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APUSH 1st and 2nd Semester

By NealW
  • The Settlement of Jamestown

    The Settlement of Jamestown
    Trying to copy the success of Spain in America, after the Anglo-Spanish war King James chartered the Virginia Company to create the first permanent English settlement. It was a joint stock company, with the goal to make profit for investors. Settled on Chesapeake bay in swampy conditions the unskilled and unprepared settlers were too focused on riches. The harsh winters, mass disease, and conflict with the Powhatans created the "starving times" where only 60 of the original 200 settlers lived.
  • The 1st Slaves Arrive in Jamestown

    The 1st Slaves Arrive in Jamestown
    Prosperity came to Jamestown with John Rolfe's cultivation of a sweeter tobacco strain. It was labor intensive and for the colony to be profitable a large labor force was needed. Almost all of the labor came from indentured servants, but African slavery was another option. The first slaves arrived and though slaves weren't the primary source of unpaid labor until the late 1600s their arrival signaled the start of a cruel system that would last for almost 250 years and end in the nation's divide.
  • Bacon's Rebellion Occurs

    Bacon's Rebellion Occurs
    Bacon's Rebellion was the first armed rebellion in American history and it was led by Nathanial Bacon against the Colonial Virginia Governor William Berkley. Frustrated by the elite leaders which refused to protect farmers from the Indians outraged colonists took matters into their own hands and led a revolt attacking native tribes and then moving on to destroy Jamestown, the capital of Virginia. Once stopped there was an increase in slave labor for fear of indentured servants revolting again.
  • Jonathon Edwards Begins to Preach "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God"

    Jonathon Edwards Begins to Preach "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God"
    Following the Enlightenment, there was complacency in religious practice in the colonies. "New light" preachers, such as Jonathon Edwards and George Whitefield, sparked a resurgence of religion through the Great Awakening. They traveled spreading faith and Edwards did so through powerful emotional and intense sermons depicting God as angry over the lack of religious practice in the colonies. As a result, the colonies became more united together but religion became a more divisive issue.
  • Beginning of the French and Indian War

    Beginning of the French and Indian War
    With colonial want to spread West and little French settlement growing colonial interest in the Ohio River Valley led to Colonel George Washington being sent to expel the French from the land. Outnumbered Washington lost beginning the war. The war lasted 9 years with the colonists, British troops, and Iroquois fighting against the French and their Indian allies. The British won and received vast swaths of land, but the massive debt led to taxes on the colonists resulting in British resentment.
  • The Proclamation of 1763

    The Proclamation of 1763
    Ending the British policy of laissez-faire the Proclamation of 1763 barred colonists from crossing the Appalachian mountains stating no royal protection would be provided once they were crossed. Colonists were outraged by the act, they had sacrificed and died during the French and Indian war to acquire the western land, and what was the point if it couldn't be used? It was the first case of the crown trying to control the colonies in decades a decision which would spark the Revolution.
  • The Boston Tea Party

    The Boston Tea Party
    The Boston Tea Party was a protest by the Sons of Liberty against the Tea Act of 1733. Dressed like Native Americans they boarded three British East India Company's tea boats. They then dumped all of the tea off the boats costing the company $1.7 million(today's value). The British Parliament was tired of the colonial protests and reactions and created the Coercive(Intolerable) Acts to punish the colonies. They especially punished Boston closing the port until the cost of the tea was repaid.
  • Meeting of the First Continental Congress

    Meeting of the First Continental Congress
    In response to the enactment of the Intolerable acts delegates from all 13 colonies besides George met to discuss how the colonies would continue. Feeling that their rights were being infringed they had to make a decision. The Congress issued the Declaration of Rights which stated they would remain loyal to the British crown. Still, they demanded that the colonies have representation in the parliament and for the Intolerable Acts be lifted. Until lifted there would be a boycott of British goods.
  • The Second Continental Congress Gathers

    The Second Continental Congress Gathers
    The Second Continental Congress convened shortly after the first shots of the war at Lexington and Concord to discuss the war. Radicals at the Congress established the Continental army and George Washington as its commander. A few conservatives helped push to create the Olive Branch Petition as the last chance at peace between the colonies and Britain. The Petition was quickly rejected by the British and thus the war began with the Continental Congress serving as the leaders of the colonies.
  • Declaration of Independence

    Declaration of Independence
    Primarily written by Thomas Jefferson, the Declaration of Independence declared the birth of a new American nation. Signed by the Continental Congress the document levied complaints against King George III stating he had no right to govern over the colonies. It established the main ideals of the new nation being inspired by John Locke with its inclusion of natural rights and a government under a social contract. The document didn't form the new nation though as that would have to come from war.
  • The 3/5ths Compromise is Created

    The 3/5ths Compromise is Created
    Fierce debate occurred between Northern and Southern delegates about how slaves would be considered when it came to taxation and representation. If non-whites were fully counted then the South would have great power. James Madison proposed the 3/5ths Compromise where every black would count as 3/5ths of a person when it came to representation. This Compromise would set a standard that Africans would not be treated as people and gave the South heavy control over Congress until the Civil War.
  • Removal of Articles of Confederation

    Removal of Articles of Confederation
    The Articles of Confederation was the first attempt at forming a constitution. It was incredibly weak as fear of another monarchial government resulted in a weak government. The federal government couldn't form an army, regulate commerce, or impose taxes upon the states. Shay's Rebellion highlighted key weaknesses of the document and efforts to create the modern-day Constitution went into effect. The ending of the Articles marked a time when the American government could finally prosper.
  • George Washington Elected 1st President of the U.S.

    George Washington Elected 1st President of the U.S.
    Washington's presidency would set precedent for how every future United States president should act. He helped set the groundwork for the future of America. With the stronger governmental power, the new Constitution gave Washington was quick to put it to work. He would help decide D.C. would be the future capital and with his secretary of treasury, the 1st national bank would be created. Along with this, he ended the Farmer's Rebellion setting the precedent that future revolts could be stopped.
  • Judiciary Act of 1789

    Judiciary Act of 1789
    The Judiciary Act of 1789 established the Judiciary branch in the United States government. It included the Supreme Court and many other lower levels to help handle rising cases of citizens' rights and businesses. It also created the Attorney General and the acts passing helped established the checks and balances known in the U.S. government, but it would take until Marbury v. Madison(1803) for the Supreme Court to gain real power. Without this act, the courts would have had much less power.
  • The Invention of the Cotton Gin

    The Invention of the Cotton Gin
    Legal under the Constitution slavery was slowly declining in the United States before Eli Whitney created the cotton gin. Singlehandedly it made cotton production highly profitable reinvigorating the Southern demand for slave labor. Large plantations were created as slavery and the economy boomed in the south. The Southern economy became dependent on cotton and the institution of slavery creating a clear division between Northern and Southern economies which would last until post-Reconstruction.
  • The Cane Ridge Revival Sparks the Second Great Awakening

    The Cane Ridge Revival Sparks the Second Great Awakening
    A 6-day event the Cane Ridge Revival was a pioneer of frontier camp meetings attracting over 10,000 people and sparking the Second Great Awakening. With the help of people such as Lyman Beecher, the Second Great Awakening grew to cause national change. Women became more welcome into society and greater power was given to women over their 'sphere of influence'. Public education grew rapidly, the women's rights movement started, and the first signs of abolition all resulted from this camp meeting.
  • Marbury vs. Madison

    Marbury vs. Madison
    William Marbury brought James Madison to court because of Madison's failure to deliver Marbury his judicial commission. The court ruled it was illegal for Madison not to deliver the commission but Marbury was not made a judge because the court also ruled the statute under the Judiciary Act of 1789 which allowed Marbury to take the case to the Supreme Court was unconstitutional. Claiming the Supreme Court's power of judicial review it allowed the court to veto legislation deemed unconstitutional.
  • The Lousiana Purchase

    The Lousiana Purchase
    Jefferson, a strict constructionist, feared temporary deals like Pinckney's treaty would end and leave farmers without the New Orleans port to ship from. When contacted about the purchase of the port Napoleon responded with a deal where the U.S. could buy all of the Louisiana territories for $15 million, doubling the size of the new country. The Constitution was vague on whether the president could make such a large purchase, and Jefferson was in such anguish after the purchase he became ill.
  • Embargo Act of 1807

    Embargo Act of 1807
    Pushed for by Thomas Jefferson the Embargo Act of 1807 closed all American ports from exporting and importing goods to punish the British and French. In the short term, it severely damaged the American economy crippling many Northern port cities, and the South which relied heavily on exporting its cotton. The public was outraged by the act but in the long term, it helped develop the United States into an industrial superpower as factories had to open to replace foreign manufactured goods.
  • Battle of New Orleans

    Battle of New Orleans
    Occurring technically after the War of 1812 as the Treaty of Ghent had already been signed, the Battle of New Orleans was a decisive American victory over the British. Andrew Jackson led the U.S. forces, many of which being locals from nearby, and set up fortifications to crush the invading British. The end of the battle resulted in incredible American patriotism, love for the battle hero Andrew Jackson, the "era of good feelings", and encouraged the idea of the American right to spread West.
  • McCulloch vs. Maryland Establishes Federal Power

    McCulloch vs. Maryland Establishes Federal Power
    In McCulloch v. Maryland(1819), the Supreme Court decided the federal government had the constitutional right to set up federal banks, and states couldn't tax the federal government. Breaking away from a strict constitutional view this case gave the federal government more power over the states. In Gibbons v. Ogden(1824) the Supreme Court further continued providing power to the federal government ruling federal law remained supreme over states under the Commerce Clause of the Constitution.
  • Creation of the Monroe Doctrine

    Creation of the Monroe Doctrine
    Created by President James Monroe the Monroe Doctrine outlined that European powers shouldn't attempt further colonization, military actions, or other interference in the Western Hemisphere. It established two "spheres of influence" the Western and Eastern Hemisphere where the United States would be a protector and country of aid in the West with no involvement in the European East activities. As a young nation, the United States established a global precedent that would continue for a century.
  • The Baltimore and Ohio becomes the first United States Railroad to be Chartered

    The Baltimore and Ohio becomes the first United States Railroad to be Chartered
    Just 13 miles long the Baltimore and Ohio line marked the start of a massive economic and societal change in the United States. Rail allowed goods and people to be transferred quicker than ever before and it sparked the industrial revolution. Factories were developed and built around rail creating mass amounts of products. Rail also, allowed Western growth to exponentially flourish as now farmers could transport their grain using rail allowing farmers to sell much more. Without rail
  • The Tariff of 1828 was Passed by President John Quincy Adams

    The Tariff of 1828 was Passed by President John Quincy Adams
    Passed to boost the northern and western economies, the Tariff of Abominations, as it would be known in the south, substantially raised the cost of foreign imports making life in the South more expensive. As a result, the "Nullification Crisis" started when John C. Calhoun of South Carolina declared the tariff was null and void in the 1832 Ordinance of Nullification. The issue of the tariff was solved with the Compromise Tariff of 1833 but the idea of nullification set the stage for secession.
  • Passing of Indian Removal Act

    Passing of Indian Removal Act
    Passed by Andrew Johnson, in response to many in the South and West calling for native tribes to be removed, the Indian Removal Act gave the president the ability to move native tribes to land across the Mississippi river. The moving is also commonly known as the Trail of Tears where multiple native tribes were forced to move West for months at a time causing roughly 1 in 4 to die or be killed along the way. The precedent was clear that white settlers matter more than natives to the government.
  • The Supreme Court case Worcester v. Georgia(1832) is Decided

    The Supreme Court case Worcester v. Georgia(1832) is Decided
    Less than a year after the Cherokee Nation v. Georgia(1832) John Marshall and his Supreme Court returned to the issue of Georgia taking Cherokee Nation lands. In this case, the Supreme Court ruled states had no right to enforce laws over Native American nations and states could not forcefully take native lands giving the Supreme Court jurisdiction over native tribes. The decision angered Andrew Jackson and many in the South who claimed Marshall had no understanding of the Indian 'problem'.
  • Oberlin College Founded

    Oberlin College Founded
    A big win for the American women's rights movement, Oberlin College was founded as the first American college that allowed women to attend. The founding of Oberlin helped women gain respect in American society as it was now possible for some to be recognized with an official degree and proof of higher education. Setting the precedent for them many more colleges in the United States became co-educational or opened up branches that allowed women resulting in the advancement of sexual equality.
  • John Deere invents the Miracle Plow

    John Deere invents the Miracle Plow
    The "miracle plow" was the first steel plow allowing a far quicker and easier job for farmers preparing their fields. Compared to the old cast iron plows of the day the "miracle plow" would have far less dirt sticking to it and it was also much sharper. Which allowed the plow to cut through the thick plains sod that was before nearly impossible to cut through. The plow allowed the rich plain's soil to be accessed and farmed, and the cut-up sod was used to build the first houses of homesteaders.
  • Treaty of Oregon Territory

    Treaty of Oregon Territory
    Ending a 28-year period of joint occupancy of the Pacific Northwest region the Treaty of Oregon territory established Oregon as a territory of the United States and set the 49th parallel as the U.S.-Canada border. The territory officially gave the U.S. more Western coastline and the valuable resources that could be found there. The treaty helped end disputes that aroused from the large western migration from the Oregon Trail. Overall the treaty defined U.S. borders and helped westward expansion.
  • End of the Mexican-American War

    End of the Mexican-American War
    The Mexican-American War was sparked by a border dispute and whether the Rio Grande was part of Texas or not. The U.S. easily dominated the recently formed Mexican government marching through Mexico City. The end of the war would come with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo which would grant the U.S. large cessions of Mexican land including California, Nevada, New Mexico, and Arizona finally fulfilling President Polk's goal to make the U.S. a bi-coastal nation with significant coastline.
  • Seneca Falls Convention

    Seneca Falls Convention
    Called by some as the birthplace of the Women's Suffrage movement the Seneca Falls Convention established The Declaration of Sentiments a document calling for women's equality and suffrage. Written by Elizabeth Cady Stanton the document was modeled after the U.S. Constitution and resembled the A.A.S.S. founding document. Though not gaining anything immediately besides notoriety the Seneca Falls Convention marked a big shift in the American landscape towards the 19th amendment.
  • Uncle Tom's Cabin is Published

    Uncle Tom's Cabin is Published
    Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe Uncle Tom's Cabin contradicted many of the common beliefs of the time period about how slaves experienced slavery. The book painted a picture of the harsh cruelty and exposed many Northern citizens to what slavery was truly like in the South. After the book was written the harsh realities of slavery were clear and conversations about slavery would never return to how they were before. The book inspired many to vote Republican leading to Lincoln's election.
  • The Pottawatomie Massacre

    The Pottawatomie Massacre
    John Brown was enraged by the attacks on the town of Lawrence and Representative Preston Brookes's attack on Senator Charles Sumner in which Brookes near murdered Sumner with his cane. Led by the radical abolitionist Brown, his sons, and a few associates murdered 5 pro-slavery men who lived along the Pottawatomie creek. This conflict brought national attention to Brown's name and would be a spark in the conflicts of Bleeding Kansas furthering the tension between the North and South.
  • Dred Scott v. Sandford

    Dred Scott v. Sandford
    Dred Scott, an African slave plead to the Supreme Court that since he was brought to Illinois and the Wisconsin territory, both having outlawed slavery, he was illegally enslaved and should gain his freedom. The Supreme Court ruled, no he was still enslaved and beyond that, all African Americans imported to America were not citizens and the Compromise of 1820 was unconstitutional. This ruling meant that there were no "free states" sparking even more heightened tension between North and South.
  • South Carolina Secedes from the Union

    South Carolina Secedes from the Union
    South Carolina had always been a big proponent of states' rights since the nullification crisis in 1832 when they even considered secession. It was made clear during that crisis and by Lincoln that secession is treason, but just one month after Lincoln's election before he even took office in a unanimous decision of 169 Representatives South Carolina seceded from the Union. Ten more states would follow suit and form the Confederate States of America making reuniting peacefully impossible.
  • The Homestead Act of 1862

    The Homestead Act of 1862
    The Homestead Act of 1862 provided 160 acres of western land to every head of household as long as the land was lived on for 5 years, the land was farmed, and the land was improved upon in some way. It was made to increase productivity in the West and to encourage people to move from the crowded Eastern cities. Along with Americans many Europeans immigrated to the United States to claim the property. This act with the Morril Act and railroad helped turn the west into an agricultural powerhouse.
  • Emancipation Proclamation Declared

    Emancipation Proclamation Declared
    Put into effect after the questionable Union victory at Antietam, for fear of making Lincoln seem weak if enacted after a loss, the Emancipation Proclamation was foremost made to advance the military goals of the war as slaves were freed in Confederate states. Slavery was now the explicit reason for war meaning any foreign power like the British would be helping slavery if they aided the South. It also gave the Confederate states a choice to keep their slaves if they rejoined the Union.
  • Sherman's March to the Sea Ends

    Sherman's March to the Sea Ends
    Sherman's March to the Sea was a military campaign led by Union General William T. Sherman based upon a "scorched earth" strategy that stretched from Atlanta to Savannah, Georgia. The campaign was one of the first incidents of 'modern war' where civilian property, industries, and transportation were all destroyed. Many Confederate soldiers quit the war to return to their now destroyed homes resulting in the military and the infrastructure of the Confederacy being hurt ending the war sooner.
  • Lee's Surrender at Appomattox

    Lee's Surrender at Appomattox
    Fleeing from Richmond, General Robert E. Lee saw that he was undersupplied and outnumbered by General Ulysses S. Grant who was on the hunt. Avoiding capture, Lee tried to retreat towards Appomattox to resupply. Once he reached Appomattox he found Union forces were waiting and he was far outnumbered. After a brief final stance, Lee surrendered to Grant marking the loss of 28,000 Confederate soldiers and the last major battle of the Civil War. In a show of respect, Grant returned Lee's sword.
  • Ratification of the 13th Amendment

    Ratification of the 13th Amendment
    Following the Emancipation Proclamation and the end of the Civil War Lincoln sought that a permanent law to end slavery be passed through an amendment before the Confederate states rejoined. The Republican Congress went through with it ending the barbaric practice of slavery, but forced labor in prisons was still legal. There was also no clause to support the freed slaves though or a guarantee of certain rights, those issues were debated during Reconstruction and other civil rights movements.
  • The Ku Klux Klan (KKK) is Founded

    The Ku Klux Klan (KKK) is Founded
    Created by many previous Confederate legislatures and veterans the Ku Klux Klan was a powerful racist hate group that maintained power in America for decades after the war into the 1900s. During Reconstruction, there were efforts to fight their growth and gatherings in the South but they weren't effective as the hate group became synonymous with the Democratic party. The KKK and its influence over the U.S. government set civil rights back by many years and instilled fear into black communities.
  • Reconstruction Act of 1867 Passed

    Reconstruction Act of 1867 Passed
    A defining part of the Reconstruction era the Reconstruction Act of 1867 was vetoed by Andrew Jackson but was overturned by a supermajority in Congress. The act split the South into 5 military districts. The leading generals would enforce African Americans' right to vote, register all male voters, and would supervise the creation of new Constitutions. It was an extremely effective system that quickly reshaped the South but only lasting for a short time it failed to have long-lasting effects.
  • Andrew Johnson is Impeached

    Andrew Johnson is Impeached
    After many disagreements between President Andrew Johnson and Radical Republicans on Reconstruction, the House of Representatives finally impeached Johnson for violating the Tenure of Office Act. Johnson had fired Edwin Stanton, the Secretary of War, as retaliation for the Reconstruction Act of 1867 which passed after Johnson vetoed the act. Johnson was not removed from office, after his impeachment, but the rest of his time in office was uneventful and he didn't continue to veto any laws.
  • National Woman Suffrage Association(NWSA) is Created

    National Woman Suffrage Association(NWSA) is Created
    After the 15th amendment was passed and it did not promise women the right to vote division started in the women's rights movement over whether Reconstruction should still be supported. At a convention for the Equal Rights Association Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony created the NWSA to focus on women's rights. Now abolitionists and suffragists were not working together. Something which would allow the women's movement to gain more momentum in a largely racist country.
  • Ratification of the 14th Amendment

    Ratification of the 14th Amendment
    The 14th amendment guaranteed citizenship to all people born or naturalized in the United States. It also was supposed to guarantee all citizens, no matter the race, equal protection under the law, though for many years that would often be overlooked. It was passed during Reconstruction and was meant to help integrate former slaves and other African Americans into society. Though many Reconstruction laws were later abjured, as an amendment, the 14th amendment would be long-lasting for equality.
  • The Finish of the 1st Transcontinental Railroad Line

    The Finish of the 1st Transcontinental Railroad Line
    Built by the Central Pacific and Union Pacific rail companies the transcontinental rail line was financed by government funding and western land grants. It was seen as an unbelievable accomplishment at the time and its building and creation provided countless amount of jobs and economic growth in the West. Finally, the Western ports were connected to the Great Plains grains and the Eastern manufacturing. The economic growth was unparalleled being the 1st time the country was linked.
  • The 15th Amendment was Ratified

    The 15th Amendment was Ratified
    The 15th Amendment granted voting rights to African American men in the United States stating a citizen's right to vote couldn't be abridged "on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude." It was a milestone for Reconstruction and shifted the political landscape in the country. Passed by Radical Republicans, the passing of this amendment was unpopular even in the North, resulting in Democrats gaining power. Once Reconstruction ended there was no enforcement of the amendment.
  • Women's Christian Temperence Union is Founded

    Women's Christian Temperence Union is Founded
    Ever since the temperance movement started to take form during the Second Great Awakening many women were pushing for governmental action for banning of alcohol. The movement had slow growth throughout most of the 1800s because of a focus on abolition and women's suffrage but as progress on those issues was made there was space for people to care about temperance. The temperance union would eventually help push for the prohibition era and the 18th amendment but afterward would fizzle out.
  • Compromise of 1877

    Compromise of 1877
    The Compromise of 1877 was an unwritten deal that settled the presidential election of 1876. Republican Rutherford B. Hayes was awarded the victory under the condition that he would remove the last troops from South Carolina, Florida, and Louisiana which enforced Reconstruction laws. Though the Reconstruction was already coming to an end and the Republican party was losing party Hayes' election was the official nail in the coffin ending Reconstruction and leading into the Jim Crow era.
  • The Dawes Act was Passed

    The Dawes Act was Passed
    Passed to help' the Native American communities integrate with white society the Dawes Act was a piece of corrupt legislature designed to try and fundamentally destroy the way of life of the native people. It would split reservations into separate plots of land that could be claimed by individual native families. The 'surplus' land left over after no one on the reservations had claimed it would be sold to settlers. The Dawes act eliminated native culture from America through the use of force.
  • 'How the Other Half Lives' by Jacob Riis is Published

    'How the Other Half Lives' by Jacob Riis is Published
    Jacob Riis was a 'muckraker' photographer during the end of the Gilded Age. His most famous publication How the Other Half Lives is a portfolio of photos from tenement housing in New York City. The portfolio highlighted to the rising middle-class Americans that not everyone had access to the same luxuries. The book brought attention to the struggles of those who lived in extreme poverty and led to many regulations against tenement housing and other ways to improve the conditions in big cities.
  • Sherman Anti-Trust Act Passed

    Sherman Anti-Trust Act Passed
    The Gilded Age in America was a rapid period of industrialization and corporate power. Powerful and wealthy businessmen made alliances to not decrease the prices of their products or raise the wages of their workers. In this way, they created 'bad' trusts that hurt the consumer people. Teddy Roosevelt was notoriously against bad trusts and during his presidency passed the Sherman Anti-Trust act. Trusts were such a big issue the Federal Trade Commission Act and the Clayton Act were created.
  • Plessy v. Ferguson

    Plessy v. Ferguson
    Homer Plessy was a mixed-race man who challenged the Louisiana Separate Car Act. He agreed to be in a case testing the act and sat in a whites-only car on a train. He was arrested for his refusal to move and when the case was taken to the Supreme Court. The case established that "separate but equal treatment" was constitutional allowing for mandated segregation between white and black people as long as facilities were equal. This ruling would lead to many post Reconstruction Jim Crow laws.
  • Sinking of USS Maine

    Sinking of USS Maine
    Tensions were growing with President McKinley and many American citizens believing Cuba deserved to be freed from Spanish exploitation. In an effort to show military might the U.S. had docked the Maine in Havana harbor, but a sudden explosion killed 230 crew members on board. The sinking was blamed on the Spanish but was likely an engine malfunction. Either way, the U.S. declared war starting the Spanish America war which ended with the U.S. gaining the Philippines, Guam, and Puerto Rico.
  • The Pure Food and Drug Act is Passed

    The Pure Food and Drug Act is Passed
    After Upton Sinclair's publication of The Jungle President Theodore Roosevelt was appalled by the vivid descriptions of the meatpacking industry. He went on an investigation himself and found the claims to be true. This sparked him to push Congress to pass the Pure Food and Drug Act which 'prohibits the sale of misbranded or adultered food and drugs in interstate commerce'. The act also created the Food and Drug Administration which enforces the act's regulations and is in effect to this day.
  • Model T Invented

    Model T Invented
    Created by Henry Ford the Model T was the first car mass-produced for the average consumer to buy. By the 1920s it would become the most driven vehicle by a landslide. The U.S. quickly became a car-centric nation spending billions on transportation and creating suburbs and reducing the funding of rail. The economy was also improved as many factory jobs opened to produce the Model T. Though, he wasn't the inventor of the idea Ford's use of the assembly line also forever changed factory work.
  • The Federal Bureau of Investigation is Founded

    The Federal Bureau of Investigation is Founded
    Living in a time period of major corruption Teddy Roosevelt was aware of the bribes many politicians took to gain power. To counter this he founded the Federal Bureau of Investigation to investigate corruption in the government. The bureau was never overly successful in this endeavor and many of the American population feared the FBI would become a secret police comparable to those in the USSR. The FBI's real influence came with J. Edgar Hoover who expanded it to investigate federal crime.
  • Triangle Shirtwaist Fire

    Triangle Shirtwaist Fire
    Factory conditions were incredibly harsh in the early 1900s with almost zero regulations. Due to a lack of safety precautions and locked doors to keep the workers in when a fire broke out in the Triangle Shirtwaist factory building killing 146, mostly female, workers. The tragedy helped unite many labor unions and there was more pressure for regulations after so many people had died for a senseless reason. After the fire, roughly 30 laws were passed for workplace regulations and improvements.
  • Ratification of the 16th Amendment

    Ratification of the 16th Amendment
    Following the repeal of the Revenue Act of 1861, the U.S. had no income tax. With most tax money from tariffs or excise taxes, but growing parties wanted change. The Populist and Socialist parties supported an income tax and as inflation grew many blamed it on high tariffs. Ideally, an income tax would mean fewer tariffs and with that in mind, the 16th amendment was passed giving Congress the right to create a federal income tax shortly after its passing the Revenue Act of 1913 was created.
  • Panama Canal Officially Opened

    Panama Canal Officially Opened
    First started by the French the Panama Canal would be taken over by the U.S. and its completion would connect the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, and until 1999 would remain under U.S. control. The Canal improved the shipping industry of the U.S. and greatly strengthened the military ability in the Pacific. Once opened Teddy Roosevelt would have the newly painted U.S. naval ships sail through the canal showcasing their might. The Canal would give the U.S. more economic and military opportunities.
  • WWI Accelerates the Great Migration

    WWI Accelerates the Great Migration
    The Great Migration was a mass movement of the southern black population of America to northern urban cities from 1910-1970. It began with black families leaving the south to escape Jim Crow laws. WWI and later WWII drastically increased the rate of migration as many white men were either drafted to war or moved to wartime jobs. Many factory jobs became available for black men. Executive order 8802 also helped with the migration as black people couldn't be discriminated against in wartime jobs.
  • America joins World War I

    America joins World War I
    President Woodrow Wilson was hesitant to join WWI for many years. He viewed it as a European issue, but it was clearly starting to affect the U.S. German U-boats sunk merchant and civilian ships alike without warning killing U.S. citizens. The sinking of the Lusitania was famous for the death of 128 Americans. The final straw was the Zimmerman telegram something Wilson viewed as a threat to U.S. soil. He called for Congress to join the war a call that would end with 4 million soldiers joining.
  • Espionage and Sedition Acts Passed

    Espionage and Sedition Acts Passed
    Once the US joined WWI many Americans didn't support it. Domestic opposition to the war didn't become commonplace, but it wasn't unheard of. President Wilson believed this anti-war opposition would undermine the war effort so he called upon Congress. He and Congress passed the Espionage Act(1917) and Sedition Act(1918) which criminalized anti-war sentiment and anti-American sentiment such as criticizing the president. These acts violated the first amendment but were never ruled unconstitutional.
  • The Harlem Renaissance Grows once Negro World is Published

    The Harlem Renaissance Grows once Negro World is Published
    Marcus Garvey was an activist for race equality, and similar to W.E.B. DuBois he believed the black population of America could gain more respect if they advanced in society. His ideas, along with the Great Migration, strongly encouraged the growth of the Harlem Renaissance. A movement of black New Yorkers primarily who developed a new black culture. The movement featured a rise in black art, music, and literature. By the end of the movement, prior black culture expanded to the rest of America.
  • Ratification of the 18th Amendment

    Ratification of the 18th Amendment
    Alcohol was believed to be the root of many evils and its removal would lead to prosperity. For decades there had already been dry counties, but with the rise of new entirely dry states prohibition was on the rise. The Volstead Act was created by the 18th amendment setting the nation up for 13 years where the production and sale of alcohol were illegal but it wasn't effective. Consumption levels stayed the same and now alcohol was part of the black market allowing for the rise of gangs
  • Palmer Raids Start

    Palmer Raids Start
    Following the end of WWI, the American public began to have rising fears over communism fearing the socialists and "Reds" would bring about anarchy and chaos. Following the bombing of Attorney General Alexander Palmer, the nation deemed it a crisis, and Palmer attacked. He executed a series of 'Palmer Raids' deporting and arresting supposed anarchists through unconstitutional and illegal means. Over 3000 people would be arrested with the most famous being Sacco and Vanzetti two immigrants.
  • The American Civil Liberities Union is Formed

    The American Civil Liberities Union is Formed
    The American Civil Liberties Union is a non-profit organization that was formed to provide American citizens legal aid when they feel their constitutional rights have been infringed upon. It was founded after growing government expansion and actions such as the Palmer Raids and McCarthyism which directly violated the rights of the American people. Over time it expanded its influence and orchestrated the Scopes Monkey Trial and provided representation for John Scopes in the trial.
  • Ratification of the 19th Amendment

    Ratification of the 19th Amendment
    With over a century of struggle to gain the right to vote the Progressive era saw the expansion of women's rights. Finally, in 1920 groups such as the NAWSA rejoiced to see the fight was over. Women were now part of the political landscape and immediately became involved in the 1920 election. Importantly the amendment encouraged women to expand their rights more. Settlement houses began to open in large cities. Groups once focused on suffrage split up and became focused on other rights issues.
  • KDKA broadcasts the Harding-Cox Election Results

    KDKA broadcasts the Harding-Cox Election Results
    The start of the commercial radio golden age that would last for decades KDKA is a Pittsburgh radio station that made history with their broadcast of the Harding-Cox Presidential election. They broadcasted to roughly 1,000 listeners that James Harding won the election before newspapers could ever cover it. It was the first broadcast of its kind and set the stage for radio going from a niche hobby to a powerhouse of entertainment and news. Following WWI technology radio would explode in success.
  • Immigration Act of 1924 Passed

    Immigration Act of 1924 Passed
    The Immigration Act of 1924 limited the number of immigrants from Eastern Europe through a quota system and entirely banned immigrants from Asian countries. The quotas were only enforced on Eastern Europeans who many called "New Immigrants", The quotas were harsh effectively halting immigration from these countries. The ban on Asian people angered the Japanese empire establishing tensions between the two countries. It was a harsh rise away from previous limitations showing the rise of nativism.
  • Scopes Monkey Trial

    Scopes Monkey Trial
    The 1920s brought about a period of cultural change where secular beliefs began to challenge the prior religious standings that were commonplace. A debated idea was the teaching of evolution in public schools. In 1925 Tennessee passed the Butler act banning the teaching of evolution in all public schools. This led to staging a real trial Tennesse vs. John T. Scopes who subbed for a school and taught evolution. The trial was meant to showcase secular beliefs and embarrass religious fanatics.
  • "Black Tuesday" Catalyzes the Great Depression

    "Black Tuesday" Catalyzes the Great Depression
    The Great Depression is the worst economic crisis in all of US history and "Black Tuesday" was the first time the stock market collapsed. Stock prices dramatically fell as investors and companies lost hundreds of thousands in mere hours fueling bank runs in major cities such as New York. These bank runs would soon spread fueling the depression as many lost their entire life savings when a bank collapsed. Unemployment hit 25% and many lost their homes and access to food as the country collapsed.
  • Establishment of the Tennessee Valley Authority

    Establishment of the Tennessee Valley Authority
    At the peak of the Great Depression, President Theodore Roosevelt wanted to take drastic measures to help ease the unemployment rate along with advancing Southern development. He created the Tennessee Valley Authority which primarily built damns to provide electricity to the rural Tennessee Valley Authority. This area covered 7 states in the undeveloped South. Not only did the TVA provide more jobs but it also provided cheaper electricity which made development cheaper in rural areas.
  • "Black Sunday" strikes America

    "Black Sunday" strikes America
    The Dust Bowl had already been going on for 5 years by the time of "Black Sunday" but its devastation wasn't dwindled because people were used to it. It was the worst storm of the Dust Bowl burying homes, roads, and fields in over 5 states as day turned to night by the clouds of dust. Like the years before thousands had to leave their homes with many heading westward only to be called "Okies". The Dust Bowl helped start the Great Depression and "Black Sunday" was just another low blow.
  • 1935 Social Security Act Passed

    1935 Social Security Act Passed
    Signed by President Franklin D. Roosevelt in his New Deal legislation the Social Security act was originally made to boost income and allow retirement for those over 65 and provide aid to those with disabilities. Made in response to the Depression it was originally made so more elderly would retire freeing up space for younger workers. The act also created the Social Security Board which provides structure to the program. It still runs to this day and has been altered several times since 1935.
  • The Attack on Pearl Harbor

    The Attack on Pearl Harbor
    Following a US embargo on oil to Japan the Japanese empire was angry at the effort to halt their spreading conquest. The Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor in an effort to crush the US Pacific Fleet. They attacked with hundreds of planes destroying nearly all the US plans and sinking several destroyer ships and the USS Arizona. Overall 2,403 US citizens were killed in the attack, but America responded with strength. Congress declared war on Japan the next day officially entering the war into WWII.
  • FDR Signs Executive Order 9066

    FDR Signs Executive Order 9066
    Following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor and growing paranoia, and admittedly racism in the West, President Roosevelt signed Executive Order 9066. This order allowed for the "relocation" of Japanese immigrants and native-born citizens to 10 camps located in the western US. Japanese families were forced to quickly sell their possessions for low prices as they were only given short notice. Camps stayed till the end of the war but some native-born were allowed to work for the war effort.
  • The G.I. Bill of Rights Created

    The G.I. Bill of Rights Created
    President Roosevelt wanted to thank veterans for their service after WWII, so he devised the GI Bill of Rights to offer benefits. This new Bill of Rights provided more funding for the VA hospitals, free college and trade school tuition for veterans, and low-interest housing loans. This legislation helped support the veterans after many had been left in hardship following WWI. Though meant for everyone to claim the bill's structure prevented many soldiers from claiming the benefits they earned.
  • The Atomic Bombs are Dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    The Atomic Bombs are Dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki
    The Allied powers would settle for nothing less than a complete surrender by Japan, and President Truman wanted to avoid a long and costly ground war in the Pacific. He used two atomic bombs dropping them on the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki costing over 120,000 lives. The world was forever changed as it was clear whoever had nuclear weapons was more powerful than any other army. In the future, the only thing keeping nuclear-armed countries at bay was "mutually assured destruction".
  • The First Levittown is Built

    The First Levittown is Built
    With the Baby Boom that followed the end of WWII a lack of family housing became clear. The company Levitt & Sons developed a new building method to build housing cheaper and quicker. With the original town only offering customers two house styles to choose from and breaking the house building down into 27 steps houses could be built in as quickly as a day and sold for $7,900. Levittown was the first modern suburban neighborhood and its building methods would be copied in future years.
  • The Marshall Plan is Created

    The Marshall Plan is Created
    At the end of WWII, only two superpowers remained in the world, the US and USSR. The other European superpowers had been devastated by the war and needed to rebuild. President Truman and Secretary of State George Marshall feared the ruined countries would be incentivized to become communist. Truman enacted the Marshall Plan which provided every European country with economic aid and led to a resurgence in their economies. The plan helped stop the spread of communism and grew foreign relations.
  • The U.S. starts the Berlin Airlift

    The U.S. starts the Berlin Airlift
    Berlin was an island of democracy in the rest of Soviet-controlled East Germany. The USSR cut off western supply lines to Berlin starting the Berlin Blockade. In response, the United States and other Allies started Operation Vittles, the Berlin Airlift. For over a year, western countries supplied Berlin through planes only, showcasing US ingenuity. It served as a win in the Cold War as it was clear the US was willing to help support struggling countries and could provide better than the Soviets.
  • The North Atlantic Treaty Organization is Formed

    The North Atlantic Treaty Organization is Formed
    Devastated by WWII western Europe was weak and unable to defend itself from the iron curtains slow move west. Western leaders knew they needed to do something to defend themselves and called for an alliance. Twelve leaders from the U.S. and Europe met in D.C. to create the North Atlantic Treaty Organization(NATO). The alliance relies on Article 5 of the treaty which ensures if one member of NATO is attacked it is an attack on all members. Feeling secured Europe focused on rebuilding.
  • The Korean War comes to an Armistance

    The Korean War comes to an Armistance
    The Korean War was a deadly border conflict between USSR and Chinese-backed communist North Korea and democratic South Korea. Following the U.S. practice of containment, President Truman sent U.S. supplies and forces to help defend South Korea from the invading communists. The war ultimately reached a stalemate point around the 38th parallel and with death tolls rising an armistice was reached with the border being left at the 38th parallel. For a war of containment, the U.S. lost 40,000 troops.
  • Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka Decided

    Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka Decided
    Schools in the United States were segregated since "separate but equal" was established in Plessy v. Ferguson 60 years earlier. In a defining moment, the NAACP challenged elementary school segregation with little Linda Brown. The case was a success and school segregation became illegal following the court's decision in Brown v. Board of Education. It would take years for segregation to be challenged though with the Little Rock 9 being the first to challenge high school segregation.
  • The Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956 Passed

    The Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956 Passed
    Also known as the Eisenhower Interstate Act, President Eisenhower signed into action the Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956. The act would develop an interstate system that would connect the entire country together ensuring greater economic unity, and in true Cold War fashion defense capabilities. It was an enormous effort being the biggest public spending project the U.S. had ever seen but its impact is huge. The interstates solidified car dependency in America and were the basis for suburbia.
  • The First Televised Presidential Debate

    The First Televised Presidential Debate
    By the 1960 Presidential election over 90% of the American population had television in their homes. Gone were the days of the radio golden age as television had come to take its place. Following new innovation the first Presidential Debate between Richard Nixon and JFK was televised and those who watched the speech reported JFK winning, but those who listened reported Nixon winning. Nixon wasn't as visibly appealing. Future presidents would have to focus on their appearance along with points.
  • The Bay of Pigs Invasian Fails

    The Bay of Pigs Invasian Fails
    Following Cuba's fall to communism, President Eisenhower planned a CIA operation to overthrow Castro by training Cuban exiles. President John F Kennedy inherited the planned invasion mere months before the invasion. He withdrew American support so the U.S. could maintain deniability. The Cuban exiles landed unsupported in the Bay of Pigs and were slaughtered. A humiliating failure for JFK as U.S. involvement was discovered anyway. Following this JFK would reform his presidential strategy.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis

    Cuban Missile Crisis
    The closest the world has come to nuclear warfare the Cuban Missile Crisis began when Cuba fell to communism. Fearing greater Soviet involvement a U.S. spy plane flew over Cuba and discovered the building of ICBM launch sites. JFK called for a quarantine of Cuba to prevent the USSR from reaching it. Tensions peaked when the Soviet Grozny approached the barricade carrying an ICBM. It turned around after a warning shell was fired. Following Grozny the missile sites were dismantled ending fears.
  • President Lyndon B Johnson delivers his "Great Society" Speech

    President Lyndon B Johnson delivers his "Great Society" Speech
    Following his election President Lyndon B Johnson delivede his now famous "Great Society" speech at University of Michigan. His speech focused on the need to advance and improve the American society, people, and infrastructure. The "Great Society" included a 'war on poverty', environmental protection, immigration changes, new urban housing programs, and broader more expansive healthcare. Johnson created the Economic Opportunity Act 1964, Air Quality Act 1967 and Medicare to advance his society.
  • The Civil Rights Act of 1964 is Passed

    The Civil Rights Act of 1964 is Passed
    Following the violent pro-segregation protests JFK was abhorred by the treatment of black Americans. He called for Congress to pass a comprehensive civil rights bill. Following his assassination LBJ pushed for the bill. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 ended discrimination based upon race, color, religion, sex, or national origin, the biggest civil rights act since Reconstruction. It lacked a way to ensure voter eligibility for minorities. That would have to come in the Voting Rights Act of 1965.
  • Griswold v. Connecticut Decided

    Griswold v. Connecticut Decided
    Most states had laws either regulating or banning the use of contraceptives on the basis of them being against religious or social values. In Griswold v. Connecticut the Supreme Court ruled Connecticut legislation, which banned the advertisement or sale of contraceptives, was unconstitutional as it denied the due process clause of the 14th Amendment. The court also guaranteed the right to use contraceptives. It was a landmark ruling for reproductive freedom and paved the way for Roe v. Wade.
  • Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. is Assassinated

    Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. is Assassinated
    Standing on his room balcony at Lorraine Motel in Memphis, Tennessee, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. was shot in the neck. He died an hour later. In the time before his death, MLK was shifting his focus from Civil Rights to the broader scope of poverty. He wanted to push reform to eliminate wealth inequality. His death led to a surge of anger and sadness in the black community of America, but would also help spark more legislation. Some still debate if the government was involved in King's death.
  • Apollo 11 Moon Landing

    Apollo 11 Moon Landing
    The end of the great Space Race against the USSR, 8 years after President John F. Kennedy announced a national goal of America being the first to land a man on the moon, Neil Armstrong took the first steps. Armstrong's steps solidified that the U.S. could achieve greater scientific achievements than the communist USSR. In effect, it served as pro-America propaganda showing superiority. It also led to a significant morale boost for the country before some of America's darkest years.
  • Lottery Draft for the Vietnam War Begins

    Lottery Draft for the Vietnam War Begins
    After WWII Vietnam was unstable and quickly Northern Vietnam fell to communism and fearing a domino effect the U.S. helped South Vietnam fight back against the communists. The war was unpopular in part for its devastation with over 2 million civilian Vietnamese killed by U.S. troops, entire villages being slaughtered. The draft was no help with many calling it a poor man war as many escaped the draft through college. After two decades the U.S. finally pulled troops leaving the South to collapse.
  • Establishment of the Environmental Protection Agency

    Establishment of the Environmental Protection Agency
    A surge for environmental protection had been in the U.S. since Teddy Roosevelt's protection of national land. In the 1960s it saw even more growth as many began to worry about the large amounts of pollution being created by growing industry in the U.S. President Richard Nixon listened to the demands of the people and created the Environmental Protection Agency(EPA) in response. An independent government agency focused on the environment. Its creation would help pass the Clear Air Act.
  • President Richard Nixon visits communist China

    President Richard Nixon visits communist China
    Since 1949 when China became a communist nation the U.S. had withheld strong ties with the People's Republic. President Nixon put effort to soften the relationship between the two countries. He saw the influence China could have on the world and after the Sino-Soviet split China wasn't a direct enemy of America. Nixon visited Beijing and had a meeting with their leader Mao Zedong to discuss future relations with the U.S. The visit also helped lead to the Japan-China Joint Communiqué.
  • Roe v. Wade case Decided

    Roe v. Wade case Decided
    A plaintiff under the legal pseudonym Jane Roe became pregnant, but under Texas state law was unable to get an abortion. She sued her local district attorney and won. The case was taken to the Supreme Court where Texas' law was deemed unconstitutional. The Supreme Court ruled on the basis of Griswold v. Connecticut, that the Constitution protects a pregnant women's liberty and choice to have an abortion. It would spark a multi-decade debate about abortion and Roe v. Wade would be overturned.
  • President Richard Nixon Resigns from office following Watergate Scandal

    President Richard Nixon Resigns from office following Watergate Scandal
    The Watergate Scandal began with 5 Republican burglars being arrested in the Democratic National Committee office for wiretapping. Though not connected with Nixon and his campaign in any way soon after learning of the incident Nixon began to cover up the truth. He tried using the CIA to stop the FBI investigation but his efforts failed. The story leaked to the Washington Post and Nixon faced a large public backlash. Refusing to hand over recording tapes Nixon chose to resign before impeachment.
  • The Iranian Hostage Crisis Ends

    The Iranian Hostage Crisis Ends
    Iran had been an ally to the U.S. since 1953. This changed when the Shah of Iran was overthrown and U.S. diplomats in the Tehrain embassy were taken hostage. After some were shortly released 52 U.S. diplomats were held hostage for 444 days to Carter's failure. Carter tried Operation Eagle Claw to rescue the hostages but it was an utter failure. Carter had weak foreign relations and it was up to Ronald Reagan to fix them. Before Reagan's inauguration was even over the hostages were freed.
  • The Iran-Contra affair is Uncovered

    The Iran-Contra affair is Uncovered
    The Iran-Contra affair was a scandal in which the U.S. military sold weapons to Iran illegally. This weapon trade led Iran to pressure Lebanon terrorists to release American hostages. The money from the weapons sales was then used to fund the rebel Contras in Nicaragua which was illegal. The scandals brought many questions about Reagan's ethics, some wondered if it was another Watergate. Ultimately it was decided Reagan never knew of the trade, but that only brought questions of his ineptitude.