APUSH Timeline Final

  • Establishment of Jamestown, Virginia

    Establishment of Jamestown, Virginia
    Arriving in 1607 as a business to make money, Jamestown would become the first permanent English settlement in North America. The first 5-6 years, known as the starving time, would be a struggle for all settlers, with most dying of disease or starvation until the discovery of the cash crop tobacco and help from Natives. Jamestown would also establish a permanent colonial presence that would grow to make the English the dominant colonial power in North America.
  • Headright System

    Headright System
    With the emergence of the cash crop tobacco, an ample supply of laborers was needed. The English also wanted to encourage immigration to North America. The provision stated any settler already residing was granted 100 acres, new settlers who paid their own way would be granted 50 acres of land, and anyone who paid for the passage of others would be granted an additional 50 acres. The Headright system would help swell the population in North America and establish the indentured servant system.
  • Pilgrims & Puritans settle in the colonies

    Pilgrims & Puritans settle in the colonies
    Both the Pilgrims & Puritans came to North America for religious freedom and settled in Massachusetts, but had different intentions. The Pilgrims, also known as the separatist, arrived in 1620 looking for a fresh start from the Church of England, while the Puritans arrived in 1630 wanting to reform the Church without the corruption they had in England. Both groups placed heavy emphasis on education and religion and laid the foundation for both in North America.
  • Bacon’s Rebellion

    Bacon’s Rebellion
    Before the rebellion, there was a lack of retaliatory action towards Native American attacks on western lands and unfair and excessive taxation policies that favored the wealthy. Provoked Virginian settlers, both black & white, formed an armed rebellion led by Nathanial Bacon. Eventually, the force from authorities and the death of Nathanial Bacon would cause the rebellion to die out. Bacon's rebellion was seen as the first sense of revolution and impacted colonies economically and racially.
  • Sinners in the Hand of An Angry God

    Sinners in the Hand of An Angry God
    Johnathan Edward, a famous emotionally provoking preacher, wrote the prominent sermon "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God." This sermon was a catalyst for the period of The Great Awakening, which would cause a deep religious awakening to flourish in the colonies. The Great Awakening would encourage ideas of equality and the right to challenge authority, it would also cause the creation of more churches to accommodate new members and colleges to train ministers.
  • The Enlightenment

    The Enlightenment
    The Enlightenment was a movement that took place in the 1700s that rejected traditional ways and took a more rational and scientific perspective. Starting in England and soon immigrating to the colonies, the practice of questioning the government would flourish. Ideas from John Locke, Voltaire, Rousseau, and Montesquieu we would later see implemented into the American Government. There would be surges in literacy and literary publications increased new theologies, and schools being built.
  • French and Indian War

    French and Indian War
    The French and Indian War was a seven-year-long fight, which gives it the name the Seven Years' war, between the French and the British, supported by the Colonists. Both sides of the war were supported by various Native American nations. The French would eventually lose which would cause the French presence in North America to become little to nothing. From the French and Indian war we'd get Franklin's attempt to unite the colonies, The Albany Plan, and the Proclamation of 1763.
  • The Albany Plan

    The Albany Plan
    During the French and Indian War, representatives from seven colonies met with Iroquois chiefs in hopes of forming an alliance against the French. Benjamin Franklin knew the plan would fail from the beginning, but had taken the opportunity to propose another plan: the colonies should unite against the French. Eventually failing, Franklin's Albany Plan would spark the idea of unity among the colonies and play a key role in American independence.
  • Proclamation of 1763

    Proclamation of 1763
    Winning the French and Indian War, the British took the Ohio River Valley but passed a proclamation that banned settlement past the Appalachian Mountains. This aggravated many colonists who had hoped to migrate and farm the cheap and fertile land. Many colonists headed westward toward the Ohio River Valley anyways, risking conflicts with the Native Americans. The Proclamation would overall cause more tension between the colonists and British government.
  • Sons of Liberty Founded

    Sons of Liberty Founded
    The Sons of Liberty were a loosely organized group of political activists who supported the independence of the colonies. Among the members were many well-known patriots, such as Samuel Adams, John Hancock, and Paul Revere. Their actions helped lead the colonies into the American Revolution and set a sense of patriotism throughout the colonies.
  • The Sugar Act

    The Sugar Act
    Hoping to pay off war debts, George Greenville passed the Sugar Act. Even while the Sugar Act cut back the tariffs placed by the Molasses Act, colonists still ignored it. Many argued that they shouldn't pay taxes till they had representation in British Government, an idea that was highly despised by the British. The Sugar Act also was seen as the end of the Salutory Neglect the British government showed towards the colonists, which the colonist did not like the government's sudden intervention.
  • Boston Massacre

    Boston Massacre
    After protests all over the colonies about the Townshend Acts, British troops were sent to the colonies. In Boston, British troops were guarding a custom house while a mob of townspeople slowly became more violent. Nine British soldiers eventually fired into a crowd of townspeople, killing five of them, unlike in the painting of the Boston Massacre by Paul Revere, which provoked colonists into thinking it was even worse. The Boston Massacre and trial would instill more animosity in the colonist.
  • Boston Tea Party

    Boston Tea Party
    In 1773, Parliament passed the Tea Act, which lowered taxes on East India Company Tea, which some patriotic colonists saw as disrespectful. Members of the Sons of Liberty boarded three ships dressed up as Native Americans and through tea overboard. The amount of tea thrown overboard was equivalent to $1.8 million in tax, which outraged the British government and showed them that Americans wouldn't take their taxation and tyranny.
  • The Coercive Acts of 1774

    The Coercive Acts of 1774
    After the relentless conflict with the colonies, the British government passed the Coercive Acts of 1774. These Acts closed ports in Boston, stopped any assembly, enforced the Quartering Act, trade & commerce were regulated, and high taxes were enacted. These laws were also known as the Intolerable Acts because they made it almost impossible to live a comfortable life in the colonies. The Coercive Act would lead to the First Continental Congress and seemed to be the last straw for both sides.
  • The First Continental Congress

    The First Continental Congress
    As a response to the Coercive Acts, Delegates from all colonies, except Georgia, met in Philadelphia to agree on a response. The radicals wanted to declare war and fight for independence, on the other hand, conservatives wanted to try reconciliation. Reconciliation won and they sent the British the Olive Branch Petition asking for representation, which the British Government would deny.
  • The Battle of Lexington and Concord

    The Battle of Lexington and Concord
    Patriots had started to build up armories in case war against the British became true, and the British saw this as a threat. British troops planned to seize an armory in Concord, but Paul Revere and others received information. 77 minutemen assembled on the Lexington town green against 700 Redcoats. The tensions were high and it's unknown which side fired the "shot heard around the world", but this battle marks the beginning of the Revolutionary War.
  • The Declaration of Independence

    The Declaration of Independence
    Adopted on July 4, 1776, the Declaration of Independence announced the United States independence from the British. The Document was mainly drawn up mainly by Thomas Jefferson and emphasized a range of enlightenment ideas, such as freedom of equality, natural rights, and popular sovereignty. The Declaration made it so the Colonies could unify together and depart from Britain instead of each individually having to fight for their freedom or make peace agreements.
  • The Battle of Saratoga

    The Battle of Saratoga
    British General John Burgoyne was part of a three-pronged campaign to cut off New England. They scored some victories at first by attacking quickly, but then their pace slowed as Burgoyne had them stop to pitch tents and eat a fancy dinner. American Patriots from several neighboring states engaged in a guerrilla attack against Burgoyne and his soldiers. The victory at Saratoga was critical in securing financial support, alliances, and reinforcements from other countries.
  • Treaty of Amity and Commerce and Treaty of Alliance

    Treaty of Amity and Commerce and Treaty of Alliance
    Since the beginning of the war, US diplomats, most noticeably Benjamin Franklin, had been working on securing an alliance with France. France wanted revenge on the British and was a natural enemy, but they had little confidence that the US would win this war. The Battle of Saratoga finally gave the US what they needed to persuade France to sign an alliance. With the alliance, the US was supported by the French Navy, and French troops, and had the support of French Generals.
  • The Ratification of the Articles of confederation

    The Ratification of the Articles of confederation
    A relentless battle between Federalists, who supported ratification, and ant-Federalists, who opposed it, ensued. The anti-Federalists feared the government would be corrupt. They were eventually placated by the Bill of Rights, which established a list of protections for every citizen. It passed in a close vote, 187 to 168, but most Americans were willing to give it a chance. It created an ideal balance between the federal government and state government, and it governs the country today.
  • The Battle of Yorktown

    The Battle of Yorktown
    General Cornwallis was considered one of the top British Generals and strategists. Cornwallis had purposefully retreated his troops into the city of Yorktown, hoping to weaken Washington's troops throughout the winter season. Unknown to him, the British Navy had been defeated and replaced with the French Navy. Surrounded on both sides, General Cornwallis surrendered disrespectfully. The victory at Yorktown marked the last major battle of the Revolutionary War and effectively ended the war.
  • The Treaty of Paris

    The Treaty of Paris
    Signed on September 3, 1783, between the American colonies and Great Britain, the Treaty of Paris ended the American Revolution and formally recognized the United States as an independent nation.
  • Shay’s Rebellion

    Shay’s Rebellion
    Shay's Rebellion was a series of armed protests that took place in 1786 by farmers in Massachusetts against repressive taxes and debt collection. Led by Daniel Shay, the rebellion would expose the flaws of the government & the Articles of Confederation, forcing a calling to strengthen the federal government so future uprisings could be stopped. The call to strengthen and reform the Articles of Confederation eventually led to the Philadelphia Convention of 1787, which produced the Constitution.
  • 3/5th Compromise

    3/5th Compromise
    Between May and September, representatives of 12 states met in Philadelphia to revise the Articles of Confederation, which proved inadequate to meet the challenges facing the young nation. The 3/5th compromise would also come out of this convention. It noted that enslaved men and women were represented in the House with a ratio of 3:5 of their actual numbers, which would allow southern states to have more influence in elections.
  • The Northwest Ordinance

    The Northwest Ordinance
    The Northwest Ordinance, also known as the Ordinance of 1787, established a government for the Northwest Territory, outlined the process for admitting a new state to the Union, and guaranteed that newly created states would be equal to the original thirteen states. It also aimed to slowly abolish slavery and involuntary servitude by banning it in the territories.
  • Connecticut Compromise

    Connecticut Compromise
    The Connecticut Compromise was created to create a balance between larger states which felt they should get representation according to size, and smaller states, which believed they should get equal presentation. The Compromise would create a bicameral legislature, with representation in the House of Representatives according to population and in the Senate by equal numbers for each state.
  • The Creation of the Constitution

    The Creation of the Constitution
    The Cheif aim for the Constitution was to give the government enough power on a national level without taking away from the natural rights of people and states. Of the 55 delegates who attended the Constitutional Convention in 1787, 39 would sign. The Constitution would create a set of checks and balances, protect the fundamental rights of Americans with amendments, and was created to be a living document that could be adjusted.
  • Washington’s Inauguration

    Washington’s Inauguration
    George Washington was unanimously be elected president of the United States in the first presidential election. With 69 electoral votes, Washington won the support of each participating elector. He was inaugurated into the presidential office on April 30, 1789. As president, Washington would establish presidential precedents that are still in practice today.
  • Proclamation of Neutrality

    Proclamation of Neutrality
    As the conflict spread in Europe, President Washington issued the Proclamation of Neutrality. The conflict was controversial, and many of Washington's members believed the US military was too young and small to risk any engagement. Along with that, the proclamation would dispute the Treaty of Alliance between the US and France and spark debate over foreign policy.
  • Alien and Sedition Acts

    Alien and Sedition Acts
    A set of four laws, collectively known as the Alien and Sedition Acts, passed Congress in 1798 and were signed into law by President John Adams. These laws included new powers to expel foreigners, making it harder for immigrants to vote. It also restricted freedom of speech and freedom of the press. The Sedition Act targeted anyone who spoke out directly against Adams or any federally controlled government.
  • Louisiana Purchase

    Louisiana Purchase
    Jefferson worried that, at any moment, the US could lose control of New Orleans and access to the Mississippi River. In 1803, Jefferson sent James Monroe to negotiate the purchase of New Orleans for $3 million with Napoleonic France. Napoleon, in need of money, wanted Jefferson to purchase to whole Louisiana territory. This purchase went against Jefferson's strong constitutionalist belief, but he put that aside and made a purchase that doubled the size of the country for 4 cents an acre.
  • The Battle of New Orleans

    The Battle of New Orleans
    The Treaty of Ghent effectively ended the war of 1812. The news was slow to arrive, and the two sides met in one of the conflict's biggest and most important confrontations. Jackson's troops withstood a frontal attack by superior British forces by hiding in earthworks and cannons. The victory brought Jackson national prominence because many people believed it was Jackson's victory that ended the war.
  • The Missouri Compromise

    The Missouri Compromise
    In order to keep a balance of power between slave states and free states, Henry Clay created the Missouri Compromise. The Compromise admitted Missouri as a slave state, and Maine as a free state, and outlawed slavery above the 36º 30' latitude line in the Louisiana Territory. The Missouri Compromise could be seen as the beginning of the prolonged conflict between free states and slave states.
  • The Monroe Doctrine

    The Monroe Doctrine
    The Monroe Doctrine was issued after fear that European Nations would colonize territories in the Americas and encroach on the US. President James Monroe essentially proclaimed the US as the protector of the Western Hemisphere. In return, Monroe committed to not interfere in European affairs, conflicts, and extant colonial enterprises of European states. This would cause the US to not interfere with European conflict and stop any European colonization of the Western Hemisphere.
  • The Indian Removal Act

    The Indian Removal Act
    President Andrew Jackson signed the Indian Removal Act, which authorized the president to grant lands west of the Mississippi River in exchange for Indian lands within existing state boundaries. Some tribes progressed peacefully, but many opposed the resettlement policy. The Trail of Tears was a treacherous indigenous journey where more than 4,000 people died from disease, starvation, and extreme weather conditions.
  • The Nullification Crisis

    The Nullification Crisis
    In the November of 1832, South Carolina adopted the Ordinance of Nullification, which declared the tariffs of 1828 null and void within the state. In response, Andrew Jackson would issue a proclamation that took away the state's right to nullify a federal and would threaten to use military force to collect tariffs and enforce the law. This high-tension situation between state and federal authority would be the first in American History that almost led to civil war.
  • The Battle the Alamo

    The Battle the Alamo
    Although outnumbered, the 200 defenders of the Alamo and famous frontiersman Davy Crockett resisted for 13 days before finally being defeated by Mexican troops. The Battle of the Alamo became a prevailing symbol for Texans of their resistance and their struggle for independence, which they soon won. The battle cry "Remember the Alamo" became popular in the following years and caused many Americans to back the Republic of Texas.
  • The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

    The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
    The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ended the war between the United States and Mexico. Its terms stated that Mexico ceded 55 percent of its territory to the United States, including parts of present-day Arizona, California, New Mexico, Texas, Colorado, Nevada, and Utah. The US would also be allowed to choose the border between the US and Mexico. This treaty would officially make the US a bi-coastal nation and bring fierce debates about whether the new land would be slave states or free states.
  • The Compromise of 1850

    The Compromise of 1850
    Created by Henry Clay, the Compromise of 1850 consisted of five separate bills passed by the United States Congress that defused a political confrontation between slave states and free states on the status of territories acquired in the Mexican–American War. California would be emitted as a free state, fugitive slave laws were created, and the practice of slavery, besides what already consisted there, was banned D.C.
  • Election of 1860

    Election of 1860
    The election of 1860 showed us the strong divisions before the civil war and Lincoln's victory would soon lead to the start of it. The outcome of the 1860 presidential election gave Abraham Lincoln a victory in both the popular vote and the electrical vote. It's arguable that without Lincoln's victory in the 1860 election, the Union would've failed to reunite the country and abolish slavery nationwide.
  • The Homestead Act

    The Homestead Act
    With a rise in population and immigration to the US, eastern cities were being flooded. Migrants were moving westward, but not enough to make a presence and make the west profitable. To provoke movement, Lincoln passed the Homestead Act. The Homestead Act would give 100 acres of land with a few conditions: You must live on the land, Farm the land for five years, and improve the land. This would cause rapid western growth and create national parks, but also large conflict with Native Americans.
  • The Emancipation Proclamation

    The Emancipation Proclamation
    Towards the third year of the Civil War, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation which stated "that all persons held as slaves" within the rebellious states "are, and henceforward shall be free." The Emancipation Proclamation was important because it led to the 13th Amendment to the Constitution, and would shift the motive of the war from just reuniting the country to also abolishing slavery.
  • The Battle of Vicksburg

    The Battle of Vicksburg
    The Battle of Vicksburg was a decisive Union victory led by Union General Ulysses S. Grant during the American Civil War. The win would split the Confederacy into two groups, and give the Union control of the Mississippi River, a critical supply line, and was part of the Union's Anaconda Plan to cut off foreign trade with the Confederacy.
  • The Battle of Gettysburg

    The Battle of Gettysburg
    The Battle of Gettysburg is arguably the most important battle fought in the American Civil War. After a major victory over Union forces at Chancellorsville, General Robert E. Lee marched his Army of Northern Virginia into Pennsylvania. Lee was forced to withdraw his battered army back towards Virginia. The Union won a major turning point, halting Lee's advance north. It inspired Lincoln's "Gettysburg Address," which became one of the most famous speeches of all time.
  • The 13th Amendment

    The 13th Amendment
    In the aftermath of the Civil War, the Thirteenth Amendment was ratified and added to the United States Constitution. This amendment would abolish slavery and involuntary servitude except as a punishment for crime, and set around 4 million people free.
  • Freedman's Bureau

    Freedman's Bureau
    During its years of operation, the Freedmen's Bureau fed millions of people, built hospitals and provided medical care, negotiated labor contracts for former slaves, and settled labor disputes. It also helped former slaves legalize marriage and locate lost relatives and black veterans, making it an important agency during the Reconstruction era.
  • The Civil Rights Act of 1866

    The Civil Rights Act of 1866
    The Civil Rights Act of 1866 stated that all persons born in America were citizens, no matter their race or color, gender, or previous condition of slavery or involuntary. Although President Andrew Johnson vetoed the legislation, it was overturned by congress. The Civil Rights Act of 1866 would be the first legislation that stated all US citizens were protected under federal law and were a major step forward.
  • Seward's Folly

    Seward's Folly
    In 1867 Secretary of State William H. Seward purchased Alaska from the Russian Empire for $7.2 million. This purchase became one of the most controversial land deals, and many labeled it "Seward's Folly" They thought the land would be useless, but now many believe it was a good deal due to the resources Alaska gives and the expansion in land.
  • The 14th Admendment

    The 14th Admendment
    the Amendment granted citizenship to all persons born or naturalized in the United States, including those formerly enslaved, and guaranteed to all citizens the "equal protection of the laws." It was one of three amendments made during the Reconstruction era to abolish slavery and create civil and legal rights for black Americans.
  • The Transcontinental railroad

    The Transcontinental railroad
    The Pacific Railroad Act hired the Central Pacific railroad company and the Union Pacific railroad company to create a transcontinental railroad, these companies would be paid mainly in acres of land. For the next seven years, the two companies competed against each other from Sacramento, California, and Omaha, Nebraska, before they met on May 10, 1869 meeting at Promontory, Utah. The transcontinental railroad would create easier transportation and trade from both sides of the country.
  • The Dawes Act

    The Dawes Act
    The Dawes Act allowed President Grover Cleveland to break up reservation land into smaller parts that would be given to those who changed to white ways and adopted US citizenship and non-native citizens. This would cause the government to strip over 90 million acres of tribal land from Native Americans and then sell that land to non-native US citizens. Along with that, the Dawes Act would tear apart tribes and cause them to lose their core identity, language, and culture.
  • Nawsa

    The National American Woman Suffrage Association was an organization shaped on February 18, 1890, to advocate in favor of women's suffrage within the United States. It was formed by the merger of two existing organizations, the National Woman Suffrage Association, and the American Woman Suffrage Association. Following the ratification of the 15th amendment, the NAWSA sent a voting rights petition to the Senate and House of Representatives asking that suffrage rights be given to women.
  • Muckrakers

    Muckrakers were journalists and novelists who used their work to expose corrupt companies and governments, as long as protecting workers and consumers. Famous muckrakers include Upton Sinclair, who wrote the novel "The Jungle," which exposed the meat packing industry, and Lincoln Steffens, who exposed corrupt businessmen whose bribes and greed fueled the entire system of corruption.
  • Plessy V. Ferguson

    Plessy V. Ferguson
    Plessy V. Ferguson was a formidable U.S. Supreme Court case in 1896 that would hurt black Americans. This case was started when Homer Plessy refused to sit in a colored car. The U.S. Supreme Court sided with Ferguson and upheld the constitutionality under the "Separate but Equal" doctrine. Furthermore, this court case would allow state-imposed Jim Crow laws that would make life harder for black Americans.
  • Progressive Era

    Progressive Era
    With the beginning of the muckrakers, the unionizing workers, and poor work and living conditions, change was due. Seen through a new force from the middle-class women of America doing most of the lifting. This period is highlighted by women's suffrage, temperance to prohibition, improvement in the workplace, the beginning of the Civil Rights movement, home life, technology, and lots of legislation passed by Theodore Roosevelt and Howard Taft.
  • President Theodore “Teddy” Roosevelt

    President Theodore “Teddy” Roosevelt
    Considered the most interesting man in the world, President Teddy Roosevelt had an eventful life. As Vice President, Roosevelt soon had to step up with the assassination of President Mckinley. President Roosevelt was a progressive president, creating the "Square Deal" program, supporting the conservation of natural resources, and expanding the national parks. President Roosevelt sought to protect consumers, workers, and the environment.
  • Great Migration

    Great Migration
    The Great Migration was one of the largest movements of people in U.S. history. Around WWI, blacks saw the opportunity to move north to escape the Jim Crow South and start a new life. Due to WWI and many white men being drafted, there was an opening for jobs, and many moved to cities and created their communities. Overall, from the 1910s to the 1970s, nearly six million blacks moved north.
  • Ford’s moving assembly line

    Ford’s moving assembly line
    Henry Ford adopted the moving assembly line to create cars. This allowed for the work to be brought to the workers instead of the workers moving around the factories. The assembly line took the build time of a car from twelve hours down to thirty minutes, which had a chain reaction. Due to the mass production of Ford's cars, the overall price was reduced.
  • World War I

    World War I
    The U.S. entered into a non-American war that cost the lives of 100,000+ American soldiers. Due to a combination of unrestricted U-boats attacks, the Zimmerman telegram, and the need for America's help, Wilson entered the U.S. into WWI. Trench warfare was used on the front line and created a stalemate between the two sides, while disease caused most of the deaths. The positives of the war were it helped the economy with war industry boards and signified the U.S. strength.
  • Sedition Act of 1918

    Sedition Act of 1918
    Public support for the war was thought to be vital for an Allied victory. Many dissidents remained vocal about their opposition; they included pacifists and socialists, among others. The Sedition Act banned speech and behavior that could incite resistance to the war effort or encourage support for the enemies. This was seen as an unpopular move by President Wilson. Two Supreme Court cases convicted people who had been prosecuted under the law, raising questions on the limits of free speech.
  • Treaty of Versailles

    Treaty of Versailles
    The Treaty of Versailles was a peace agreement signed in 1919 between Germany and the Allied Nations, signifying the end of WWI. Germany was forced to give up its territories in the west, north, and east. Secondly, they had to give up their weapons and reduce the strength of their army, navy, and air force. Third, the Allies imposed a fine on Germany to compensate for their military and civil cost. This caused Germany to struggle, and many citizens had hard lives.
  • Prohibition

    Temperance activists preached the dangers of alcohol, saying it was the cause of poverty, crime, poor relationships, etc. The Prohibition Amendment banned the creation, sale, and transportation of alcohol but was a complete failure. Crime grew, speakeasies were opened, and mobs started bootlegging alcohol. Al Capone was a famous gangster who ran the bootlegging business and caused gang violence. Congress realized its mistake after a while and repealed the amendment.
  • Nineteenth Amendment

    Nineteenth Amendment
    Women's rights activists have been fighting for gender equality since the 19th century, and with the ratification of the 19th Amendment, they took a huge victory. The 19th Amendment would state, "The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex." Giving the right to vote to white women only, activists had to continue to fight for gender and racial equality abroad.
  • Harlem Renaissance

    Harlem Renaissance
    The Harlem Renaissance was an African American movement that created a strong sense of pride and self-determination throughout the African American community. The Harlem Renaissance gave birth to new art, literature, music, and civil rights activism. Most notably, a new genre of music known as jazz became popular and gave rise to the jazz age.
  • First television

    First television
    Designed by Philo Taylor Farnsworth, the first television would change the scope of technology forever. The creation of the first television, advertisement, entertainment, and sports industry would benefit significantly. Television took the nation by storm and by 1978, 98% of households had one television.
  • The Great Depression

    The Great Depression
    America flourished during the 1920s. With consumer confidence at a peak, people began to make questionable economic decisions that would end up costing them. Large debt, bank failures, and agricultural failure mixed to create the Great Depression, and no matter the efforts of FDR and the New Deal programs, the Great Depression trampled America. WWII eventually mobilized the economy and pulled America out of the depression.
  • The Dust Bowl

    The Dust Bowl
    The Dust Bowl was a devastating ecological disaster that destroyed agricultural lives and was a punch to the stomach during the Great Depression. High winds mixed with a drought from previous years and dug-up soil caused clouds of dust to swallow anything and tear apart farms. This would cause a lack of agricultural needs and worsen the depression.
  • The Bonus Army

    The Bonus Army
    WWI veterans were promised a bonus for their service in the war and needed it now more than ever due to the depression, although they weren't due to receive the bonus till 1945. Thousands of veterans marched on Washington in protest, but their request was denied, so in response, some stayed and congregated around the White House for multiple days. Hoover eventually had enough and called in Military troops to disperse them which was a bad look on Hoover to the public.
  • Franklin D. Roosevelt

    Franklin D. Roosevelt
    Hoover's reluctance to give direct aid led FDR run under it. He promptly started signing legislature. He stopped the Banks and enforced good practices, and ensured banks with the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. He created government jobs, social security, and huge infrastructure overhauls. Even though all of this passed, the New Deal failed to save the U.S. from the Depression. In addition, the court-packing scandal and laissez-faire economics, and the huge debt the government is in.
  • The New Deal

    The New Deal
    The New Deal was FDR's attempt to save the American people from the Great Depression. The New Deal was a series of programs, financial reforms, and public projects that took place between 1933-1939. In a positive light, it established social security, created more opportunities, and gave Americans hope and optimism, but on the negative, it excluded African Americans and created only temporary jobs.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor

    Attack on Pearl Harbor
    In the early morning of December 7, 1941, the Japanese military launched an unprecedented attack on the U.S. naval base in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. Japan's motivation is still unknown but most suspect it was due to its political self-interests, its scarcity of economic resources, and America's embargo. Due to this FDR asked Congress to enter into war against Japan and began fighting in WWII in the Pacific theater.
  • Executive Order 9066

    Executive Order 9066
    Roosevelt issued Presidential Executive Order 9066 on February 19, 1942, after fears generated by the Japanese attack made the safety of America's West Coast a priority. Executive Order 9066 led to the incarceration of 100,000+ Japanese Americans who'd also lose their homes and jobs. This would violate the 5th Amendment and their basic rights.
  • G.I. Bill

    G.I. Bill
    The Serviceman Readjustment Act of 1944, also known as the G.I. Bill, provided numerous benefits to veterans. The G.I. Bill allowed veterans to go to college or trade school at a low cost and helped them buy houses and get jobs. The G.I. Bill was super popular and overall boosted the country and economy due to its chain effects. Overall, the G.I. Bill helped 8 million veterans just in the first seven years.
  • D-Day

    The Normandy Landing, also known as D-Day, was a sea and airborne attack on the beaches of Normandy, France. The Allied invasion was one of the most devastating attacks, killing 210,000 Allied soldiers. D-Day opened another front, where the bulk of America's rapidly expanding army could, at last, be brought to bear. It led to the liberation of France, denying Germany any further exploitation of that country's economic and resources
  • Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
    In early August, three days apart, the U.S. dropped atomic bombs on two Japanese cities, Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The two bombs were created by Robert Oppenheimer and his team in the Manhattan Project, killing hundreds of thousands of civilians and leveling the country. The U.S.'s ultimate goal was to quicken Japan's surrender and end WWII on the Pacific front.
  • End of World War 2

    End of World War 2
    WWII ended in the Pacific Theatre and the European Theatre at separate times. The European Theatre saw an end to the war after Hitler committed suicide and the Germans surrendered unconditionally, while the Pacific front had a harder time. The war in the Pacific theatre didn't end until the U.S. forced the surrender of Japan by dropping two atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
  • Baby Boom

    Baby Boom
    With 18 1/2 million men coming home to their wives, many children were made. This led to tons and tons of babies. The largest generation ever. This also means jobs at every level to support these babies. More nurses, schools, clothes, food, daycares, homes, cars, everything. This generation, however, doesn't enjoy the conformity of their veteran parents, and out comes the Beatniks (Alan Ginsburg). Also enjoyed Rock & Roll and Elvis Presley.
  • The Second Red Scare

    The Second Red Scare
    The Second Red Scare was a long period of fear, ostracization, and accusations that had been caused by the collective fear of communism in America. McCarthyism, founded by Joseph McCarthy, was the political repression and persecution of innocent persons which ignited the Second Red Scare. They would be charged with being communists, Russian spies, or having anti-American ideals.
  • The Cold War

    The Cold War
    The Cold War was a period of geopolitical tension and ideological conflict between the United States and the Soviet Union that lasted from the end of WWII up until the 1990s. The two countries were fighting over global dominance and the spread of communism, the U.S. trying to stop communism, and the Soviet Union trying to spread its authority. The Cold War was a series of proxy wars, the space race, propaganda, and the threat of a nuclear war.
  • NATO

    NATO, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, was founded in 1949 by the United States, Canada, and multiple European countries. NATO was formed to combat and provide collective security against the Soviet Union which intended to spread and join with other communist countries. NATO is still active today with 31 independent countries.
  • Brown V. Board of Education

    Brown V. Board of Education
    Brown V. Board of Education was a U.S. Supreme Court Case that played an important role in the start of the Civil Rights Movement. Linda Brown was a young black student at a segregated school who had to go out of her way to get to school. Thurgood Marshall represented Linda in court and the Supreme Court decision sided with Brown and allowed the integration of schools. This landmark case essentially overturned the "Separate but equal" precedent.
  • Civil Rights Movement

    Civil Rights Movement
    The Civil Rights Movement picked up its pace after the Brown V. Board of Education allowed the integration of schools. Civil Rights activists and African Americans in general withstood racism and protest as they pushed for equality. Organizations such as NAACP, SNCC, CORE, and others unified African Americans and protested for their rights. Events such as Freedom Rides, March on Washington, Greensboro Sit-ins, Little Rock, and more helped shape and had crucial roles in the movement.
  • Vietnam War

    Vietnam War
    Several nations were taken by the USSR including Iran, Afghanistan, Korea, Cuba, China, and soon-to-be Vietnam. Non-stop fighting and pressure from citizens back home eventually led the U.S. to pull out, abandoning the rebel fighters and leading to a communist victory. Over 58,00 U.S. soldiers died in Vietnam, and the U.S. tried to cover up numerous things, most notably the My Lai massacre. This brought many people to be ashamed and wanted to war to end.
  • Montgomery Bus Boycott

    Montgomery Bus Boycott
    Rosa Parks was an activist who was a part of the NAACP and SCLC and wanted to make a change. On purpose, Rosa Parks refused to move to the back of the bus and was arrested. This caused many blacks to boycott, which would last for a while until the buses had to fold due to the loss of revenue. This would lead to the integration of buses and other public transportation.
  • Eisenhower Interstate Act

    Eisenhower Interstate Act
    With the rapid popularity of car culture in the United States, it was time to update and modernize America's roadways. Eisenhower got inspiration from German road systems and signed the Interstate Highway Act, which was the largest public works project in history. He shortened distances between cities which improved trade and commuting. Eisenhower created the interstates as a means of rapid evacuation in case of a nuclear attack.
  • Space Race

    Space Race
    The Space Race was another competition between the U.S. and the Soviet Union to see who could achieve various goals in space exploration. The Soviets took the lead by launching the first artificial satellite into orbit, which caused many Americans to panic. The U.S. upped the Soviets with the creation of NASA, which successfully landed the first men on the moon in 1969. Overall, the Space Race benefited from science and technology for everybody.
  • The Little Rock Nine

    The Little Rock Nine
    The Little Rock Nine were a group of 9 Black students who were the first students to start the desegregation of public schools. Black parents were afraid to let their kids go to all-white schools due to the backlash and racism. Little Rock 9 were constantly denied but day after day they came back until they were escorted in, this inspired other schools to desegregate. This was a major step towards equality because it inspired other black students to fight for their equality as well.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis

    Cuban Missile Crisis
    After the failure of the Bay of Pigs Invasion, the US learned that the Soviet Union had begun to secretly bring ICBMs into Cuba that were able to hit most of the U.S. Newly inaugurated President JFK decided to place a blockade to stop the Soviet Union from transporting ICBMs to Cuba, and it worked. Eventually, JFK pulled the blockade and the conflict in Cuba was over.
  • Martin Luther King Assassination

    Martin Luther King Assassination
    While going to attend a protest, James Earl Ray shot MLK. This led to protection and guards being sent to Memphis. On trial, Ray pleaded not guilty as he stated "he was the victim as well" and was "just a pawn." Believing Ray, MLK's family pardoned Ray. MLK's death led to the Equal Housing Act as well as an increase of Black Panthers and the King Holiday, signed into law by Reagan in 1983. This also struck fear in the African Americans as they saw their leader and guide being assassinated.
  • March on Washington

    March on Washington
    Civil Rights organizations combined and organized a peaceful march on Washington. In this event, over 250,000 people from across the country traveled to the capitol and marched to the Lincoln Memorial, from which Martin Luther King delivered his famous "I Have a Dream" speech. It was important it those times because it showed the unity of all colors coming together. Now it shows the unity and freedom we have.
  • Civil Rights Act of 1964

    Civil Rights Act of 1964
    The legislature signed by Johnson, however, drafted by JFK was to give everyone equality. Stating " prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex or national origin". However, this was met with not enough compliance and people made the requirements for voting very restrictive. This led to the Voting Rights Act of 1965 which loosened the requirements to vote.
  • Voting Rights Act of 1965

    Voting Rights Act of 1965
    The Voting Rights Act of 1965, signed into law by President Lyndon B. Johnson, was meant to overcome legal barriers at the state and local levels that prevented African Americans from exercising their right to vote as guaranteed under the 15th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution.
  • Freedom Riders

    Freedom Riders
    The Freedom Riders were a young group of White and African American civil rights activist. The Freedom Riders wanted to challenge segregated bus terminals so they rode in them through the South singing religious songs. One bus was tragically attacked and many riders suffered injurious. The police enforcement purposely showing up late to stop the mob attacking the riders.
  • President Nixon

    President Nixon
    Through Nixon's presidency, he accomplished many things, including Title 9 (prohibits sex-based discrimination in school or programs that receives federal funding) and the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency). Although accomplishing a lot in his career, Nixon is most known for the Watergate scandal, which jeopardized his presidency.
  • Watergate Scandal

    Watergate Scandal
    Nixon abused his power as president to attempt to cover up the Watergate scandal, leading to his resignation or otherwise impeachment. Even after being caught, Nixon denied any involvement even with major evidence. This led to the public losing support and faith in Nixon. Nixon's career as president is mostly known for the Watergate scandal. President Ford pardoned Nixon, which at the time was an unpopular move but now is seen as the right move.
  • Roe V. Wade

    Roe V. Wade
    In a challenge to Texas legislation, Jane Roe brought abortion rulings to the Supreme Court. The court ruled that anti-abortion laws were unconstitutional under the 14th Amendment. Also, the court made abortion legal, which was a great moment for feminists and Liberal activists. This angered many conservatives and religious figures, and the topic is still very controversial today.
  • Paris Peace Accords

    Paris Peace Accords
    The Paris Peace Accords stated that armies from both North and South Vietnam would hold their positions, the United States military would withdraw from combat and leave the country, and both sides of the conflict would work together to find a peaceful path to reunification. The agreement's provisions were immediately and frequently broken by both North and South Vietnamese forces with no official response from the United States
  • President Carter

    President Carter
    Carter inherited many issues from the previous presidencies. An Arab Oil Embargo in 1973 and subsequent oil shortages led to inflation and the detente of Nixon led to factory jobs moving out of the nation. Although He managed to found the Department of Energy and the Department of Education. He presided over the Panama Canal Treaties, in 1977, and called for the return of the canal to the people of Panama. And called for Israel and Egypt to get along at the Camp David Accords.
  • Oil Crisis

    Oil Crisis
    Following the US support of the 6-Day War in the Middle East, an embargo was placed on Western countries. The embargo made it hard to obtain oil, which stopped US production, transportation, and recreation. This crisis was the first time the US economy was at a standstill since the Great Depression. The crisis created shorter work weeks, restricted business, and less heating and driving.
  • Iranian militants storm the United States Embassy

    Iranian militants storm the United States Embassy
    On November 4, 1979, Iranian students seized the embassy and detained more than 50 Americans, ranging from the Chargé d'Affaires to the most junior members of the staff, as hostages. The Iranians held the American diplomat, hostage, for 444 days. Eight U.S. service members were killed, and their bodies, left behind, were later paraded before Iranian television cameras. The Carter administration expended great energy to have the bodies returned to the United States.