American history

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    The Nation at a glance

    The United States History
  • French and Indian War

    French and Indian War
    As a result of this war France ceded all of its North American possessions east of the Mississippi River to Britain. The cost of the war contributed to Britain's decision to impose new taxes on American colonies.
  • Stamp Act

    Stamp Act
    British Parliament enacted a tax on newspapers, legal and commercial documents in an attempt to help pay for wars the crown was fighting. The colonists refused to use the stamps and the outrage is part of what fueled the American Revolution.
  • Townshend Act

    Townshend Act
    This was a tax on the colonies on glass, lead, paint, paper, and tea. The money raised by the duties was used to pay the salaries of colonial governors and judges, ensuring the loyalty of America's governmental officials to the British Crown. This did not make the colonist happy and would later lead to the Boston Massacre.
  • Boston Massacre

    Boston Massacre
    This was a deadly riot that occurred on Main St. in Boston between a British army detachment and a mob of civilians. Five people were killed and the soldiers were charged with murder and given a civilian trial.
  • Boston Tea Party

    Boston Tea Party
    A group of Boston people disguised themselves as Indians (Mohawk) and boarded a ship anchored in the harbor. They dumped $10,000 worth of tea into the water in protest of a tax on tea and perceived monopoly of the East India Company.
  • The Coercive Acts

    The Coercive Acts
    This was also known to the colonies as the Intolerable Act. It was 4 laws passed by the British Parliament to punish the colony of Massachusetts Bay for the Boston Tea Party. These acts outraged colonists and lead to the first meeting of the Continental Congress.
  • The Continental Congress first met

    The Continental Congress first met
    The first Continental Congress met in Philadelphia and served as the governing body of the 13 colonies. The had to meet at different locations later due to the war and in 1776 it took the huge step in declaring America's independence from Britain.
  • American Revolutionary War

    American Revolutionary War
    The American Revolution was a war resulting from the 13 colonies being fed up with the British trying to take greater control of them. The colonies won their independence which created the foundation for the United States of America.
  • Give me liberty or give me death03

    Give me liberty or give me death03
    Virginian Patrick Henry was convinced that war was inevitable. He gave a strong speech defending his views in a church in Richmond with the famous words “I know not what course others may take, but as for me, give me liberty or give me death!”
  • Paul Revere's ride

    Paul Revere's ride
    Paul Revere rode from Charlestown to Lexington in Massachusetts to warn the British were marching to seize the colonial armory. The British had to retreat and had a great loss of life compared to the Americans, 273 to 90.
  • Declaration of independence

    Declaration of independence
    The declaration explained why the 13 colonies were at war with the Kingdom of Great Britain. It was the first step in forming the United States and the documents original draft was written by Thomas Jefferson.
  • Treaty of Amity and Commerce/Treaty of Alliance

    Treaty of Amity and Commerce/Treaty of Alliance
    The French had secretly furnished financial and material aid to the Americans. The signing of this act was France's way to formally begin preparing fleets and armies to enter the fight but didn't declare war until later.
  • The worst defeat for Americans

    The worst defeat for Americans
    The unconditional surrender of Major General Benjamin Lincoln to British Lieutenant General Sir Henry Clinton and his army of 10,000 at Charleston, South Carolina was the worst defeat of the revolution. More than 3,000 Patriots were captured and the British presence let loose the full violence of a civil war upon the population.
  • Treaty of Paris

    Treaty of Paris
    After the British were defeated at Yorktown, the sea battles continued which came to include Spain and the Netherlands. Britain recognized the independence of the United States with generous boundaries but retained Canada. They gave East and West Florida to Spain. This document ended the war.
  • Constitution of the United States

    Constitution of the United States
    The Articles of Confederation was replaced with the Constitution of the United States. This remains the fundamental governing law of the United States in setting up the national frame and constraints of government.
  • The First Election

    The First Election
    As commander of the Continental Army during the Revolutionary War, George Washington had proven he could handle the political demands of the office. He was unanimously voted as the first president and John Adams was voted as vice president.
  • Washington Inauguration

    Washington Inauguration
    George Washington is inaugurated as the first President of the United States. Washington took the oath of office on the balcony of Federal Hall. At the time New York was the temporary capitol.
  • House recommends The Bill of Rights

    House recommends The Bill of Rights
    The House of Representatives votes to recommend a bill of rights for adoption by the states. They were introduced to attempt to defuse criticism of the new government. The 10 amendments included protection for freedom of speech and the right to bear arms.
  • Judiciary Act

    Judiciary Act
    The constitution and bill of rights gave means for a judiciary arm of government. This act created the Supreme Court and other inferior courts. Congress established a system of federal trial courts with broader jurisdiction, creating an arm for enforcement of national laws within each state.
  • Residence Act

    Residence Act
    This Act established the Temporary and Permanent Seat of the Government of the United States. A site was selected on the Potomac River as the permanent capital Washington, D.C., in ten years time.
  • Bank of the United States Chartered

    Bank of the United States Chartered
    It helped fund the public debt created by the American Revolution. It was highly controversial and ceased operation in 1841. It helped stabilize the national currency, provided a convenient means for all citizens and helped the regulation of private banks chartered by several states.
  • Whiskey Tax

    Whiskey Tax
    A federal tax on domestic and imported alcohol, earmarked to offset a portion of the federal government’s recent assumption of state debts. This was extremely unpopular with southern and western farmers whose grain crop was the chief ingredient in whiskey. It eventually lead to the whiskey rebellion in 1794.
  • George Washington re-elected

    George Washington re-elected
    George Washington's second election was unanimous but that masked the separation growing in the government. He really didn't want to run for re-election, he wanted to stay home at Mt Vernon. However he feared the government would fall apart if he didn't run and so he ran.
  • Washington Issues Proclamation of Neutrality

    Washington Issues Proclamation of Neutrality
    The Proclamation declared the nation neutral in the conflict between France and Great Britain. It threatened legal proceedings against any American providing assistance to any country at war. This was mainly issued in response to diplomat Edmond Genet's visit to America trying to drum up support for France. George Washington was not very pleased with him when he met him in 1793.
  • Jefferson resigns from Cabinet position

    Jefferson resigns from Cabinet position
    Jefferson’s “retirement” coincided with his increased efforts to organize the Democratic-Republican Party and fight the Federalist agenda. It left the cabinet in new political territory with others trying to fill his shoes. It lead to future presidents following Washington’s example and only appointed secretaries from their own party.
  • Battle of Fallen Timbers

    Battle of Fallen Timbers
    The final battle of the Northwest Indian War. It caused the Indians to sign the Treaty of Greenville in 1795, which ceded strategic areas and control of most of the river crossings in the Old Northwest Territory to the United States. It almost guaranteed domination over the Indian tribes.
  • Washington's Farewell Address

    Washington's Farewell Address
    His key points were to warn Americans against the danger of political parties, to remain neutral in foreign conflicts and to celebrate their achievements. He warns that their independence, peace at home and abroad, safety, prosperity, and liberty are all dependent upon unity among the states. He believed that having 2 political parties was not a good idea and would cause a rift in the nation.
  • President Adams elected

    President Adams elected
    John Adams was elected president in the first contested presidential race. He defeated Thomas Jefferson by a margin of 71 electoral votes to 68. Thomas Jefferson became the vice president. John Adams was a member of the Federalist Party.
  • Thomas Jefferson elected President

    Thomas Jefferson elected President
    Thomas Jefferson tied with Aaron Burr during the presidential election (both parties actually campaigned and had candidates). The Federalist-controlled House finally elected Thomas Jefferson president on February 17, 1801. The tie led to the 12th amendment.
  • Louisiana Purchase

    Louisiana Purchase
    The United States bought land from the French First Republic. A total of 828,000 square miles for 15 million dollars.
  • Lewis and Clark Expedition

    Lewis and Clark Expedition
    The expedition trail winds over 4,900 miles from Pennsylvania to the Pacific Ocean. President Thomas Jefferson commissioned the expedition shortly after the Louisiana Purchase in 1803 to explore and to map the newly acquired territory. He wanted to find a practical route across the western half of the continent.
  • War of 1812

    War of 1812
    This war was fought between the United States and the United Kingdom over territorial expansion in the Northwest Territory. Although the House and Senate voted for war they were divided along strict party lines, with the Democratic-Republican Party in favor and the Federalist Party against.
  • Prison Reform

    Prison Reform
    This reform pushed for separate jails for men, women and children. It also called for the mission of prison to be about rehab and not necessarily hard labor as punishment.
  • Missouri Compromise

    Missouri Compromise
    The House admitted Maine as a free state, Missouri as a slave state, and made free all western territories north of Missouri's southern border. It also outlawed slavery above the 36º 30' latitude line. This was a compromise by Henry Clay to try to keep the balance between the North and the South.
  • American system

    American system
    The American system was highly supported by Henry Clay and was used through several ways to make the U.S. economically self sufficient while it continued to grow. Four ways included in the system included support for high tariff, maintenance of high public land prices, preservation of the bank of the United States and development of a system to improve roads/canals.
  • The Erie Canal

    The Erie Canal
    This canal connected Lake Erie to the Hudson River. It was the first navigable waterway connecting the Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes. It reduced the costs of transporting people and goods across the Appalachians. It is still in operation today with 2 expansions for larger ships to pass.
  • Democratic Party

    Democratic Party
    Before 1860 the party supported expansive presidential power, the interests of slave states, while opposing a national bank and high tariffs. It was predominantly built by Martin Van Buren and widely supported in many states behind war hero Andrew Jackson.
  • Abolitionist Movement

    Abolitionist Movement
    This was a movement to end slavery. More specifically, these individuals of this movement sought the immediate and full emancipation of all enslaved people. Historians believe ideas during the Second Great Awakening inspired abolitionists to rise up against slavery.
  • Indian Removal Act

    Indian Removal Act
    It authorized the president to trade land with the Indians by force if necessary. The government took their land east of the Mississippi and relocated them to lands west of the Mississippi. This completely eliminated some tribes.
  • Trail of Tears

    Trail of Tears
    After the Indian removal act was passed 5 tribes (the Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Muscogee, and Seminole nations) were relocated or exterminated in an 800 mile trek to Oklahoma. Around 60,000 Indians were removed, many died from the trip west and the sadness is why it was called the trail of tears.
  • Nat Turners Rebellion

    Nat Turners Rebellion
    The Nat Turner rebellion is probably the most significant uprising in American history. Nat Turner was an educated preacher that lead a slave rebellion in Virginia resulting in approximately 60 white people being killed. Twice that number of slaves were killed afterward in wide spread fear. New laws prohibited the education of enslaved people and free Black people, restricted rights of assembly, civil liberties and worship services.
  • The National Road

    The National Road
    The National Road was the first major improved highway in the United States built by the federal government. It ran from Maryland to Ohio, it was started in 1811 under the Madison administration and was a main transport path to the West for thousands of settlers.
  • Steel plow

    Steel plow
    It was invented by John Deere. It was strong enough to cut through the tough prairie sod of the Midwest and the Plains making farming much easier.
  • Educational Reform

    Educational Reform
    Massachusetts reformer Horace Mann led the charge for the nation's first statewide public-school system. The public school system became a reality and holds the promise of equal educational opportunity for all children.
  • Opium War

    Opium War
    The British had finally found one crop that they could sell to China, opium. After so many Chinese got addicted to it, the government got mad, and the British and Chinese went to war.
  • The Oregon Trail

    The Oregon Trail
    The Oregon Trail was a 2,000 mile route from Missouri to Oregon. It was used by thousands of American Pioneers heading west thru Indian territory and it was not an easy route.
  • Manifest Destiny

    Manifest Destiny
    The belief that the expansion of the US throughout the American continents was both justified, inevitable and destined by God . The term was coined by a newspaper editor.
  • Annexation of Texas

    Annexation of Texas
    Texas obtained their independence and wanted to be a part of the U.S.. Mexico said they couldn't because it still belonged to Mexico. So the U.S. went to war and Texas became the 28th state.
  • Mexican American War

    Mexican American War
    This war was started by Americans in order to establish the border between the countries and decide the fate of Texas. It ended with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.
  • Seneca Falls Convention

    Seneca Falls Convention
    This was the first women's rights convention and was held in upstate New York. The Convention adopted twelve resolutions, of which the most controversial was an unprecedented call for the women of this country to secure the right to vote. It took nearly 7 decades before women were given that right but it started here.
  • Mexican Cession

    Mexican Cession
    By the terms of the treaty Mexico ceded 55 percent of its territory, including the present-day states California, Nevada, Utah, New Mexico, most of Arizona and Colorado, and parts of Oklahoma, Kansas, and Wyoming. The treaty added an additional 525,000 square miles to United States territory
  • Susan B Anthony

    Susan B Anthony
    Susan worked with her good friend for over 50 years for women's rights and the ability to vote. Many times she put herself at risk of being arrested. Anthony was good at strategy. Her discipline, energy, and ability to organize made her a strong and successful leader. “Men, their rights, and nothing more; women, their rights, and nothing less.” was her famous quote.
  • Sectionalism

    It is loyalty to the interests of your own region or section of the country, rather than the nation as a whole. The South with its cotton and different lifestyles didn't want to give up their way of life for the greater good. The North also didn't want to give up its views and would not bend on its trade embargo's and heavy industry life style. This eventually led to the civil war.
  • Compromise of 1850

    Compromise of 1850
    The compromise admitted California as a free state but allowed newly acquired territories to decide on slavery for themselves. It called for the abolition of slave trade in Washington, DC, and amended the Fugitive Slave Act.
  • William Boss Tweed

    William Boss Tweed
    He was a Political Machine Leader of NYC's Tammany Hall. He was very corrupt in spending tax dollars when obtaining votes for money and greedy politicians.
  • Fugitive Slave Act

    Fugitive Slave Act
    This act made it a crime to help runaway slaves. It provided for the seizure and return of runaway slaves who escaped from one state into another or into a federal territory. Many Northern States enacted laws to prevent this from going into effect and it was eventually overturned in 1964.
  • Gagsden Purchase

    Gagsden Purchase
    A 29,670-square-mile region of present-day southern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico that the United States acquired from Mexico. The reason for it was prompted in part by advocates of a southern transcontinental railroad, the most practical route would pass through the acquired territory.
  • Bessemer Process

    Bessemer Process
    It was developed around 1850 by injected air to make iron to remove impurities and make steel better. It is claimed that William Kelly first discovered this process but Henry Bessemer patented it.
  • Dred Scott Decision

    Dred Scott Decision
    Dred Scott was a black slave who sued for his freedom in Missouri after he had accompanied his late master to army postings in free states and he won his freedom. The ruling was overturned by The Missouri Supreme Court.
  • A house Divided

    A house Divided
    A house divided was Lincoln's acceptance speed for the Illinois Senate race of 1958. He meant the country could not endure permanently as a half slave and half free nation.
  • Mining Frontier

    Mining Frontier
    It attracted people to the West not only working in the mines, but jobs providing food, clothing and services to the miners. A boom started when gold and silver were found in western Nevada
  • Harper's Ferry

    Harper's Ferry
    Harper's Ferry is the location of the federal arsenal. John Brown raided it to get guns in an attempt to start an armed revolt of enslaved people and destroy the institution of slavery.
  • The Pony Express

    The Pony Express
    An American express mail service that used relays of horse-mounted riders. The route was over 2,000 miles long from Missouri to California and famous employees include Wild Buffalo Bill.
  • Cattle Frontier

    Cattle Frontier
    The development of the railroad made it profitable to raise cattle of the frontier. There were over 5 million long horn cattle grazing the Long Horn state. The cattle boom ended by the 1880's due to weather conditions.
  • Succession

    This happened when 11 slave states with drew from the Union following the election of Abraham Lincoln. These states later formed the Confederate States of America with Richmond Virginia as its capitol.
  • Anaconda Plan

    Anaconda Plan
    It was a naval blockade as a result of Ft Sumter. It blocked the borders of all southern states which interrupted trade.
  • First battle of Bull Run

    First battle of Bull Run
    A battle in Virginia that showed early success for the north and was watched as a picnic by citizens. Then a brigade under Stonewall Jackson's command pushed the northern troops back to Washington.
  • Antietam

    McClellan pursued Lee's army until he was forced into a fight at the Potomac. It was known as the bloodiest day in America with over 25,000 killed or wounded.
  • Homestead Act

    Homestead Act
    This act passed in 1862. The government gave settlers 160 acres of federal land if they agreed to farm it for 5 years. It was part of the westward expansion.
  • Transcontinental Railroad

    Transcontinental Railroad
    North America's first transcontinental railroad was a 1,911-mile continuous railroad line from Iowa to San Francisco. It was also known as the Pacific Railroad.
  • Emancipation Proclamation

    Emancipation Proclamation
    This proclamation stated that any area that the union troops held would forever be free slave states. It promised that the federal government and military would "recognize and maintain the freedom" of the freed slaves. The President ended up freeing 3.5 million slaves.
  • 10% Plan

    10% Plan
    The 10% plan granted pardons to the majority of the Confederate military. It granted admittance to the Union by a state once 10% of the voting population took an oath of loyalty and established a government.
  • John D Rockefeller

    John D Rockefeller
    In 1863 he built his first refinery outside Cleveland. By 1882 his company had a near monopoly on the oil industry leading the government to pass Acts to avert monopolies in the future
  • Vicksburg

    A battle in which the South was pounded daily by gun fire. After 48 days the city and 31,000 Rebels captured, Mississippi was in Union control.Texas and Arkansas were cut off from the confederacy.
  • 1864 election

    1864 election
    Lincoln won the election with 55% of the popular vote. This election was the last hope for the South.
  • The rise of big business

    The rise of big business
    Big business grew with the invention of new technology such as the steam engine, coal and electricity. Companies could now mass produce goods.
  • 13th Amendment

    13th Amendment
    The Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution abolished slavery and involuntary servitude. It is the formal recognition to end slavery.
  • Freedman's Bureau

    Freedman's Bureau
    An Act passed to provide food, shelter, clothing, medical services, and land to displaced Southerners, including newly freed African Americans. It also helped former slaves legalize marriages and locate lost relatives, and assisted black veterans.
  • John Wilkes Booth

    John Wilkes Booth
    He murdered President Lincoln by shooting him in the back of the head. Lincoln was in his box attending a play at the time.
  • Plains Indians

    Plains Indians
    These Indians lived between the Mississippi River and the Rocky Mountains. They were Nomadic tribes that lived in Teepee's and followed the buffalo herds.
  • 15th Amendment

    15th Amendment
    It granted African American men the right to vote. It didnt matter their race, color or if a previous slave the men could now vote.
  • Industrial Revolution

    Industrial Revolution
    The economy progressed from manual labor and farm labor to new machines, power sources, and ways of organizing work which made existing industries more productive and efficient. The U.S. had plenty of cheap labor and raw materials which increased there revolution to break neck speed.
  • Rise of labor unions

    Rise of labor unions
    The purpose of a labor union was strength in numbers. It attempted to gain better working conditions and pay for members such as the knights of labor and the AFL
  • Imperialism

    A policy by a stronger nation in attempt to dominate weaker nations - economically, politically, culturally, militarily. One government tries to dominate another government in order to gain wealth.
  • Barbed wire

    Barbed wire
    Invention of Joseph Glidden that ended the "open range" and cattle drives. Barbed wire was cheaper, easier, and quicker to use than any of these other alternatives.
  • Sitting Bull

    Sitting Bull
    A Native American chief who united the Sioux tribes of the American Great Plains against the white settlers taking their tribal land. He lead the victory of Little Bighorn.
  • Little Big Horn

    Little Big Horn
    This was the last Native American victory. General Custer and some 200 men in his battalion were attacked by as many as 3,000 Native Americans. They all died within an hour.
  • Compromise 1876

    Compromise 1876
    An informal deal that settled the 1876 presidential election. It pulled troops out of state politics and ended reconstruction.
  • Chief Joseph

    Chief Joseph
    He was leader of the Nez Perce who supported peaceful interaction with white settlers, attempted to relocate his tribe to Canada rather than move them to a reservation.
  • The Gilded Age

    The Gilded Age
    An era between the Reconstruction and progressive era saw huge growth in the west and the northern states. Railroads were the major growth industry, with the factory system, mining, and finance increasing in importance. A major influx of European labor helped fuel the expansion west because America paid more than the old country.
  • Berlin Conference

    Berlin Conference
    A meeting at which representatives of European nations agreed upon rules for the European colonization of Africa. Members of the conference discussed establishing rules to amicably divide resources among the Western countries at the expense of the African people.
  • American Federation of Labor

    American Federation of Labor
    It accepted only skilled white males. They were paid higher wages for shorter work hours.
  • Interstate Commerce Commission

    Interstate Commerce Commission
    A federal government agency created to set fair, constant railroad rates.The law was largely ineffective because it had to rely on the courts to enforce its rulings and pro-business courts interpreted it in a very limited sense.
  • Dawes Act

    Dawes Act
    The act passed with the intent to ASSIMILATE Native Americans into mainstream American life. They did this by dissolving tribes as legal entities and eliminating tribal ownership of land.
  • Sherman Anti trust Act

    Sherman Anti trust Act
    A law outlawing a combination of companies that restrained interstate trade or commerce; important to prevent monopolies. It was not used properly in the beginning.
  • Alfred Thayer Mahan

    Alfred Thayer Mahan
    Alfred Mahan justified American imperialism by arguing that the nation needed new markets, and that key to opening those markets was having a strong navy supported by the presence of naval bases throughout the world to supply ships. A Navy officer whose ideas on naval warfare and the importance of sea-power changed how America viewed its navy.
  • Wounded Knee

    Wounded Knee
    It is believed the soldiers of the 7th Cavalry were deliberately taking revenge for the regiment's defeat at the Little Bighorn. This slaughter of Native Americans marked the end of the Indian Wars on the Great Plain
  • Populist

    A U.S. political party representing mainly farmers, favoring free coinage of silver and government control of railroads and other monopolies. They were considered a left wing party that favored 8 hour workdays and a graduated income tax.
  • The new immigrants

    The new immigrants
    20 million Europeans mostly from Europe came to Ellis Island (Jews/Catholics) Asian-Angel island. Hundreds of thousands more came from Mexico caribbean and China.
  • Gold standard Act

    Gold standard Act
    It defined the United States dollar by gold weight. It required the United States Treasury to redeem, on demand and in gold coin only, paper currency.
  • Lusitania

    A British ocean liner that was one of the worlds largest and briefly held appellation for the fastest Atlantic crossing in 1908. It was sunk by the German U-boats and made America consider entering WWI
  • 16th Amendment

    16th Amendment
    The amendment allows the federal government to collect income taxes on any money that was made. It didn't have to give any of it to the states.
  • Panama Canal

    Panama Canal
    The United States built the this massive gateway to have a quicker passage to the Pacific from the Atlantic and vice versa. It cost $400,000,000 to build.
  • U boats

    U boats
    They were Germany's only weapon of advantage as Britain effectively blocked German ports to supplies. It is a submarine craft.
  • Trench warfare

    Trench warfare
    A new technique, it defended a position by fighting the from the protection of deep ditches. World War I was a war of trenches
  • World War

    World War
    A war in which the major nations of the world are involved. In the first world war there were 20 million deaths and 21 million wounded.
  • Treaty of Versailles

    Treaty of Versailles
    The treaty forced Germany and other Central powers to take all the blame for the war. It also restricted Germany from having an army/navy/air force, manufacturing weapons and to repay the cost of the war.
  • 18th Amendment

    18th Amendment
    It made it illegal to manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors. Prohibition had begun.
  • Advertising

    Ads appealed to consumers, inhibitions, frustrations, and fears. Fads became a big thing and ads helped fuel the desire.
  • Economic boom

    Economic boom
    President Coolidge returned America to laissez faire, high tariff, and low tax income. The automobile boom changed the landscape and liberated rural America. The nations wealth more than doubled.
  • Installment plan

    Installment plan
    Americans bought high-cost items, such as refrigerators and cars, on the plan. They would make a small down payment and pay the rest in monthly installments.
  • Joseph Stalin

    Joseph Stalin
    He was a Communist dictator of the Soviet Union, Successor to Lenin as head of the USSR. He lead his country to war with war with Western Europe and the United States.
  • Benito Mussolini

    Benito Mussolini
    He was a Fascist dictator of Italy. He led Italy to conquer Ethiopia, joined Germany in the Axis pact, and allied Italy with Germany in World War 2.
  • Charles A Lindbergh

    Charles A Lindbergh
    He made the first nonstop solo flight over the atlantic sea. He flew 3,600 miles for 33.5 hours from Paris to NYC.
  • The Great Depression

    The Great Depression
    There were 7 major causes of the depression. Several of these include the stock market crash, missteps by the federal reserve and production problems. It was the longest and most severe economic depression in history.
  • Dow Jones Industrial Avg

    Dow Jones Industrial Avg
    It is a Barometer of the stock market's health. The US markets saw an 89% drop in 3 years leading to the stock market crash.
  • Black Tuesday

    Black Tuesday
    the market crashed as stockholders tried to sell their stock and cut their losses (16.4 million shares were dumped). It was the beginning of the Great Depression.
  • Hawley-Smoot Tariff

    Hawley-Smoot Tariff
    It established the highest tariff in U.S. history. It was Designed to protect American farmers and manufacturers from foreign competition
  • President Roosevelt fights the depression

    President Roosevelt fights the depression
    His philosphy was direct spending, direct relief and government stimulation. Americans loved him and the majority of ideas to get Americans back on their feet financially.
  • 20th Amendment

    20th Amendment
    The terms of the President and the Vice President shall end at noon on the 20th day of January. It was passed because Before the 20th Amendment the nation waited four months for the next president. During the time of crisis the sitting president was considered a lame duck.
  • Adolph Hitler

    Adolph Hitler
    He was a 1933 dictator of Germany, German Nazi dictator during World War II. His actions changed the course of the world by starting WW2, which killed 50 million people. He was also responsible for the holocaust among many awful things.
  • World War II begins

    World War II begins
    Hitler's invasion of Poland in September 1939 drove Great Britain and France to declare war on Germany. The conflict would take more lives and destroy more land and property around the globe than any previous war.
  • Pearl Harbor

    Pearl Harbor
    A surprise military strike by the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service upon the United States against the naval base at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii. It was the beginning of WW2 for the U.S.
  • Battle of Midway

    Battle of Midway
    A U.S. naval victory over the Japanese fleet in June 1942. The Japanese lost four of their best aircraft carriers. It marked a turning point in the pacific theater of World War II.

    This was the Code name for the U.S. effort during World War II to produce the atomic bomb. It was led by the United States with the support of the United Kingdom and Canada.
  • Battle of the Bulge

    Battle of the Bulge
    This battle was the German's last major offensive in World War II. The Allies pushed the Germans back and won.
  • D Day

    D Day
    The day over a million troops (the largest invasion force in history) stormed the beaches at Normandy and began the process of re-taking France. The turning point of World War II.
  • Atomic bomb

    Atomic bomb
    A type of bomb built during WORLD WAR II that was more powerful than any built before it. It was dropped on the Japanese by the U.S. to bring an end to WW2, it killed 350,000 people.
  • Cold War

    Cold War
    It was a war of words and threats between the US and USSR from 1945-1990. It was a political and economic struggle between these nations. The real fear was of nuclear war.
  • Iron Curtain

    Iron Curtain
    Winston Churchill's term for the Cold War division between the Soviet-dominated East and the U.S.-dominated West.
  • President Truman

    President Truman
    The U.S. president at the end of WW2, dropped an atom bomb on Japan and was the leader at the beginning of the cold war. He was the 33rd president.
  • United Nations

    United Nations
    An organization of independent states formed in 1945 to promote international peace and security. The UN was established after World War II with the aim of preventing future world wars.
  • Marshall Plan

    Marshall Plan
    Introduced by Secretary of State George G. Marshall in 1947, he proposed massive aid to Europe to revitalize the European economies. He believed it would help stop communism.
  • Mao Zedong

    Mao Zedong
    He was a Chinese communist revolutionary who was the founder of the People's Republic of China, which he led as the chairman of the Chinese Communist Party. He was the ruler of the beginning of dictatorship in China.
  • NATO vs. Warsaw Pact

    NATO vs. Warsaw Pact
    North Atlantic Treaty Organization formed by domocratic Western nations as an attempt to contain communism. Soviets feel threatened and form a communist alliance of their own called the Warsaw Pact.
  • Mccarthyism

    It describes a time period in the Early Cold War in which people were unscrupulously accused of being disloyal. It's like saying you are a communist.
  • Winston Churchill

    Winston Churchill
    He was the leader of Great Britain during WW2. He is largely remembered as a hero that stopped Hitler from taking Great Britain.
  • Civil rights movement

    Civil rights movement
    This was a non violent social movement to abolish legalized institutional racial segregation and discrimination. It achieved crucial equal rights legislation.
  • Rosa Parks

    Rosa Parks
    She refused to give up her seat on a bus and was arrested. She was an activist during the Montgomery Bus Boycott.
  • Emmet till

    Emmet till
    Emmet till is beaten and lynched because he flirted with a white woman. His mother decided to have an open-casket funeral so that all the world could see what racist murderers had done to her only son.
  • Little Rock 9

    Little Rock 9
    9 African American students ( Little rock nine ) are the first to attend the newly desegregated Little Rock high school after much debate.
  • Sputnik

    The first artificial Earth satellite, it was launched by Moscow in 1957 and sparked U.S. fears of Soviet dominance in technology and outer space. It led to the creation of NASA and the space race.
  • Sit ins

    Sit ins
    Students at four African American colleges in Nashville Tennessee launch sit-ins in segregated places to make a point that everyone was equal. By May of 1960 all places were desegregated.
  • 24th amendment

    24th amendment
    The 24th Amendment abolishes the poll tax, which originally had been instituted in 11 southern states after Reconstruction to make it difficult for poor blacks to vote. This was another step in freedom for all.
  • James Meredith

    James Meredith
    James Meredith becomes the first black student to enroll at the University of Mississippi. Violence and riots surrounding this incident caused President Kennedy to send 5,000 federal troops to the area.
  • Civil Rights Act

    Civil Rights Act
    A law that outlaws discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, and national origin.
  • Vietnam War

    Vietnam War
    The major initiative in the Lyndon Johnson presidency was the Vietnam War. By 1968, the United States had 548,000 troops in Vietnam and had already lost 30,000 Americans there. The U.S. entered the war to prevent the communist North from over taking the South.
  • Shirley Chisholm

    Shirley Chisholm
    Shirley Chisholm becomes the first black female U.S. Representative. Her motto was unbought and unbossed.
  • 14th Amendment

    14th Amendment
    It granted citizenship to all persons "born or naturalized in the United States," including formerly enslaved people, and provided all citizens with “equal protection under the laws” All people could become citizens!