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American History

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    Colonial Settlement

    "Colonial America" was a vast land settled by Spanish, Dutch, French and English immigrants who established colonies such as St. Augustine, Florida; Jamestown, Virginia; and Roanoke in present-day North Carolina.
  • The Headright System

    The Headright System
    With the intention to increase the American population and support Britain’s colonies, the Headright System was formed, Settlers that were already residing in Virginia were granted 100 acres of land, and any new settlers that paid their own way into the New World were granted 50 acres of land. Anyone who then paid for the passage of someone else to the New World was also granted an additional 50 acres of land per person.
  • The Albany Plan

    The Albany Plan
    Fighting between France and Britain for land left the colonies in the middle, prompting Benjamin Franklin’s proposal of the Albany Plan. Franklin suggested that the colonies would “fall like dominoes” if they stood by themselves. Ultimately, the plan failed, but those who agreed with Franklin’s ideas formed a network that eventually would form many Revolutionary leaders and thoughts.
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    The American Revolution

    The war of in which the 13 British colonies in North America broke free from British rule and became the United States of America.
  • The Proclamation of 1763

    The Proclamation of 1763
    As benign neglect came to an end, the colonies became more profitable for Britain. The British troops from the Seven Years War remained in the colonies “for their protection” against the Spanish/French/Indians, but truly wanted to enforce colonial acceptance of new laws. The Proclamation of 1763 meant that there could no longer be any colonial expansion past the Appalachian mountains. This deeply angered the colonists, who had just fought a war in order to claim that land.
  • The Sugar Act of 1764

    The Sugar Act of 1764
    The similar Molasses Act in 1733 had failed as colonists bribed each other and continued to avoid paying any taxation. The Sugar Act of 1764 lowered taxes on molasses and sugar, with the intention of cutting out any smuggling and to support British business. The colonists in the black market could be rightened despite their previous smuggling or bribes, but they continued to smuggle in order to avoid giving any money to Britain.
  • Stamp Act of 1765

    Stamp Act of 1765
    With Britain financially struggling following the end of the Seven Years War, they additionally put taxes upon stamps. This act affected the wealthy and middle classes the most, since they had the most influence and the most use out of items that would be stamped. The act put additional taxes on all legal documents, including birth certificates and marriage certificates and licenses.
  • Quartering Act of 1765

    Quartering Act of 1765
    This act gave legality to the remaining Seven Years War soldiers staying and living with the colonists. The act made it so that they had to house and feed them, but it truthfully served a deeper purpose. With the soldiers dispersed throughout the community, colonists could not talk about their frustrations with Britain even in their own homes. This act specifically would prove crucial in the creation of the Constitution and the Third Amendment.
  • The Boston Massacre

    The Boston Massacre
    Despite their constant presence in colonial communities, British soldiers were not allowed to act upon anything that the colonists or crowd were to say to them. In the events of the Boston Massacre, the crowd of colonists that had formed were taunting the soldiers, eventually escalating to the point of throwing snow packed rocks at them in the world’s deadliest snowball fight.
  • Boston Tea Party

    Boston Tea Party
    The group of Revolutionists known as the Sons of Liberty (likely drunk), went onto a cargo ship in the middle of the day dressed in Native American clothing. The lack of attempt to disguise themselves or their actions was quite comical as they dumped $1.8 million of what would have been British tax revenue into the harbor. The Boston Tea Party holds heavy significance because it was the first significant act of defiance by American colonists.
  • The Coercive Acts

    The Coercive Acts
    Britain's anger following the Boston Tea Party is to be expected, and they fought back against the colonies by punishing them through enforcing and passing laws. The Coercive Acts, or Intolerable Acts, closed the port of Boston, outlawed assemblies, and took total control of the colonial government. Additionally, it made it so that royal officials accused of a crime were tried in England rather than in the colonies.
  • Battle of Lexington and Concord “The Shot Heard ‘Round the World”

    Battle of Lexington and Concord “The Shot Heard ‘Round the World”
    The British planned to win the Revolutionary War before it had even begun by cutting off the colonists’ access to their weapons, which were stashed in Concord. Additionally, they set out to capture Samuel Adams and John Hancock, who were in Concord. However, Paul Revere and two other men quickly alerted that the redcoats were coming.
  • Battle of Lexington and Concord “The Shot Heard ‘Round the World” (cont.)

    Battle of Lexington and Concord “The Shot Heard ‘Round the World” (cont.)
    By the time the British troops arrived, Adams and Hancock had fled, and 70 militiamen were waiting for the 700 British soldiers. 17 militiamen were killed or wounded with the others fleeing. 25o British soldiers, then, were killed or wounded as the militiamen took their stash of weapons away from Concord and followed the soldiers to Boston. This was a significant step towards independence everywhere, and is often considered to be the beginning of the Revolutionary War.
  • Second Continental Congress

    Second Continental Congress
    Following the “shot heard round the world” in Lexington and Concord, the Second Continental Congress was held in Philadelphia. King George III had rejected the Olive Branch Petition made at the First Continental Congress, seeing it as an insult. The delegates of the Second Continental Congress charged Thomas Jefferson (and others) with drafting the Declaration of Independence. This document showed the idea that all men were equal and that the government should intend to serve the people.
  • First Continental Congress / The Olive Branch Petition

    First Continental Congress / The Olive Branch Petition
    he Radicals at the First Continental Congress, following the Coercive Acts, wanted independence while the Conservatives wanted to remain British citizens. The delegates present at the First Continental Congress ultimately agreed that they were willing to remain a part of the British Empire provided that they receive more representation and that the British took more limited taxing authority. They decided to invite England for peace through the Olive Branch Petition.
  • Thomas Paine’s Common Sense

    Thomas Paine’s Common Sense
    Passionate about liberty and fighting for independence. Thomas Paine wrote Common Sense, a recollection of essays that were considered propaganda. He argued through both logic and emotion to persuade his audience. Paine was also significant for putting into words the arguments that colonists had already been making against Great Britain. By putting their frustrations into the common vernacular, Paine was able to make an argument that was able to be read by even an uneducated person.
  • Abigail Adams’ Remember the Ladies

    Abigail Adams’ Remember the Ladies
    Written to her husband John Adams, “Remember the Ladies” was Abigail Adams’ way to remind her husband to keep the women in mind when forming the new government of America. In his reply to his wife’s letter, John Adams treated this sentiment as a joke, demonstrating the limits of revolutionary liberty and the prejudices against women during the time.
  • Battle of Trenton

    Battle of Trenton
    On Christmas Day, General George Washington led his troops across the Delaware to stage a surprise attack on the British and Hessian mercenaries in Trenton, New Jersey. General George Washington's army ultimately defeated a garrison of Hessian mercenaries at Trenton. The victory set the stage for another success at Princeton a week later and boosted the morale of the American troops. Additionally, the win encouraged people to join the Continental Army.
  • Winter in Valley Forge

    Winter in Valley Forge
    Another Thomas Paine book, the “American Crisis”, was written for the soldiers at Valley Forge with the intention to boost their morale. George Washington approved so much of the book that he had it be read aloud to the troops. Though they were faced with heavy hardships, the Continental Army's transformative experiences at Valley Forge reshaped it into a more unified force capable of defeating the British and winning American independence during the remaining five years of the war.
  • The Battle of Saratoga

    The Battle of Saratoga
    Often referred to as the turning point in the war, the Battle of Saratoga was a great win for the colonists. Britain had four armies, but the Patriots had two bigger groups, making it a 4 v. 2 battle. British General John Burgoyne and his army had plans to attack and meet up with the British armies to close in on the Continental Army. However, the Patriots had a better understanding of the terrain and closed in on the British, forcing them to surrender.
  • The Battle of Saratoga (cont.)

    The Battle of Saratoga (cont.)
    The Battle of Saratoga was specifically significant because Benjamin Franklin was able to officially make France a Patriot ally. France was still bitter about the results of the Seven Years War, but they were reluctant to support the colonists without confidence that they would win the war. The victory at Saratoga gave Benjamin Franklin the leverage that he needed to win France over, and they sent their navy to aid the colonists.
  • The Articles of Confederation

    The Articles of Confederation
    The first governing document in America, the Articles of Confederation, was a reaction to what the colonists had endured during and leading up to the Revolutionary War. The Articles of Confederation stated that there would be no monarch or executive for the country, no taxes for the federal government, little power to the federal government (instead, power would be given to the states), and there would be no standing army.
  • Battle of Yorktown

    Battle of Yorktown
    British General Cornwallis, remembering Valley Forge, changed tactics. He retreated to the coast, and George Washinton followed him. Cornwallis, however, was unaware that the French Navy were waiting for him, and that they had already won a victory over the British Navy. Cornwallis’ surrender ended major fighting in the Revolutionary War. The Battle of Yorktown proved to be the decisive engagement of the American Revolution.
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    The New Nation

    After the successful conclusion of the Revolutionary War with Great Britain in 1783, Americans begin to look back on the previous decades and on reforming their country.
  • The Treaty of Paris

    The Treaty of Paris
    The Treaty of Paris officially ended the Revolutionary War. The new country of America was given all of the British land between the Atlantic Ocean and the Mississippi. As a result of the war, the new country formed an alliance with France. The Treaty of Paris also granted the Northwest Territory to the United States, secured fishing rights to the Grand Banks and other waters off the British-Canadian coastline for American boats, and opened up the Mississippi River.
  • Shays’ Rebellion

    Shays’ Rebellion
    Farmers, following the Revolutionary War, were very deep in debt, resulting in them being sent to prison or losing their farms. Angered by this, the farmers rebelled under the leadership of former soldier Daniel Shays. The farmers took over courthouses and grew their movement towards Boston. Shays’ Rebellion proved just how weak the Articles of Confederation were, since the federal government could do nothing in response to rebellion.
  • The Constitutional Convention (cont.)

    The Constitutional Convention (cont.)
    They favored the Bill of Rights, and the production of state government. The two major results of this convention were primarily the New Jersey Plan and the Connecticut Compromise. The New Jersey Plan stated that every state should have a say in government. The Connecticut Compromise, then, formed the House of Representatives and the senate.
  • The Constitutional Convention

    The Constitutional Convention
    The Constitutional Convention, held following Shays’ Rebellion, set out to make the states more able to govern themselves when faced with a strike or rebellion. The Federalists at the Constitutional Convention were elites that were fearful of mob rule (such as Shays’ Rebellion), and they favored the Constitution and were opposed to the Bill of Rights. The Anti-Federalists were common people (farmers), and they were fearful of big government and opposed to the Constitution.
  • The Northwest Ordinance

    The Northwest Ordinance
    In Ohio, Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, and Wisconsin, the Northwest Ordinance was a way for new territories to become states based on population. It also organized towns and schools while outlawing slavery in the territories it pertained to. The Northwest Ordinance holds weight because it established a government for the Northwest Territory, outlined the process for admitting a new state to the Union, and guaranteed that newly created states would be equal to the original thirteen states.
  • The Whiskey Rebellion

    The Whiskey Rebellion
    Pennsylvania farmers refused to pay taxes on alcohol until the army made a move to enforce such a tax. Army involvement in the situation was pushed for by Alexander Hamilton and other Federalists, and ultimately George Washington obliged. Washington, as President, led his troops against the rebels. This was a showcase of the power of the new federal government under its new laws.
  • The Alien and Sedition Acts- The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions (cont.)

    The Alien and Sedition Acts- The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions (cont.)
    These acts faced lots of backlash from the people, and were followed by the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions. Infuriated by the laws, Henry Clay and Thomas Jefferson reviewed the acts and officially nullified the laws. The Resolutions stated that the Constitution was a “pact” between the states and the federal government, and that the government making a move to break the pact could result in the states deciding that laws were null and void in their states.
  • The Alien and Sedition Acts- The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions

    The Alien and Sedition Acts- The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions
    Put into effect by second President John Adams, the Alien Act allowed the President to deport any “alien” or immigrant considered dangerous. The Sedition Act of the same time made it illegal for newspapers to print any material that was critical of the President or of Congress. Additionally, the Naturalization Act increased the amount of time that immigrants had to live in the states before they could officially become citizens.
  • Marbury V. Madison

    Marbury V. Madison
    James Madison (of Thomas Jefferson’s Presidential Cabinet) found a letter granting John Marbury federal judgeship. He chose not to send the letter, which resulted in Marbury suing him. The Supreme Court sided with Madison because they found part of the Judiciary Act unconstitutional and void. The Supreme Court then granted itself the right of judicial review, meaning that it could declare laws unconstitutional and therefore strike them down.
  • The Louisiana Purchase

    The Louisiana Purchase
    Under Thomas Jefferson’s Presidency, there were worries that Jefferson could lose control of New Orleans and access to the Mississippi River. As a result, Jefferson sent James Monroe to negotiate the purchase of New Orleans for $3M. Napoleon declined, but offered to give Jefferson all of Louisiana for $15M.
  • The Louisiana Purchase (cont.)

    The Louisiana Purchase (cont.)
    The Constitution said nothing about expansion, and Jefferson was a strict constitutionalist that strongly believed in reading the Constitution directly and precisely without any further judgements or altercations. The Louisiana Purchase, though it went against Jefferson’s views, was highly significant. It doubled the size of the country, and secured both New Orleans and the Mississippi River. 828,000 miles of square land were acquired, making it cost 4 cents per acre.
  • Embargo of 1807

    Embargo of 1807
    As Great Britain and France began to go to war again, the United States were faced with the conflict of picking a country to ally with. Because of the country’s good trade relationship with both of the other countries, they decided to remain neutral. Jefferson imposed an embargo (or ban) on foreign trade. This destroyed the American economy, but it also encouraged the growth of domestic manufacturing and made America more independent rather than depending upon the other countries for trade.
  • The Battle of Thames

    The Battle of Thames
    On October 5, 1813, the British and Indian forces in the War of 1812 were defeated by American forces in Canada. William Henry Harrison pushed up the river Thames into Upper Canada and won a victory notable for the death of Tecumseh, who was serving as a brigadier general in the British army. This battle resulted in no lasting occupation of Canada, but weakened and disheartened the Indians of the Northwest. The death of Tecumseh ended Indian war resistance.
  • The Treaty of Ghent

    The Treaty of Ghent
    Following the Hartford Convention, in which several New England states expressed their fear that the war was lost, there were talks of becoming a separate country. The Treaty of Ghent officially ended the War of 1812, but its signing in Europe resulted in the Americans not knowing that the war was over until the information traveled to the country three months later. In addition to ending the war, the Treaty of Ghent retained all of the pre war borders of the United States.
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    National Expansion and Reform

    During this period, the small republic founded by George Washington's generation became the world's largest democracy.
  • The Battle of New Orleans

    The Battle of New Orleans
    The British attempted to seize control of New Orleans. In response, President Andrew Jackson recruited pirates, farmers, and other misfits that didn’t seem like soldiers. They dug a 10 foot trench and made an artificial high ground with American sharp-shooters laying on the hill to fire at the British. Each sharpshooter had four men behind him to refill his guns, making for an incredible and unstoppable force against British soldiers stuck in the trench.
  • The Battle of New Orleans (cont.)

    The Battle of New Orleans (cont.)
    Though the War of 1812 had already been ended by the Treaty of Ghent, people often associate Andrew Jackson with “winning” the war because of the success of the Battle of New Orleans, which ended with 2,042 British casualties and 71 American casualties.
  • Election of 1824

    Election of 1824
    The Election of 1824 ran between the three candidates Henry Clay, John Quincy Adams, and Andrew Jackson. Even though Andrew Jackson ended up getting a majority of the votes, he didn’t really have a majority of the votes (51%). Because of this, there was debate about whether or not his election would be constitutional. The 12th Amendment sent things to the House of Representatives, but Henry Clay, the speaker of the house, could easily have influenced the outcome of the election.
  • Election of 1824 (cont.)

    Election of 1824 (cont.)
    Because of this, Henry Clay chose to drop out of the race. However, he and John Quincy Adams met privately in what Andrew Jackson supporters called a “corrupt bargain”. The day following their private conversation, Henry Clay was publicly supporting Adams, who later appointed Clay as his Secretary of State once he won the election.
  • The 1828 Election

    The 1828 Election
    Andrew Jackson intended to recreate the Jeffersonian coalition of a) northern farmers and artisans, b) southern slave owners, and c) farmers with little land. He created a national committee that oversaw local and state party units. This committee became known as the first political party; the Democrats. The 1828 Election’s significance is in that it was the first “modern” political campaign. It was tactful and targeted around negativity and proving oneself to be greater than one's opponent.
  • The Spoils System

    The Spoils System
    Andrew Jackson, commonly referred to as “king mob”, or the self proclaimed “champion of the common man”, fired many government officials and employees, giving his supporters the government jobs instead. He chose the ordinary American citizens rather than the wealthy elites that often held positions in office because he distrusted the wealthy that primarily voted for Adams. Jackson, in his own defense, argued that the rotation of office holders was preferable to a permanent group of bureaucrats.
  • Tariff of Abominations

    Tariff of Abominations
    John Quincy Adams, after his election, received lots of opposition and backlash. Some believed that he allowed too much political power to be held by the elites. Under his presidency was the Tariff Debate of 1828, in which foreign goods had become more expensive. As a result, people bought more U.S. goods. The northern states profited from this increase in business, but the southern states were enraged as their economy suffered from less European purchase of their cotton.
  • Indian Removal Act (cont.)

    Indian Removal Act (cont.)
    Over the next five years, American diplomatic pressure and military power forced more Native Americans to move west. 14,000 Cherokee people, led by General Winfield Scott, were forced to march 1,200 miles; a journey that became known as the Trail of Tears. Along the way, 3,000 Native American people died of starvation and exposure. John Marshall called the Indian Removal Act unconstitutional, but Jackson defied the Supreme Court by threatening them to allow him to enforce it.
  • Indian Removal Act

    Indian Removal Act
    The Indian Removal Act was an act that directed the mandatory relocation of eastern Native American tribes to territory west of the Mississippi. Jackson insisted that his goal was to “save” the Native Americans and their culture. They resisted this act, but were forced to comply in the end. When there was still resistance, the U.S. Army pursued Black Hawk, an Indian leader, and began the eight-hour Bad Axe Massacre, where 850 of his 1,000 warriors were killed.
  • The Nullification Crisis and The Nullification Ordinance

    The Nullification Crisis and The Nullification Ordinance
    In 1831, the South (still enraged by the Tariff of Abominations) threatened to nullify the law. John C. Calhoun, a southerner, believed that the tariff was unconstitutional because it favored the north, and encouraged the states to declare the law null and void. Jackson agreed and recommended for Congress to reduce the tariff, resulting in a lower tariff in 1832. South Carolina, however, was still unhappy about the new tariff, resulting in them passing the Nullification Ordinance in 1832.
  • The Force Bill and the Compromise Tariff

    The Force Bill and the Compromise Tariff
    Jackson, in response to South Carolina’s threat of secession, claimed that secession from the United States was treason. He chastised South Carolina for violating the federal law, and asked Congress to grant him the ability to use military force to compel South Carolina to accept and follow the law. This ability to use brute military force became known as the Force Bill, which some considered to be a King George-like approach to submission and power.
  • The Force Bill and the Compromise Tariff (cont.)

    The Force Bill and the Compromise Tariff (cont.)
    Henry Clay, following the Force Bill, proposed another tariff that would reduce cost significantly over the next ten years known as the Compromise Tariff. Both the Force Bill and the Compromise Tariff were passed in 1833, and South Carolina repealed its ordinance.
  • The Siege of the Alamo

    The Siege of the Alamo
    As Texas (then Mexico) became populated by more American people, more rules and regulations were put in place. Specifically, slavery was outlawed, taxes were introduced, and Catholocism was forced upon the new inhabitants of the area. These were all policies that Americans hated, and, in anger, Texas broke free from Mexico to become an independent nation.
  • The Siege of the Alamo (cont.)

    The Siege of the Alamo (cont.)
    The American people moved to defend Texas (though the American government refused to become involved), and the U.S. Senator Davy Crockett specifically had influence. He went to the Alamo at the same time Mexican soldiers did, greatly outnumbering the Texans. Every American and Texan present at the Alamo was killed, and the Alamo building became a symbol of the Texan belief of “fighting until the very end”.
  • Panic of 1837

    Panic of 1837
    Andrew Jackson had a severe distrust of the influential bank in America because most of its workers (who were wealthy) had voted against him during the election. As a result, he claimed “the bank is trying to kill me, but I will kill it”. Triggered by a sharp reduction in English credit and capital, the cash shortage caused a panic, and the collapse of credit then led to a depression that lasted from 1837-1843.
  • The Dred Scott Case (cont.)

    The Dred Scott Case (cont.)
    This prompted the idea that there was no such thing as a slave free state, with the Supreme Court ruling and testifying that black people did not and could not have the same level of rights as white people did. Roger Taney, the Supreme Court Justice, declared that black people were an “inferior race”. This case further instilled the racism in America and heightened the hold that slavery had over the people.
  • The Dred Scott Case

    The Dred Scott Case
    Often known as the Supreme Court’s worst decision, the Dred Scott Case was a case in which Dred Scott, a slave, argued that his master moving him and himself to an anti-slavery state meant that he should no longer be a slave. He went to court to sue his master, but the Supreme Court ultimately declared that Dred Scott was still a slave even if he was in a slave-free state.
  • The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (cont.)

    The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (cont.)
    Following the Mexican American War, the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo stated that the Rio Grande was the border of Texas, and it additionally gave the United States the Mexican Cession (California, Arizona, New Mexico, Nevada, and Colorado). The United States gained the West Coast, officially making it a bi-coastal country.
  • The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

    The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
    Following the events at the Alamo, there was lots of debate upon the border of Texas, which was joining the United States. The space between the Colorado River and the Rio Grande River became disputed territory. President James K. Polk sent a small group of soldiers to the disputed territory, essentially to their deaths... using this as a way to initiate war between the United States and Mexico.
  • Compromise of 1850

    Compromise of 1850
    There were many tensions about what to do with the newly gained territories in the United States… should slavery be legal in them, or should it be abolished? Henry Clay proposed the Compromise of 1850 as a means of saving the nation from the tensions and disputes. The Compromise of 1850 stated that a) California would enter the Union as a free state, b) the slave trade (but not slavery as a whole) would be abolished in Washington, D.C.,
  • Compromise of 1850 (cont.)

    Compromise of 1850 (cont.)
    c) strict fugitive state laws would be enacted, and d) territories applying for statehood would be governed by the concept of popular sovereignty. The Fugitive Slave Laws said that any runaway slave would be captured and returned to their owners. This proved highly dangerous for lots of African Americans who had attempted to escape slavery, or had been free men (and were turned in as slaves despite being born free).
  • Senator Preston Brooks vs Senator Charles Sumner (cont.)

    Senator Preston Brooks vs Senator Charles Sumner (cont.)
    They also stuffed the ballot box, casting a number of fraudulent pro-slavery votes. In the Senate, there was a debate about what to be done following the events of “Bleeding Kansas”. Upset by the abolitionist and anti-Southern views presented by Senator Charles Sumner, Senator Preston Brooks beat Sumner almost to death with his cane in the U.S. Senate.
  • Senator Preston Brooks vs Senator Charles Sumner

    Senator Preston Brooks vs Senator Charles Sumner
    In order to apply for statehood, the state of Kansas had to hold an election to decide if they would enter the Union as a free state or a slave state. Both the North and the South attempted to convince people to migrate to Kansas to sway the vote of popular sovereignty, and “border ruffians” moved from Missouri to Kansas to rig the election. On election day, they (armed with rifles and a cannon) burned down the printing press for publishing abolitionist papers.
  • Pottawatomie Massacre

    Pottawatomie Massacre
    Kansas was ultimately admitted into the Union as a slave state, and a man named John Brown found issue with this. He believed that God had given him a mission to be the one to end slavery, and he had gathered many followers by preaching his ideas of abolition. Brown and a group of his followers went to Kansas and hacked multiple pro-slavery families to death with swords in what became known as the Pottawatomie Massacre.
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    Civil War and Reconstruction

    The United States is faced with its greatest crisis in that time; the Civil War.
  • The Homestead Act

    The Homestead Act
    The Homestead Act provided 160 acres of land to each household in an effort to push towards westward expansion. However, under the Homestead Act, migrants’ land must be farmed for five years, they must reside on the land for five years, and they must make improvements (such as building a permanent home). The Homestead Act encouraged many people to migrate west, becoming a significant part in the reconstruction of the area.
  • Pacific Railway Act

    Pacific Railway Act
    Because it was now a bi-coastal nation, it was difficult for America to trade with and access other countries. The Pacific Railway Act made a railroad that connected the nation to itself. Specifically, it encouraged people to build an expansive railroad system by offering to pay people to lay down tracks. It paid $4,000 for every 1 mile of track laid on flat ground, $8,000 per mile of track on rough terrain, and an impressive $16,000 per mile of track in the mountains.
  • The Emancipation Proclamation

    The Emancipation Proclamation
    Following the Union win at the Battle of Antietam (the single bloodiest battle in the United States), Lincoln announced the Emancipation Proclamation. The Emancipation Proclamation stated that abolition was given to Southern states and that the only legal slave states were the border states. Under the Emancipation Proclamation, Southern states were ordered to release their slaves, otherwise the Union would conquer their state and would force them to release their slaves.
  • Lincoln’s 10% Plan (Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction)

    Lincoln’s 10% Plan (Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction)
    Abraham Lincoln believed that the nation, following the Civil War, could be unified again if the feelings of animosity went away. He offered pardons would be given to any Confederate leader who swore an oath to the Union, and that any state would be readmitted to the Union once at least 10% of its voters had sworn loyalty to the Union. Additionally, it stated that states had to form new state constitutions that outlawed slavery.
  • Wade-Davis Bill

    Wade-Davis Bill
    Republicans in Congress believed that Abraham Lincoln’s Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction (The 10% Plan) was too lenient on the Confederates. They proposed the Wade-Davis Bill, in which 50% of state voters had to swear loyalty to the Union and only non-Confederates would be allowed to vote. Lincoln refused to sign the Wade-Davis Bill, stating that it was too harsh on the South. However, his assassination stopped him from being able to do anything about his opposition towards it.
  • Freedmen's Bureau

    Freedmen's Bureau
    This act helped newly freed black people transition to freedom by a) starting schools, b) negotiating labor contracts, c) securing loans, d) helping find and purchase land, and e) providing legal aid. Primarily, Freedmen’s Bureau was a government organization put in place to aid any displaced black people and other war refugees. It is particularly significant because it was the first federal agency to financially assist those in poverty and to foster social welfare.
  • The 13th Amendment

    The 13th Amendment
    Passed by Congress on January 31, 1865, and ratified on December 6, 1865, the 13th Amendment abolished slavery in the United States. In addition to banning slavery, the amendment outlawed the practice of involuntary servitude and peonage. Involuntary servitude or peonage occurs when a person is coerced to work in order to pay off debts. This marked a turning point in the fight for racial equality that had been present for years and years prior, specifically throughout the Civil War.
  • The Civil Rights Act of 1866

    The Civil Rights Act of 1866
    The Civil Rights Act of 1866 gave citizenship to African Americans and offered some protection against black codes, which were meant to restrict the freedoms of freed people following the recent Amendments. Black codes stated that black people could not rent or borrow money to purchase land, and made it so that freed men were forced to sign into labor contracts that were illegal to break.
  • The Civil Rights Act of 1866 (cont.)

    The Civil Rights Act of 1866 (cont.)
    Additionally, they took away legal rights from African Americans, making it so that they could not testify against white men in court. The Civil Rights Act provided protection against all of this, but there was still a fear of the Democratic Party overturning the act if they gained power in Congress.
  • The Reconstruction Acts of 1867

    The Reconstruction Acts of 1867
    These acts stripped the southern states of their political power and divided them into five military districts which were placed under the Union army. If a southern state wanted to rejoin the Union under the Reconstruction Acts, it had to ratify the 14th Amendment and create a state constitution that gave all men the right to vote. They also limited some former Confederate officials' and military officers' rights to vote and to run for public office.
  • The 14th Amendment

    The 14th Amendment
    In order to protect the Civil Rights Act of 1866 from being overturned by a Democratic majority in Congress, the 14th Amendment was passed. It stated that all people born in the United States and all people that were naturalized were also full citizens. Additionally, it stated that all states were required to protect its citizens with full protection through the laws and legal process, and that a state that denied people their voting rights would lose its representation in Congress.
  • The 15th Amendment

    The 15th Amendment
    This Amendment, incredibly unpopular in the North, prohibited any state from denying any citizen the right to vote, regardless of “race, color, or previous condition of servitude”. The 15th Amendment, in simplest terms, guaranteed African-American men the right to vote. Almost immediately after its ratification, African Americans began to take part in running for office and voting. This was extremely significant as this is what the Civil War was fought over.
  • Civil Rights Act of 1875

    Civil Rights Act of 1875
    The unpopularity of the 15th Amendment made the Radical Republicans lose their super majority in Congress. As a result, President Andrew Johnson lost his re-election to Ulysses S. Grant. As president, Grant put forth the Civil Rights Act of 1875 in which he banned discrimination in public accommodations. This act, however, was not enforced by the presidents that followed Grant.
  • 1876 Election Crisis (cont.)

    1876 Election Crisis (cont.)
    The South was then angry, but the Constitution had no solution for this kind of crisis and did not account for any situation similar. An election was then created with 5 Democrats, 5 Republicans, and 5 Supreme Court Justices. Hayes was ultimately named president of the United States, and military oversight in the South was brought to an end (and, with it, Reconstruction).
  • The 1876 Election Crisis

    The 1876 Election Crisis
    The 1876 election was a race between Democrat Samuel Tilden and Republican Rutherford B. Hayes. Following the votes, it seemed that 100% of the South had voted for Tilden. The North, suspicious of this, questioned the validity of this given the Republican intimidation that had occurred prior to the election. A recount was initiated in South Carolina, Louisiana, and Florida. Following the recount, all of the states went to Hayes.
  • Period: to

    Rise of Industrial America

    In the decades following the Civil War, the United States emerged as an industrial giant.
  • The Haymarket Riot

    The Haymarket Riot
    Intended to be a strike in support of eight hour work days (8 hours for work, 8 hours for rest, 8 for what we will), the Haymarket Riot ended with two workers dead from police brutality. The police had only intervened because of union vs non-union employees clashing. The Haymarket Riot’s significance is that it led to the fall of the Knights of Labor, a group that wanted to abolish the wage system and create a community of worker owned industries and prohibition against child labor.
  • The De Lome Letter

    The De Lome Letter
    A prelude to the Spanish American War, the De Lome Letter was received by government officials in February of 1898. This stolen letter was sent by the Spanish Minister in Washington, who called President McKinley a “would-be politician”. Newspaper publisher William Randolph Hearst received a copy of the letter and published it, beginning the trend of yellow journalism in America. “You furnish the pictures, I’ll furnish the war”, Hearst was famously noted to say.
  • The Sinking of the U.S.S. Maine

    The Sinking of the U.S.S. Maine
    In addition to the De Lome Letter, the sinking of the U.S.S. Maine was a pivotal cause for war. The Navy battleship was parked in Havana Harbor to protect both the U.S. citizens and to ensure economic interest in Cuba. On February 15, 1898, the Maine exploded killing 260 American sailors. President McKinley, in response, asked congress to approve a $50M appropriation to prepare for war.
  • Period: to

    Progressive Era to New Era

    The early 20th century was an era of business expansion and progressive reform in the United States. In the early 1900s, the United States entered a period of peace, prosperity, and progress. In the nation's growing cities, factory output grew, small businesses flourished, and incomes rose.
  • Espionage Act of 1917

    Espionage Act of 1917
    Freedoms are often restricted during times of war, which is debated to be unconstitutional. The Espionage Act of 1917 prohibited speech for Americans, including “any disloyal, profane, or abusive language” about the government or the flag. The goal was to keep the United States united throughout the first World War, but it raised many questions.
  • The Zimmerman Note

    The Zimmerman Note
    At the beginning of WWI, the U.S. favored isolationism. Unfortunately, the interception of the Zimmerman Note brought us into the war. The intercepted telegram showed Germany promising to give Mexico back Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona in exchange for an alliance in which Mexico would attack the U.S. The Zimmerman Note put an emergence into our involvement in the war as we became involved.
  • Sedition Act of 1918

    Sedition Act of 1918
    Similarly, the Sedition Act of 1918 was put into place to control nationalism and pride during WWI. This Act prosecuted people who questioned the government. The Sedition Act of 1918 is HIGHLY comparable to the Alien and Sedition Acts, which were also incredibly controversial. As a result of this act, 2,000 people were imprisoned. Acts like this put into question just how much power our President should have.
  • Woodrow Wilson’s 14 Points

    Woodrow Wilson’s 14 Points
    As the first World War came to a close, President Woodrow Wilson sought to end the fighting with his Fourteen Points. The three major “categories” of his points were to prevent future war, to adjust borders, and to establish the League of Nations– an international organization that would address crises between the countries without war. Though his points were not put into effect, they were a precedent for the United Nations (which would be formed well after his time).
  • The 19th Amendment

    The 19th Amendment
    The 19th Amendment makes it illegal to deny the right to vote to any citizen based on their sex, which effectively granted women the right to vote. It was first introduced to Congress in 1878 and was finally certified 42 years later in 1920. The efforts of women like Ida B. Wells and Alice Paul led to the passage of the 19th Amendment.
  • The 18th Amendment (The Volstead Act)

    The 18th Amendment (The Volstead Act)
    Following years of advocating for temperance, the 18th Amendment was passed outlawing the manufacture, sale, distribution, or importation of alcohol nationwide. The 18th Amendment led to a rise in organized crime in the states, the creation of speakeasies, bootleggers, and– oddly enough, Nascar racing.
  • The Treaty of Versailles

    The Treaty of Versailles
    The European powers opposed Wilson’s 14 Points because they wanted to punish Germany. As a result, they formed the Treaty of Versailles. Among the treaty’s terms were limiting Germany’s army to 100,000 men, limiting the German Navy to 6 warships, allowing no creation of planes or submarines in Germany, preventing ensloche, not allowing German troops to hold position in the Rhineland, and, most notably, the War Guilt Clause.
  • The Treaty of Versailles (cont.)

    The Treaty of Versailles (cont.)
    Through the War Guilt Clause, Germany took full responsibility for the beginning of the war, paying $33B in war reparations. The Treaty of Versailles economically depleted Germany, leaving them bitter and suffering.
  • Immigration Act

    Immigration Act
    The Immigration Act limited the number of immigrants who could come to the U.S. to only 2% of the number of people from that country that had been in the U.S. in 1890. In the midst of the red scare, Americans were afraid of the spread of Communism in America. As a result, they attempted to limit the number of “outsiders” in the states.
  • Scopes Monkey Trial

    Scopes Monkey Trial
    A small town in Tennessee banned the teaching of evolution in order to prevent people from drifting from the religious ideals that were preferred. A local substitute science teacher, John Scopes, taught evolution anyway and was charged and brought to trial. Scopes was obviously guilty, but the case heightened tensions and sparked debates about the role of religion in education that still persist.
  • Period: to

    Great Depression and World War II

    The widespread prosperity of the 1920s ended abruptly with the stock market crash in October 1929 and the great economic depression that followed.
  • The Bonus Army March

    The Bonus Army March
    As the Great Depression began to enter the lives of Americans everywhere, WWI veterans raised frustration about the bonus they’d been promised for their service– but they weren’t allotted to receive it until 1945. Because of the financial circumstances of the time, many of them wanted and needed that money now.
  • The Bonus Army March (cont.)

    The Bonus Army March (cont.)
    Thousands of upset veterans marched on Washington in 1932 but their request was denied by the Senate. Some of these veterans stayed congregated around the White House, having nowhere to go. After months, President Hoover called out the Army to disperse the homeless veterans.
  • Hitler’s Becomes Chancellor of Germany

    Hitler’s Becomes Chancellor of Germany
    Hitler gained significant popularity because of his criticism of (and his refusal to adhere to) the Treaty of Versailles. The German people, desperate and economically depleted, were eager to grasp onto anything that could give them any hope. Hitler provided two scapegoats for the German people– the Jewish people, and the Treaty of Versailles (and everyone that had signed it).
  • Roosevelt’s New Deal

    Roosevelt’s New Deal
    Franklin Delano Roosevelt (FDR), once sworn into office, promised to create programs that would address the depression. These programs would focus on “relief, recovery, and reform”. Despite being intended to help the struggling economy, the New Deal was the cause of enormous debt spending. It changed the government's role as the government began to protect people from themselves. In Roosevelt’s first hundred days, he acted decisively to increase government spending and to create many programs.
  • The Second New Deal

    The Second New Deal
    The Second New Deal included the National Labor Relations Act to protect labor organizing, the Works Progress Administration (WPA) relief program (which made the federal government the largest employer in the nation), the Social Security Act and new programs to aid tenant farmers and migrant workers.
  • German Troops March Into the Rhineland

    German Troops March Into the Rhineland
    Hitler began to arm Germany, expanding its military. This was an obvious violation of the Treaty of Versailles, and the German people celebrated it. The newly expanded military marched into the Rhineland, which had been demilitarized by the Treaty of Versailles. Hitler’s actions showed that he was willing to directly challenge the treaty.
  • Hitler Orders Occupation of Sudetenland

    Hitler Orders Occupation of Sudetenland
    Many hoped that Hitler’s occupation of Sudetenland would be the last Nazi conquest. However, in March 1939, he ordered his troops to take over the remainder of Czechoslovakia. This was the first aggressive step that war in Europe would soon begin.
  • Nazi Germany Annexes Austria

    Nazi Germany Annexes Austria
    The Treaty of Versailles, in addition to banning German troop entrance into the Rhineland, had also banned Germany from ensloche in uniting with Austria. Germany, in opposition to the Treaty of Versailles, naturally united with Austria. Additionally, they began to create submarines and aircraft for wartime– also against the Treaty.
  • Germany and Russia Sign a Non-Aggression Pact

    Germany and Russia Sign a Non-Aggression Pact
    Hitler and Stalin signed a nonaggression pact that stated that neither country would attack the other under war. Obviously… war was in the making. Hitler promised Stalin that he would gain part of Poland, which he planned to invade soon after. Germany invaded Poland the next month, beginning a war between Germany, Britain, and France— World War II had officially begun.
  • Operation Barbarossa

    Operation Barbarossa
    The Nazis began the Blitz in September of 1940 in which the German Air Force (luftwaffe) launched a repeated bombing raid on British towns and cities. Hitler, in June of 1941, changed tactics and decided to halt the bombing of Britain and instead launch an attack against Russia, betraying Stalin. This turned WWII into a two front war, which ultimately lost Germany the war entirely.
  • The Tuskegee Airmen (1941)

    The Tuskegee Airmen (1941)
    The Tuskegee Airmen were the first African American soldiers to successfully complete their training and enter the Army Air Corps . Almost 1000 aviators were produced as America's first African American military pilots. By the end of the war, the Tuskegee Airmen had destroyed 400 enemy aircraft.
  • The Tuskegee Airmen

    The Tuskegee Airmen
    Among their accomplishments-- 111 German airplanes were destroyed in the air and another 150 on the ground; and 950 railcars, trucks and other motor vehicles were destroyed. The Tuskegee Airmen returned home with 150 Distinguished Flying Crosses, 744 Air Medals, 8 Purple Hearts, 14 Bronze Stars.
  • The Attack on Pearl Harbor

    The Attack on Pearl Harbor
    The U.S. embargo against Japan was hurting the Japanese economy deeply. Japan believed that the U.S. would be an easy win if they attacked, and a territory with abundant land and resources if they won. In a five phase attack, Japan bombed Pearl Harbor. A day later, the U.S. and Great Britain declared war on Japan with Germany and Italy declaring war on the U.S. just days later on December 11, 1941.
  • The Detroit Race Riot

    The Detroit Race Riot
    On the American homefront of WWII, there was a rumor that a group of African American men had “ganged up” on a white woman. Tensions increased as rumors about a white man killing a black mother and her child caused a full on riot. 6,000 troops were called in to quell the violence of the Detroit Race Riot.
  • The G.I. Bill of Rights

    The G.I. Bill of Rights
    As a form of thanking soldiers and veterans from WWII, the G.I. Bill of Rights paid for education (in the form of either college or trade school), gave low interest housing loans, and provided low interest business loans. The G.I. Bill of Rights became a precedent for the Baby Boomer generation that would all be expected to go to college as a result of their parents being able to attend college. This expectation is still extremely present in our current society.
  • “Operation Overlord”- D-Day

    “Operation Overlord”- D-Day
    Stalin hoped to create an operation that would be carried out by the Allies to reduce German divisions since the USSR had suffered heavy casualties from fighting on the eastern front. The Allies spent 18 months planning and training for Operation Overlord, which was the largest seaborne invasion in history and is often considered the turning point in WWII.
  • Yalta Conference

    Yalta Conference
    The Yalta Conference, also known as the Crimea Conference, was the World War II meeting of the heads of government of the United States, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union to discuss the postwar reorganization of Germany and Europe. The Yalta Conference led to the emergence of the United Nations.
  • Potsdam Conference

    Potsdam Conference
    The Potsdam Conference was held at Potsdam in the Soviet occupation zone from July 17 to August 2, 1945, to allow the three leading Allies to plan the postwar peace, while avoiding the mistakes of the Paris Peace Conference of 1919. The participants were the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the United States.
  • Period: to

    Post-War United States

    The entry of the United States into World War II caused vast changes in virtually every aspect of American life.
  • The Truman Doctrine

    The Truman Doctrine
    With the Truman Doctrine, President Harry S. Truman established that the United States would provide political, military and economic assistance to all democratic nations under threat from external or internal authoritarian forces. This new doctrine provided a legitimate basis for the United States' activism during the Cold War. Historians often place the Truman Doctrine as the beginning of the Cold War.
  • Operation Vittles

    Operation Vittles
    This was an impressive airlift that provided food and goods into Berlin following Stalin’s blockade on all traffic leading into West Berlin. Stalin hoped to force West Berlin into becoming communist, but Operation Vittles prevented the people in West Berlin from being alone and desperate. President Truman had made it clear that a war would break out between the U.S. and the USSR if a plane was shot down.
  • The Marshall Plan

    The Marshall Plan
    The Marshall Plan led to a huge expansion in exports, rebuilding the wreckage in Europe. Though Americans like to say we did it out of the kindness of our hearts, the end goal of the Marshall Plan was to prevent the countries that we helped from turning communist in the future. We helped to rebuild lots of Europe, including Germany, through the Marshall Plan.
  • USSR Tests Their Own Atomic Bomb

    USSR Tests Their Own Atomic Bomb
    The idea of mutually assured destruction ensured that the U.S. and the USSR would not attack each other with nuclear weapons but would, instead, use proxies. If one country attacked the other, it would be the end of both of them. The Soviets successfully tested their first nuclear device, called RDS-1 or “First Lightning” (codenamed “Joe-1” by the United States), at Semipalatinsk on August 29, 1949.
  • Joseph McCarthy’s Speech

    Joseph McCarthy’s Speech
    Senator McCarthy first made a name for himself in 1950 when he charged that over 200 “known communists” were in the Department of State. This led to the spread of “McCarthyism” in which people accused others of being communist. In an effort to reinvigorate his declining popularity, McCarthy made a dramatic accusation that was a crucial mistake: in early 1954, he charged that the United States Army was “soft” on communism.
  • Brown v. Topeka Board of Education

    Brown v. Topeka Board of Education
    The results of the Plessy v Ferguson case determined that schools could still be segregated and be considered “equal”. They were not equal. Students of color were not given the same level of education, the same level of cleanliness, or the same opportunities. Additionally, schools for students of color were fewer in number, making them often further away from towns. Young girl Linda Brown made a case to the court, arguing that segregation couldn’t be equal.
  • Montgomery Bus Boycotts

    Montgomery Bus Boycotts
    Martin Luther King Jr. was a pastor that gained his start as a civil rights leader through the Montgomery Bus Boycotts. Following the arrest of Rosa Parks, a boycott was organized by King and other leaders. 40,000 black people in Montgomery participated in the boycott, which lasted 382 days. Because black customers made up 75% of the bus’ business, the companies were forced to destroy segregation on buses.
  • The Eisenhower Interstate Highway & Defense Act

    The Eisenhower Interstate Highway & Defense Act
    This became the largest public works project in history, updating and modernizing America’s roadways, connecting the country. The Highway and Defense Act played on Cold War fears, making evacuation from the country easier and making emergency runways possible. Cars, in this time, became more of a necessity and symbol of both freedom and status, making it easier for families to live further from their workplaces.
  • Launch of Sputnik

    Launch of Sputnik
    Sputnik was the first artificial satellite to orbit the Earth. It was launched into an elliptical low Earth orbit by the Soviet Union on the 4th of October in 1957 as part of the Soviet space program. It sent a radio signal back to Earth for three weeks before its three silver-zinc batteries ran out.With its launch, the Space Race had officially begun. Explorer 1 went into orbit in January of 1958.
  • Cuba Falls to Communist Revolution

    Cuba Falls to Communist Revolution
    Fidel Castro came into power in Cuba, and many Cubans fled into the U.S.. President Eisenhower authorized a CIA plan to overthrow Castro using Cuban exiles that now resided in the U.S.. However, JFK became president and at the last minute withdrew the U.S. Navy from the plan. Without the Air Force and Navy support, the entire mission failed.
  • The Election of 1960

    The Election of 1960
    This election was the first time that a Presidential debate had ever been televised. Richard Nixon, one of the candidates, was a practiced politician with a proven track record. Other candidate John F. Kennedy was a young and unproven politician. Though Nixon was set up to win the election, he was not as comfortable on camera. Since 87.1% of Americans had a television, they finished watching the election with the belief that Kennedy had better proven himself– and he won the election.
  • Lunch Counter Sit-Ins

    Lunch Counter Sit-Ins
    In Greensboro North Carolina, four black college students sat down at a segregated lunch counter in a Woolworth's Department Store. After being denied service, they refused to leave and began a sit-in at the restaurant. This event inspired similar sit-in protests throughout the south. Six months after the four students were denied service, they were served lunch at the same Woolworth’s lunch counter.
  • The U-2 Incident

    The U-2 Incident
    Believed to be indestructible, the U-2 was a reconnaissance plan that was shot down over the USSR. The pilots were expected to self-destruct the plane and to kill themselves if the plane was to go down, but pilot Gary Powers did neither. This resulted in him being captured and put on trial. Khruchev used this incident to cancel a planned East-West summit conference in Paris.
  • Freedom Rides

    Freedom Rides
    Over 1,000 student volunteers (both black and white), organized by CORE and SNCC began to take rides throughout the south to test the new laws outlawing segregation in bus and railway stations. Several groups of riders were viciously attacked by racists, and some of these buses were even bombed by angry whites. Commissioner of Public Safety Eugene “Bull” Connor intentionally arrived late to the scene to allow rioting to begin.
  • The Grozny Crosses the Quarantine Line

    The Grozny Crosses the Quarantine Line
    Modern day historians note that the standoff between the Grozny and the US Navy nearly turned into a global calamity. With bombers in the air and nearly 3000 American nuclear weapons alone in a state of readiness, the Cuban Missile Crisis could have led to the end of the world in mere minutes.
  • Children’s Crusade

    Children’s Crusade
    Hundreds of school kids staged a school walk-out to participate in a March in downtown Birmingham. Many were arrested, but they continued to walk-out. Bull Connor stopped the marches by ordering the crowds to be sprayed with fire hoses and releasing dogs on them. The march was televised, and it ultimately caused JFK to publicly support civil rights and new civil rights legislation.
  • March on Washington

    March on Washington
    Civil rights leaders A. Philip Randolph and Bayard Rustin planned for a march on Washington to protest segregation, the lack of voting rights, and unemployment among African Americans. The event intended to draw attention to continuing challenges and inequalities faced by African Americans a century after emancipation. It was also the occasion of Martin Luther King Jr.'s iconic “I Have a Dream” speech.
  • Civil Rights Act of 1964

    Civil Rights Act of 1964
    The Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibited discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex or national origin. Provisions of this civil rights act forbade discrimination on the basis of sex, as well as, race in hiring, promoting, and firing. It also strengthened the enforcement of voting rights and the desegregation of schools.
  • The Great Society of Lyndon B. Johnson

    The Great Society of Lyndon B. Johnson
    The Great Society was an ambitious series of policy initiatives, legislation and programs spearheaded by President Lyndon B. Johnson with the main goals of ending poverty, reducing crime, abolishing inequality and improving the environment. The Great Society is considered one of the most extensive social reform plans in modern history. In addition, Johnson's efforts helped establish greater civil and voting rights, greater environmental protections, and increased aid to public schools.
  • The Gulf of Tonkin Incident

    The Gulf of Tonkin Incident
    The Gulf of Tonkin incident was an international confrontation that led to the United States engaging more directly in the Vietnam War. Two US destroyers on patrol in the Gulf of Tonkin — the Maddox and the Turner Joy — were attacked by North Vietnamese boats.
  • Voting Rights Act of 1965

    Voting Rights Act of 1965
    The Voting Rights Act of 1965, signed into law by President Lyndon B. Johnson, aimed to overcome legal barriers at the state and local levels that prevented African Americans from exercising their right to vote as guaranteed under the 15th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution.
  • The My Lai Massacre

    The My Lai Massacre
    The Mỹ Lai massacre was the mass murder of unarmed South Vietnamese civilians by United States troops. More than 500 people were slaughtered in the My Lai massacre, including young girls and women who were raped and mutilated before being killed.
  • The Watergate Scandal

    The Watergate Scandal
    Watergate was a scandal that arose from the Nixon administration's attempt to cover up its involvement in the 1972 break-in at the Democratic national committee headquarters in the Watergate apartment complex. On August 9, 1974, facing almost certain impeachment and removal from office, Nixon resigned from the presidency. Afterwards, he was issued a pardon by his successor, Gerald Ford.