argued that the bank would provide stability to the American economy. The potential benefits persuaded Congress to grant the bank a twenty-year charter. On the other hand, Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson argued that a national bank would be unconstitutional.
  • Proclamation of Neutrality

    Proclamation of Neutrality
    The French revolution caused a war between France and Great Britain, and France was in need of allies. Jefferson believed that America should aid in their cause because of their treaty, but Washington believed that because that treaty was signed with a now-dead King, there was no France to aid. So, Washington signed the Treaty of Neutrality, allowing U.S. citizens to trade with all belligerents. This was not good for America's reputation because they went back on their treaty with France.
  • Invention of the Cotton Gin

    Invention of the Cotton Gin
    After a huge cotton boom, cotton was being produced on a mass scale. Because so much cotton needed to be produced. Eli Whitney invented one of the biggest inventions significantly boosting the Southern cotton industry. The gin separates cotton seeds from its fiber, which helped with time and productivity.
  • Whiskey Rebellion

    Whiskey Rebellion
    Hamilton's economic policies quickly sparked a domestic insurgency. The Whiskey Rebellion was an uprising by farmers in western Pennsylvania in response to the enforcement of the unpopular tax on whiskey. In order to deter popular rebellion and uphold national authority, President Washington raised a militia force and threatened the rebels into submission. This was very important because it showed the strength and legitimacy of the new U.S. government.
  • The XYZ Affair

    The XYZ Affair
    France was seizing American ships and American diplomats were angry that France diplomats were not respecting U.S. neutrality. The French diplomats demanded a loan and a bribe from the United States to stop the seizures. The American diplomats refused to pay and Adams dubbed the agents X, Y, and Z because they insulted America's honor. This event led the United States to an undeclared war that curtailed American trade with the French West Indies.
  • The Alien and Sedition Acts

    The Alien and Sedition Acts
    Republican-minded immigrants from Ireland vehemently attacked President Adams's policies. To silence the critics, the Federalists enacted three coercive laws- the Naturalization, Alien, and Sedition Acts- limiting individual rights. The naturalization act lengthened the residency requirement for citizenship, the alien act authorized the deportation of foreigners, and the sedition act prohibited the publication of insults against the president or members of congress.
  • Marbury v. Madison

    Marbury v. Madison
    Republican legislatures in Kentucky and Virginia repudiated the Alien and Sedition act unconstitutional, and the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court John Marshall declared that only the supreme court held the power of constitutional review. The Marbury v. Madison case established the principle of judicial review in finding that parts of the Judiciary Act of 1789 were in conflict with the constitution. The Supreme Court assumed legal authority to overrule acts of other branches of government.
  • The Louisiana Purchase

    The Louisiana Purchase
    Napoleon Bonaparte coerced Spain into signing a secret treaty that returned Louisiana to France, restricting American access to New Orleans. Jefferson told the American minister to negotiate the purchase of New Orleans. This worked out because he got all of the Louisiana territories. This is known as the Lousiana purchase. This purchase doubled the size of the U.S. Jefferson then commissioned the Lewis and Clark expedition to explore the new land.
  • The Missouri Compromise

    The Missouri Compromise
    Controversy raged in Congress and the press for two years before Henry Clay devised a series of political agreements known collectively as the Missouri Compromise. It stated that Amine would enter the Union as a free state and Missouri followed as a slave state, preserving a balance in the Senate between the North and the South. The Missouri Compromise resolved for a generation the issue of slavery in the lands of the Louisiana Purchase.
  • The Election of 1824

    The Election of 1824
    As the election approached five Republican candidates campaigned for the presidency, John Quincy Adams, John Adams, John C. Calhoun, William H. Crawford, Henry Clay, and Andrew Jackson. Each candidate had their own strengths and no candidate received an absolute majority, so the House of Representatives would choose. Henry Clay used his influence as a Speaker of the House to thwart Jackson's election and made a deal with Adams. This would be known as the Corrupt Bargain.
  • Tariff of Abominations

    Tariff of Abominations
    A tariff was enacted in 1828 that raised duties significantly on raw materials, textiles, and ironed goods. This angered the South because they had no industries that needed protection and they resented the higher cost of imported goods. It would cost the South $100 million a year. The tariff became known as the Tariff of Abominations because of its blatant disregard for the Southern economy. This caused strain and tension between the northern and southern states.
  • An Appeal... to the Colored Citizens of the World is published

    An Appeal... to the Colored Citizens of the World is published
    Motivated by racial contempt, white mobs terrorized black communities. White workers in northern towns laid waste to taverns and brothels where blacks and whites mixed, and they vandalized African American churches. David Walker responded to these attacks by publishing An Appeal... to the Colored Citizens of the World. This pamphlet called for a violent rebellion, warning that slaves would revolt if the cause of freedom was not served.
  • The Indian Removal Act

    The Indian Removal Act
    The status of Native American peoples posed an equally complex political problem. Removal seemed the only way to protect Indians from alcoholism, financial exploitation, and cultural decline. However, most Indians did not want to leave their home. Jackson then pushed the Indian Removal Act which directed the mandatory relocation of eastern tribes to territory West of the Mississippi. This forced westward journey was known as the Trail of Tears which caused nearly a quarter of native deaths.
  • The Whig Party

    The Whig Party
    The Whig Party arose in 1834 when a group of congressmen contested Andrew Jackson's policies and his high-handed, "kinglike" conduct. The party identified itself with the pre-revolutionary American and British parties- also called Whigs- that had opposed the arbitrary actions of British monarchs. They celebrated the entrepreneur and the enterprising individual. Whig congressman Edward Everett championed a "holy alliance" between laborers, owners, and governments.
  • The Taney Court

    The Taney Court
    Jackson also undermined the constitutional jurisprudence of John Marshall by appointing Roger B. Taney as his successor in 1835. Taney limited the property claims of the existing canal and turnpike companies, which allowed legislatures to charter competing railroads that would provide cheaper transportation. The Taney Court also limited MArshall's nationalistic interpretation of the commerce clause by enhancing the regulatory role of state governments.
  • Gag Rule

    Gag Rule
    Southern states, while also passing laws for more restrictions on slaves, also banned all abolitionist writings, sermons, and lectures. After 1835, southern postmasters simply refused to deliver mail suspected to be of abolitionist origin. In 1836, the House of Representatives adopted a so-called gag rule. It was a procedure by which antislavery petitions were automatically tabled when they were received so that they could not become the subject of debate.
  • The Alamo

    The Alamo
    The Mexican government wanted to encourage migration so it offered sizable land grants both to its own citizens and to American emigrants. When Mexico adopted a new constitution the Americans split into two groups, the "war party," and the "peace party." Fearing central control, the war party provoked a rebellion. To put down the rebellion, Mexico's president led an army that wiped out the Texan Garrison defending the Alamo. This defeat was used as propaganda against Mexicans.
  • Panic of 1837

    Panic of 1837
    When the Bank of England tried to boost the faltering British economy by sharply curtailing the flow of money and credit to the United States, it caused the Panic of 1837. The collapse of credit led to depression and became the second economic crisis in the United States. To stimulate the economy, state governments increased their investments in canals and railroads. However, they were unable to pay the interest charges, striking a severe financial crisis on both sides of the Atlantic.
  • Trail of Tears

    Trail of Tears
    President Martin Van Buren ordered General Winfield Scott to enforce the Treaty of New Echota. Scott's army rounded up 14,000 Cherokees and marched them 1,200 miles on a journey that became known as the Trail of Tears. On the way, 3,00 Indians died of exposure and starvation.
  • The Oregon Trail

    The Oregon Trail
    In 1842, American interest in Oregon increased dramatically. The U.S. Navy published a glowing report of fine harbors in the Puget Sound. "Oregon Fever" suddenly raged. By 1860, about 250,000 Americans had braved the Oregon Trail or its alternates. More than 34,000 migrants died, mostly from disease and exposure; fewer than five hundred deaths resulted from Indian attacks. The 10,00 migrants who made it to Oregon in the 1840s mostly settled in the Willamette Valley.
  • The Election of 1844

    The Election of 1844
    Since 1836, southern leaders had supported the annexation of Texas, but cautious party politicians pressured northerners who opposed the expansion of slavery, had rebuffed them. Tyler and John C. Calhoun sent the Senate a treaty to bring Texas into the Union. Expansion into Texas became the central issue in the Election of 1844. The Whigs nominated Henry Clay, who again advocated his American system of high tariffs, internal improvements, and national banking. Polk won the election.
  • Manifest Destiny

    Manifest Destiny
    As expansionists developed continental ambitions, the term Manifest Destiny captured those dreams. The term was used to express the idea that Euro-Americans were fated by God to settle the North American continent from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. Underlying the rhetoric of Manifest Destiny was a sense of Anglo-American cultural and racial superiority: the "inferior" peoples who lived in the Far West, would be subjected to American dominion, taught republicanism, and converted.
  • Wilmot Proviso

    Wilmot Proviso
    The Wilmot Proviso is the 1846 proposal by Representative David Wilmot of Pennsylvania to ban slavery in territory acquired from the U.S. Mexico territory.
  • Seneca Falls Convention

    Seneca Falls Convention
    Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott organized a gathering of women's rights activists in the small New York town of Seneca Falls. Seventy women and thirty men attended the Seneca Falls Convention, which issued a rousing manifesto extending to women the egalitarian republican ideology of the Declaration of Independence. It was the first women's rights convention in the United States. The Declaration called for women's higher education, property rights, access to professions, etc.
  • Free Soil Movement

    Free Soil Movement
    The Free Soil Movement was a political movement that opposed the expansion of slavery. In 1848, the free soilers organized the Free Soil Party, which depicted slavery as a threat to republicanism and to the Jeffersonian ideal of a freeholder society, arguments that won broad support among aspiring white farmers.
  • Foreign Miner's Tax

    Foreign Miner's Tax
    A discriminatory tax, adopted in 1850 in California Territory, forced Chinese and Latin American immigrant miners to pay high taxes for the right to prospect for gold. It effectively drove those miners from the field.
  • The Fugitive Slave Act of 1850

    The Fugitive Slave Act of 1850
    The Fugitive Slave act was a federal law that set up special federal courts to facilitate the capture of anyone accused of being a runaway slave. These courts could consider a slaveowner's sworn affidavit as proof, but defendants could not testify or receive a jury trial. This controversial law led to armed conflict between U.S. marshals and abolitionists.
  • Comstock Lode

    Comstock Lode
    In the late 1850s, as easy pickings in the California gold rush diminished, prospectors scattered in hopes of finding riches elsewhere. A vein of silver ore was discovered in Nevada's Comstock Lode, leading to one of the West's most important mining booms. It was so rich that a confederate expedition tried unsuccessfully to capture it during the Civil War.
  • Sand Creek Massacre

    Sand Creek Massacre
    The Sand Creek Massacre was the brutal slaughter of more than a hundred peaceful Cheyennes, mostly women, and children. This Massacre caused great anger and the plains exploded in conflict.
  • Emancipation Proclamation

    Emancipation Proclamation
    The Emancipation Proclamation was President Abraham Lincoln's proclamation that legally abolished slavery in all states that remained out of the Union. While the Emancipation Proclamation did not immediately save a single slave, it signaled an end to the institution of slavery.
  • Gettysburg Address

    Gettysburg Address
    Gettysburg was a tremendous Union victory and with the simultaneous triumph at Vicksburg, marked a military and political turning point. The Gettysburg address was Abraham Lincoln's speech dedicating a national cemetery at the Gettysburg battlefield. Lincoln declared the nation's founding ideal to be that "all men are created equal. "
  • Black Codes

    Black Codes
    Black codes were laws that were passed by southern states after the Civil War that denied ex-slaves the civil rights enjoyed by whites, punished vague crimes such as "vagrancy" or failing to have a labor contract, and tried to force African Americans back to plantation labor systems that closely mirrored those in slavery times. They imposed severe penalties on blacks who did not hold full-year labor contracts.
  • Fifteenth Amendment

    Fifteenth Amendment
    Following their victory, Republicans produced the era's last constitutional amendment, the Fifteenth. This protected male citizens' right to vote irrespective of race, color, or "previous condition of servitude." A year later the amendment became law. This was an astonishing feat.
  • Gold Standard

    Gold Standard
    U.S. and European governments sought new ways to make their economies orderly and stable. Great Britain had long held to the gold standard, which meant the paper notes from the bank of England could be backed by gold held in the bank's vault.
  • Munn v. Illinois

    Munn v. Illinois
    While fostering growth, Republicans did not give the government enough regulatory power over new corporations. In Munn v. Illinois, the Supreme Court affirmed that states could regulate key businesses such as railroads and grain elevators. The Justices feared that too many state and local regulations would impede business and fragment the national marketplace.
  • Exodusters

    For some African Americans, the plains represented a promised land of freedom. A group of black communities left Mississippi and Louisiana in a quest to escape poverty and white violence. They called themselves exodusters, participants in the great exodus to Kansas. They were searching for peace and prosperity. The 1800 census reported 40,000 blacks there, by far the largest African American concentrtion in the West aside from Texas.
  • Election of 1884

    Election of 1884
    Democrat Grover Cleveland defeated Republican James G. Blaine. Cleveland was the leader of the pro-business Bourbon Democrats who opposed high tariffs, free silver, inflation, imperialism, and subsidies to businesses, farmers, or veterans. He soon became an icon for American conservatives because of his crusades.
  • Interstate Commerce Act

    Interstate Commerce Act
    The Interstate Commerce Act was designed to regulate the railroad industry and its monopolistic practices. The act required that its railroad rates be "reasonable and just," but did not empower the government to fix specific rates. Because of this act, Congress could now apply the Commerce Clause more expansively to national issues if they involved commerce across state lines.
  • Panic of 1893

    Panic of 1893
    The Panic of 1893 was the result of a nationwide economic crisis. It was triggered after the collapse of the 2 largest employers in the U.S. More than 11,000 farmers went into foreclosure, as businesses filed for bankruptcy and the economy took a downfall. In response to the panic, Congress repealed the Sherman Silver Purchase Act, declining the value of silver/gold. This would allow citizens to stabilize themselves financially.
  • Anti-Saloon League

    Anti-Saloon League
    At the urging of the Anti-Saloon League, Congress passed the Watts Act in 1903. This law prohibited the manufacture and sale of liquor except in incorporated towns. In 1907 the Anti-Saloon League launched a successful campaign for statewide prohibition.
  • Atlanta Compromise

    Atlanta Compromise
    The Atlanta Compromise was delivered by Booker T. Washington. It induced his ideals of civil rights. He asked audiences to trust African-Americans and to provide them with opportunities so that both races could succeed economically. He entailed his strategy of achieving racial equality throughout the nation.
  • Plessy v. Ferguson

    Plessy v. Ferguson
    After an 1892 incident in which an African-American train passenger ( Homer Plessy ) refused to sit in a car for Blacks, the controversial case went to court. He claimed that his constitutional rights were violated, and the Supreme Court rejected him. A Louisiana law was passed to "provide separate railway carriages for the white and colored races." Plessy v. Ferguson has been significant in establishing racial segregation for future
  • "Cross of Gold" Speech

    "Cross of Gold" Speech
    The United States was going through a time of great economic stress, with inflation and economic crashes. William Jennings Bryan delivered his Cross of Gold speech supporting "free silver" which he believed would bring the nation prosperity. He ended the speech with his famous line, "You shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold."
  • The Rough Riders

    The Rough Riders
    The most famous of all the units fighting in Cuba, the "Rough Riders" was the name given to the First U.S. Volunteer Cavalry under the leadership of Theodore Roosevelt. Roosevelt resigned his position as Assistant Secretary of the Navy in May 1898 to join the volunteer cavalry. He led the Rough Riders to battle and infamously won San Juan Hill. This made Theodore Roosevelt a legend.
  • Spanish-American War

    Spanish-American War
    The U.S. anchored the navy battleship, Maine, in Havana Harbor to protect the U.S. citizens and economic interests in Cuba. While peacefully anchored, Maine exploded killing 260 American soldiers. The Navy deployed ships to engage Spain in Cuba, and the Philippines. The U.S. Navy destroyed the Spanish fleet. 24,000 Spanish soldiers surrendered on July 17th.
  • The De Lome Letter

    The De Lome Letter
    In February 1898 government officials received a stolen letter sent by a Spanish minister in Washington. The letter mocked Pres. Mckinley, and admitted that Spain had no intention of honoring a deal with the U.S. Because of this, and many other factors, Mckinley asked Congress for a $50 million appropriation to "prepare for war." These events led to the Spanish-American War.
  • Open Door Policy

    Open Door Policy
    The Open Door policy was a statement of principles created by the United States in 1899 and 1900. It called for the protection of equal privileges for all countries trading with China and for the support of Chinese territorial and administrative integrity.
  • The Square Deal

    The Square Deal
    Theodore Roosevelt's 1904 campaign platform, called for the regulation of corporations and the protection of consumers and the environment. The Square deal reflected three main goals, conservation of natural resources, control of corporations, and consumer protection. This was impactful because it brought more governmental involvement in conservation, business regulations, and consumer protection.
  • Pure Food and Drug Act

    Pure Food and Drug Act
    Introduced by Congress, the act was pushed to regulate food and drugs, prohibiting misbranded or contaminated products. It was the basis of the nation's first consumer protection agency, the FDA. Not only would this improve medical care, but ensured a sense of trust within society, where one can guarantee that their products are safe and reliable. To this day, the FDA continues to strive for the protection of public health, allowing the nation to prosper in such a way.
  • Meat Inspection Act 1906

    Meat Inspection Act 1906
    After Pres. Theodore Roosevelt read Upton Sinclair's, "The Jungle," he was horrified by what he heard about the meat packing industry. The Meat Inspection Act of 1906 was a piece of U.S. legislation, signed by President Theodore Roosevelt that prohibited the sale of adulterated or misbranded livestock and derived products as food and ensured sanitary slaughtering and processing of livestock.
  • Invention of the Model T

    Invention of the Model T
    Introduced by Henry Ford, the Model T was one of the earliest efforts to invent a car that would be affordable to many. It transformed the American lifestyle, as cars were previously viewed as a symbol of luxury, one that only the wealthy could indulge in. Model T established the middle class, while simultaneously reshaping the nation's physical landscapes with a touch of suburban sprawls. It served as a precedent for future car models that would be heavily incorporated into the working culture.
  • The 16th Amendment

    The 16th Amendment
    The sixteenth amendment was created to remedy the inability to levy taxes. It stated that Congress shall have the power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several States, and without regard to any census or enumeration.

    With a goal to remove all barriers of racial discrimination, the NAACP played a major contribution to the Civil Rights movement. By integrating itself into democratic movements and challenging the federal government, the NAACP has worked to ensure political/educational/social/economic equality for all citizens of the U.S.
  • Triangle Shirtwaist Fire

    Triangle Shirtwaist Fire
    A devastating fire at the Triangle Shirtwaist Company in New York City on March 25, 1911, killed 146 people, mostly young immigrant women. It was later revealed that, despite safety laws, the employers had locked the emergency doors to prevent theft. This tragedy prompted the passage of state laws to increase workplace safety and regulate working hours for women and children. This was the most advanced labor code in the U.S. This was significant because Tammany acknowledged its need for help.
  • Election of 1912

    Election of 1912
    The 1912 election registered and inspired, fundamental changes in American politics suggesting the historical significance of the Progressive Party. This election also introduced a conflict between the Progressive and Populist party, because while they had a lot in common, they disagreed on their faith. This election also introduced New Nationalism.
  • Federal Reserve Act

    Federal Reserve Act
    Federal Reserve Act established the Federal Reserve System as the central bank of the United States to provide the nation with a safer, more flexible, and more stable monetary and financial system. The law sets out the purposes, structure, and functions of the System as well as outlines aspects of its operations and accountability.
  • Wilson's 14 Points

    Wilson's 14 Points
    In a proposal that was conducted by President Woodrow Wilson, he outlined his envisions for ending World War I, along with preventative methods that would maintain peace amongst foreign nations. Though the impact was not always successful, it highlights Wilson's sense of empathy, as he strived to negotiate with every nation in times of conflict.
  • The 19th Amendment

    The 19th Amendment
    This amendment guaranteed women's right to vote. It marked one stage in the long fight toward political equality. It raised public awareness of gender inequality in the U.S., and how society has vocalized their opinions to fight for change. Even to this day, protests are still rampant and have pushed to influence public/government opinion, undertaking direct actions.
  • Invention of the Television

    Invention of the Television
    Pent-up demand for consumer goods brought about WW2 shortages. This success was immense for the American entertainment industry. Families began watching presidential debates. TV connected families and friends together now that they could tune in to similar programs. It allows consumers to keep in touch with the world and social issues that would leave an impact on the history and present.
  • Neutrality Act of 1935

    Neutrality Act of 1935
    Congress passed three "Neutrality Acts" that tried to keep the United States out of war, by making it illegal for Americans to sell or transport arms, or other war materials to belligerent nations. These acts contributed to the strengthening of peace and security in relevant regions and at the global level and play an important role in developing peaceful, friendly, and mutually beneficial relations between the countries of the world.
  • Munich Conference

    Munich Conference
    Germany, Italy, Great Britain, and France sign the Munich Agreement, by which Czechoslovakia must surrender its border regions and defenses (the so-called Sudeten region) to Nazi Germany. The agreement averted the outbreak of war but gave Czechoslovakia away to German conquest.
  • House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC)

    House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC)
    During the Cold War, many people in America feared the infultration of Russians. HUAC was created in 1938 to investigate alleged disloyalty and rebel activities on the part of private citizens, public employees, and organizations suspected of having Communist ties. Citizens suspected of having ties to the communist party would be tried in a court of law. This was a horrible violation of people's civil rights and a gross disregard for people's freedoms,' one of which being freedom of religion.
  • America First Committee

    America First Committee
    The America First Committee was the foremost United States isolationist pressure group against American entry into World War II. It surpassed 800,000 members in 450 chapters at its peak. They launched a petition aimed at enforcing the Neutrality Act and forcing FDR to keep his pledge to keep America out of the war. The committee distrusted Roosevelt and argued that he was lying to the American people.
  • Atlantic Charter

    Atlantic Charter
    The Atlantic Charter was a statement issued on 14 August 1941 that set out American and British goals for the world after the end of World War II. One point they had was a nation's right to choose its own government, the easing of trade restrictions, and a plea for postwar disarmament. The document is considered one of the first key steps toward the establishment of the United Nations in 1945.
  • Pear Harbor

    Pear Harbor
    America was staying true to its neutrality and not involving itself in the War. The attack on Pearl Harbor was a surprise military strike by the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service upon the United States against the U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor in Honolulu, Hawaii. The attack signaled the official entry of the US into hostilities, which eventually led to the dropping of nuclear bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
  • Executive Order 8802

    Executive Order 8802
    Executive Order 8802 was signed by President Franklin D. Roosevelt. It prohibits ethnic or racial discrimination in the nation's defense industry. It also set up the Fair Employment Practice Committee. It was the first federal action, though not a law, to promote equal opportunity and prohibit employment discrimination in the United States.
  • Manhattan Project

    Manhattan Project
    The Manhattan Project was a research and development undertaking during World War II that produced the first nuclear weapons. The advent of nuclear weapons not only helped bring an end to the Second World War but ushered in the atomic age and determined how the next war, the Cold War, would be fought.
  • The World Bank

    The World Bank
    A specialized agency of the United Nations that makes loans to countries for economic development, trade promotion, and debt consolidation. Its formal name is the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development. It helped rebuild Europe and Japan after World War II.
  • D-Day

    D-Day brought together the land, air, and sea forces of the Allied armies in what became known as the largest invasion force in human history. It was the start of Allied operations that would ultimately liberate Western Europe, defeat Nazi Germany, and end the Second World War. It led to the liberation of France, denying Germany any further exploitation of that country's economic and manpower resources.
  • Yalta Conference

    Yalta Conference
    At the Yalta conference, Roosevelt and Churchill discussed with Stalin the conditions under which the Soviet Union would enter the war against Japan. Stalin agreed that France would have a fourth occupation zone in Germany if it was formed from the American and British zones. They also agreed that Germany would undergo demilitarization and denazification.
  • Taft-Hartley Act

    Taft-Hartley Act
    The Taft-Hartley Act restricts the activities and power of labor unions. It prohibited secondary boycotts, making it unlawful for a union that has a primary dispute with one employer to pressure a neutral employer to stop doing business with the first employer.
  • Executive Order 9066

    Executive Order 9066
    Executive Order 9066 was a United States presidential executive order signed and issued during World War II by United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt. This authorized the forced removal of all persons deemed a threat to national security from the West Coast to "relocation centers" further inland. This resulted in the incarceration of Japanese Americans.
  • Truman Doctrine

    Truman Doctrine
    The Truman Doctrine was an American foreign policy that pledges American "support for democracies against authoritarian threats." This provided a legitimate basis for the United States activism during the Cold War. Applying the doctrine of containment, the U.S. was able to stop the spread of Communism in countries like Turkey that were facing Soviet claims over Naval bases.
  • G.I. Bill of Rights

    G.I. Bill of Rights
    Signed by President Roosevelt, the bill provided services and benefits to returning veterans from World War II. By establishing hospitals, low-interest mortgages, and covering tuition expenses, they were guaranteed a post-secondary education after being drafted for years. It allowed veterans to "restart" their life, along with an appreciation of gratitude for their service.
  • Marshall Plan

    Marshall Plan
    The Marshall Plan provided markets for American goods, created reliable trading partners, and supported the development of stable democratic governments in Western Europe. This was crucial to making sure European countries didn't fall into the hands of communism.
  • North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)

    North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
    Most notable as the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, it consists of the U.S., Canada, and multiple European nations to provide collective security against the Soviet Union. NATO was the first peacetime military alliance that the U.S. entered outside of the Western Hemisphere, setting a new record for the nation. The organization has been significant in maintaining peace, especially with the recent Russia-Ukraine conflict, yet tensions continue to rise.
  • Brown v Board of Education

    Brown v Board of Education
    Known as a national landmark Supreme Court case, in which justices ruled unanimously that racial discrimination of children in public schools was unconstitutional. It was one of the major milestones of the Civil Rights movement and established the official sense that "separate but equal" was in fact, not equal at all. Overtime, the case was able to challenge society on how segregation had deprived minority children of proper education, sparking revolts across the nation.
  • Montgomery Bus Boycott

    Montgomery Bus Boycott
    The Montgomery bus boycott was a political and social protest campaign against the policy of racial segregation in the public transit system of Montgomery, Alabama. It resulted in the Supreme Court ruled segregation on public buses was unconstitutional. A significant play towards civil rights and transit equity, the Montgomery Bus Boycott helped eliminate early barriers to transportation access.
  • National Interstate and Defense Highway Act

    National Interstate and Defense Highway Act
    Signed by Dwight D. Eisenhower, the interstate system has been integrated into American culture as renovations for construction projects, while serving as the growth of transportation routes. It was notable as one of the safest road networks in the world, eliminating congested traffic jams and providing an efficient route for the military in the case of a nuclear attack during the Cold War.
  • Eisenhower Doctrine

    Eisenhower Doctrine
    This doctrine stated a country could request American economic assistance and/or aid from U.S. military forces if it was being threatened by armed aggression from another state. This was directly related to the Soviet Union trying to spread communism in weakened European countries.
  • Bays of Pigs

    Bays of Pigs
    The Bay of Pigs Invasion was a failed military landing operation on the southwestern coast of Cuba in 1961 by Cuban exiles, covertly financed and directed by the United States. It was aimed at overthrowing Fidel Castro's communist government. The failure instead strengthened the position of Castro's administration.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis

    Cuban Missile Crisis
    A 35-day confrontation between the U.S. and Soviet Union, where both engaged in a tense standoff by installing nuclear-armed missiles in Cuba, only mere miles away from the U.S. shores. It nearly brought the world to the brink of a nuclear war, though leaders John F. Kennedy and Nikita Khrushchev were able to peacefully negotiate an outcome to the conflict. The crisis spread dangerous fears, but it was good for President Kennedy, as he was praised for his good statesmanship and quality stance.
  • March on Washington

    March on Washington
    The purpose of the March on Washington was to advocate for the civil and economic rights of African Americans. Martin Luther King Jr., Civil Rights leader, gave his infamous "I Have a Dream Speech, which altered the course of history. It was successful in pressuring the administration of John F. Kennedy to initiate a strong federal civil rights bill in Congress.
  • Voting Rights Act 1965

    Voting Rights Act 1965
    The Voting Rights Act of 1965 aimed to overcome legal barriers at the state and local levels that prevented African Americans from exercising their right to vote as guaranteed under the 15th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. It had a massive impact with a quarter of a million new Black voters becoming registered, one-third by federal examiners.
  • War Powers Act

    War Powers Act
    The War Powers Act was created to check the U.S. president's power to commit the United States to an armed conflict without the consent of the U.S. Congress. It prevents the president from continuing hostilities undertaken in emergency or exigent circumstances without seeking and obtaining Congressional approval within certain time periods.
  • Warsaw Pact

    Warsaw Pact
    The Warsaw Pact was a collective defense treaty established by the Soviet Union and seven other Soviet satellite states in Central and Eastern Europe. It provided for a unified military command and the systematic ability to strengthen the Soviet hold over the other participating countries.