• Period: 1488 to

    First Semester

  • 1492

    The Columbian Exchange

    The Columbian Exchange
    The Columbian Exchange marked the beginning of relations between the Europeans and the indigenous peoples of the American continent. Initially intended to exchange items not native to the land they were being brought to, (i.e. crops, livestock, etc.), the exchange brought with it some unintended side effects. While exchanging goods, the Spanish brought over countless diseases from Europe to the states and wiped out 90% of the Native American Population.
  • The Headright System

    The Headright System
    The Headright system, implemented by the British government, was a way to encourage more people to settle in the Americas. Under this system, any person who had already settled in Virginia was granted 100 acres of land, any new settler was granted 50 acres of land, and any new settlers who had their passage paid off were also granted 50 acres of land and 7-11 years indentured servitude to pay off their right of passage into the continent.
  • House of Burgesses Established

    House of Burgesses Established
    The House of Burgesses was a form of politics formed by the Virginia Company, though still under the rule of Great Britain. The House of Burgesses could create laws for the people settling in the Virginia area but any of these laws could still be vetoed in England. This was significant as the people of Virginia initially had their own form of government and the ability to make laws for themselves, even if in a more minor sense. In 100 years, this freedom would be taken away.
  • The Mayflower Compact

    The Mayflower Compact
    The Mayflower Compact was the New World's first 'government document'. The document was written as a way to settle disputes between the Puritans and the Pilgrims, and established order in the Plymouth colony. The compact was a big staple in US history as it marked the beginning of self-government among the colonists which would later be the reason they parted from Great Britain.
  • Navigation Acts Implimented

    Navigation Acts Implimented
    The navigation acts brought into play by the British government were a part of their government's acts of mercantilism in the mid 17th century as they were hungry for profit. The Navigation Acts prevented the English colonists from buying or selling goods to or from anyone but England. The system was great for England, as they were able to oversell items to the Americans and buy their items for very cheap; killing the American economy. These acts sparked settlers' bitterness towards England.
  • Bacon's Rebellion

    Bacon's Rebellion
    As civilization began to grow in the colony of Virginia, so did the social and political tensions. Colonial settlers of the time were upset with the poor economy following the Navigation Acts and the lack of access to good land. Indentured servants had a hard time gaining land, money and freedom. Among this, Virginia's upper and lower classes were growing far from equal, so Bacon's rebellion formed as an uprising from lower classes highlighting division between classes in early colonial America.
  • Life, Liberty, and Property

    Life, Liberty, and Property
    John Locke was an incredibly influential philosopher during the Enlightenment of the 17th century. Locke believed that there should be a separation of the church and state, and was anti-monarchy. One of John Locke's most influential statements was that every man should be born with rights to 'life, liberty, and property' which quickly became a large staple in the Unionist belief system.
  • The French and Indian War

    The French and Indian War
    The French and Indian War was sparked as the French, accompanied by the Native Americans, who were also known as Indians at the time, were fighting the British over a land dispute. The war was significant as it scared Benjamin Franklin into calling for a meeting among representatives from each of the colonies, also known as the Albany Congress.
  • Join or Die - Albany Plan of Union

    Join or Die - Albany Plan of Union
    Following the French and Indian War, Benjamin Franklin was scared for the smaller colonial communities that were fostered in the Americas and ruled by Great Britain. He feared that these communities would never find their way out from the crowns rule and proposed the first idea to bring the first plan to unionize the 13 colonies as one union. He said if not all 13 colonies came together, they would all meet their demise and 'die'.
  • Boston Tea Party

    Boston Tea Party
    Following the end of generations of salutary neglect from Great Britain to the states, the Virginia colonists met in a pub to protest against the taxes on tea that had been placed under the Tea Act by dressing up as native Americans and throwing over $1M of tax revenue just in tea off of ships in the Boston Harbor. The revolt on the part of the colonists marked the beginning of heavy protest and highlighted the discontent that had been growing in the colonies.
  • Intolerable Acts Passed

    Intolerable Acts Passed
    In response to the Boston Tea Party, the British government resolved to fight the protest with heavier laws; hopefully putting the colonists in their place. The intolerable acts, a.k.a. Coercive Acts, consisted of closing the Boston harbor (blocking off a large amount of American trade), passing the Quartering Act, banning local assemblies, and only holding court in England. The Intolerable Acts were the last straw for most colonists and was most likely one of the heaviest causes of the war.
  • 'Shot Heard Around the World'

    'Shot Heard Around the World'
    In preparation for war against the British, the colonists began reserving guns and ammunition in a town called Concord. As time went on, the British soldiers caught wind of this through anti-unionists. They decided to march to Concord and seize the stockpile and planned to crash a meeting between Adams and Hancock in Lexington as well as killing them both, hopefully ending the rebellion. When the colonists caught on they stood in the way of the British when a gunshot was heard, starting the war.
  • Second Continental Congress / Olive Branch Petition

    Second Continental Congress / Olive Branch Petition
    The Second Continental Congress was the first meeting between representatives from all 13 states addressing plans for freedom. The consensus: try for peace and if peace should fail, they result to war. The congregation presented the British government with 'The Olive Branch Petition', a proposition to the crown to be fair to the colonists in exchange for peace and loyalty. The petition was angrily rejected by the King who said they could fight for their independence.
  • Common Sense / American Crisis

    Common Sense / American Crisis
    Thomas Paine, an incredibly famous unionist writer from the Enlightenment, published two incredibly influential novels/essays about what he believed was wrong with the British rule in common tongue and reminded the soldiers of these points and gave them more reason to fight. Common Sense found its way to thousands of Americans and upped support towards the war, while American Crisis gave the American soldiers a boost of morale in a very tough time, leading eventually to the success of the war.
  • Independence Declared

    Independence Declared
    After winning the war, the citizens of The United States declared their independence from Great Britain. This was monumental obviously as it was the beginning of a new nation and also the first time that any nation in history had defeated Great Britain. Starting the nation marked the start of a very tricky time for the continental congress, as they had to begin building a new nation from scratch and keep the people in it happy.
  • Battle of Saratoga

    Battle of Saratoga
    The Battle of Saratoga was an insanely pivotal point during the war for independence, as it was their first big win. At the time, the U.S. Army had not yet found victory and it was apparent that no matter how clever their leaders were- they needed a bit of backup. With the victory at Saratoga, Benjamin Franklin, who was cherished by the French people, was able to convince the French military to assist the U.S. in their fight against Great Britain.
  • Articles of Confederation

    Articles of Confederation
    The Articles of Confederation were the first-ever U.S. government documents and were quickly written with the intention to govern the nation for the rest of history. However, the articles were flawed as they simply reflected the fears that the unionist people had accumulated throughout the war. In summary, the nation was technically under the same name, but not the same ruling; they had a fragile federal government and an overly powerful state government. Eventually, this system proved faulty.
  • Battle of Yorktown / Treaty of Paris

    Battle of Yorktown / Treaty of Paris
    The Battle of Yorktown marked the end of the fighting between Great Britain and the United States. The war was fought between George Washington and General Cornwallis, the most harrowed general of that time. When the war was lost, Cornwallis was so embarrassed by the result that he sent his lieutenant to turn his sword over to Washington. Thus, they signed the Treaty of Paris and ended fighting between the two nations. For the first time in history, the US government could focus on itself.
  • Shay's Rebellion

    Shay's Rebellion
    While the Articles of Confederation reflected the Unionists' insecurities, Shay's Rebellion reflected all of the cracks in the new government system under their rule. With the states holding strong positions in government, poor farmers were left with incredible debt through taxation. One of these farmers named Shay led a violent protest against the government by capturing multiple state capitols. The weak federal government was powerless and had no ability to restrain the rebellion.
  • Constitution Written

    Constitution Written
    The Constitution was the final draft of a ruling document for the United States of America. As we know it today, the Constitution was written as it is on paper and extended with a Bill of Rights, written by the Anti-Federalists. The constitution rules with a stronger central government, but they only control those subjects that are covered in the document itself; anything else is passed down to the state governments to decide. This document is still used present day, so it is very important.
  • Alien and Sedition Acts Passed

    Alien and Sedition Acts Passed
    During John Adams' presidency, he began to grow hungry to keep his power and stay in the role of being the President. To help ensure that he could, Adams passed the Alien and Sedition Acts, a series of laws that allowed the President to deport any 'alien' he saw as a threat and banned any public press from being against the president. Lastly, these acts extended the time frame in which immigrants had to wait to cast a vote for elections.
  • Judiciary Act of 1789

    Judiciary Act of 1789
    The Judiciary Act of 1789 was the beginning of what would come to be the American system of 'checks and balances'. This law was passed to establish judicial courts in the United States. The judicial courts gave more access to justice and more voice to the common people who were living in the states.
  • Hamilton's Financial Plan

    Hamilton's Financial Plan
    Alexander Hamilton assumed the role of the very first secretary of treasury; dealing with the nation's money. As the nation was newly founded, it was hard to build a stable form of currency that had any sort of worth. Hamilton's financial plan was to assume state debt from the war and pay it off using federal tax money through tariffs. He also proposed the idea of a national bank made to strengthen the government and increase the value of the new paper currency.
  • Invention of the Cotton Gin

    Invention of the Cotton Gin
    Leading into the 1790s, slavery was on a steady decline. Also leading into the 1790s, a man named Eli Whitney began introducing groundbreaking inventions to the public; one being the cotton gin. The cotton gin quickly removed cotton seeds from cotton fiber, which had previously taken multiple minutes at a time for each seed. Southern farmers took advantage of this advancement by buying more slaves to work on cotton plantations; bringing slavery back into high demand.
  • Document of Neutrality

    Document of Neutrality
    The Document of Neutrality was created by the weakened U.S. army as they knew that they could not survive any more battles following the fight for freedom when the French called for backup in their fight for their freedom from their king. The Document of Neutrality was a statement to European nations that essentially stated that if they should come near the Americas they would go to war, but if not the Americans would stay put as well.
  • Pickney's Treaty

    Pickney's Treaty
    Pickney's Treaty was a settlement between the United States and Spain; Spain stated that U.S. citizens were free to travel across the Mississippi River and use the port of New Orleans for trade for the next 25 years. This was essential to the growing U.S. economy as the New Orleans port was incredibly popular and gave the American people an opportunity to trade with more people.
  • Thomas Jefferson's Election

    Thomas Jefferson's Election
    Thomas Jefferson's election was such a chaotic point in U.S. history that it was labeled the Revolution of 1800. Thomas Jefferson was the first ever political switch in power in the U.S. and was the testing of the Constitution to see how well it held up; the entire world was watching in anticipation. The power switch, unexpectedly, the switch went peacefully and was handled well by the people.
  • Marbury v. Madison Ruling

    Marbury v. Madison Ruling
    Today, one of the most important roles played by the Supreme Court is its ability to strike down laws that are deemed unconstitutional to preserve the laws that the union has held for its entire history. This process is called Judicial Review and was created in response to the Marbury v Madison ruling; a court settlement between the election of John Adams and Thomas Jefferson where Adams meant to appoint a new secretary of peace for Jefferson, who found the draft and ordered it not be given out.
  • The Battle of Thames

    The Battle of Thames
    As the people and Government of the United States spent time continuously wiping out tribes of Native Americans, the discontent and fear within the Native community began to grow. To show response to the violence, separate native tribes joined together to fight against the US, a common enemy. Though the natives could put up a good fight the US military was large and had ammunition; an entire town inhabited by natives, prophet's town, was murdered by the US military. Native backlash subsided
  • Battle at Fort McHenry

    Battle at Fort McHenry
    The battle at Fort McHenry contributed to the creation of one of the largest staples of the identity of the people of the United States to this day. Francis Scott Key was one of the boat workers who was impressed leading into the War of 1812 and was watching the battle of Fort McHenry unfold through a slot in the ship he was being kept on. Inspired by the perseverance of the US soldiers, Key wrote "The Star Spangled Banner", hailed now as the national anthem; a symbol of unity.
  • Battle of New Orleans

    Battle of New Orleans
    The battle of New Orleans was a giant success on the US' side during the war It was very thoughtfully planned out by Andrew Jackson; who used the time to create a setup for battle that made it almost impossible for the British to win. Jackson had his men dig 10-foot trenches and on the other side, he had them build 10-foot hills; Jackson put his best men lying down atop the hills with men reloading their guns behind them. The execution of this plan was tremendous, the US KD ratio was 2042:71.
  • Introduction of Railroads

    Introduction of Railroads
    The introduction of the railroad was a monumental moment in US history; the nation was large which made communication and travel both slow and difficult. Suddenly, traveling by train made communication and travel quick and efficient, the system envied by the rest of the world.
  • Tariff of Abominations

    Tariff of Abominations
    The 'Tariff of Abominations' taxed foreign goods, forcing more citizens to buy US goods and support the nation's economy. Unfortunately, with taxing other countries for goods, it was likely that foreign countries would begin to tax the US back, resulting in a lot of pushback from the American people.
  • Telegraph Invented

    Telegraph Invented
    Alongside the railroads, telegraph lines began to come into use. The telegraph was the largest jump in communication in the Americas to that point. Using the telegraph lines, people could communicate with each other from across the country using Morse code. The combination of railways and telegraph lines made communication in America the quickest and easiest in the world; heavily supporting the economy as well as business partners could easily trade.
  • Mexican-American War

    Mexican-American War
    In an attempt to get more people to inhabit Texas, Mexico sent an invitation to all US people allowing them land if they would move to Texas. After doing so, the Mexican military sent troops into the Texas territory and enforced new laws, enraging the former Americans; they declared Texas an independent nation and went to war with Mexico. Seeing that their people were being killed, the US jumped into action and decided to help the Texans. Winning, they were given all land above the Rio Grande.
  • Native American Reservations Created

    Native American Reservations Created
    The people native to the Americas were widely groups of Hunter-Gatherers; nomads who traveled with the season. When the US government realized that the people of the Union were unsettled by the presence of the natives, they confined them to ever-shrinking reservations in order to gain money from Unionists moving onto the land that the natives had previously inhabited. Reservations were incredibly harmful to the native communities and their cultures.
  • Bleeding Kansas

    Bleeding Kansas
    As states were admitted into the Union, the people of the State had to vote on whether or not they believed that slavery should be permitted in their state. To push the vote in their favor, politicians and preachers from both pro and anti-slavery standpoints convinced people with similar standpoints to move to Kansas. The name Bleeding Kansas came from the violent skirmishes that were held over opinions from opposing sides of the argument; one example being John Brown, anti-slavery.
  • Dred Scott Case

    Dred Scott Case
    Dred Scott was a man bought as a slave in a slave state when his slave master moved to a free state; meaning he was technically no longer capable of being a slave. When Scott married, he was determined to his wife, who was in a similar situation, to gain the freedom he was owed. Unfortunately during the court hearing, SCOTUS deemed the Missouri Compromise unconstitutional; as well as claiming that African Americans had 'no rights'.
  • Lincoln v Douglas

    Lincoln v Douglas
    The competition between Lincoln and Douglas was a highly controversial topic as Abraham Lincoln was openly abolitionist and running for President. Both of the candidates were in heavy opposition and Lincoln posed the first presidential debate which eventually did happen and is still a factor in today's elections. Following the debates, Lincoln eventually won the election; sparking lots of controversy among the pro-slavery Southerners.
  • South Carolina Secedes From the Union

    South Carolina Secedes From the Union
    Catching wind of Lincoln's Presidential success, it was evident that slavery's end was imminent within the Union. Leading into the election, the Southern economy relied heavily on the use of slavery. Knowing both of these things, South Carolina decided to take what they believed was the safest route by seceding from the Union. Most southern states followed in their footsteps quickly after. Thus, the Confederate States formed.
  • Battle at Fort Sumter

    Battle at Fort Sumter
    When the Confederate States formed, there were still Union military bases within the Southern States, most notably one residing in Fort Sumter. The Confederacy, scared of communication with The Union inside Confederate territory, barricaded off Fort Sumter; leaving the people inside to starve and dehydrate. Lincoln planned to send food and water into the Fort, yet the Confederates were skeptical and conquered the Fort before it arrived. Angrily, Abe declared war against The Confederacy.
  • Battle of Antietam

    Battle of Antietam
    The Battle of Antietam was the bloodiest day in US history, so much so that nothing grew there for many years after. Abe Lincoln desperately needed a victory in the war in order to release the hailed 'Emancipation Proclamation'. As well as this, the war was so gruesome that the war field was later declared a sacred site.
  • 54th Regiment

    54th Regiment
    The 54th Regiment was a huge step in the Emancipation of freed slaves and a step in the right direction for the equality of men regardless of race. General Shaw, a white man running a colored man's military regiment, was dedicated to seeing equality between all races when serving on the battlefield. He trained his men the same as other commanders, got them the correct uniforms, and got them weapons. The Regiment was able to free slaves from plantations.
  • March to the Sea

    March to the Sea
    "Make the South Howl" Ulysses S Grant - The march to the sea was the Union's brutal attempt and success towards winning the Confederate states and people back. 2 armies 7 miles apart marched from the north to the sea and each army destroyed anything within a 3-mile radius of their path. The march was so distressing that in the end, the Confederacy surrendered at Appomattox.
  • Reconstruction Acts

    Reconstruction Acts
    The Reconstruction Acts of 1867 divided the South into 5 quadrants, each was to be supervised by the Union military to ensure that the people were following the law. The heavy military supervision was reminiscent of the Quartering Acts that took place in the past; it was heavily frowned upon by the still-angry southerners.
  • The Transcontinental Railroad

    The Transcontinental Railroad
    Lincoln wanted to connect the East and West coast via railroads spanning across the entire country. He got the job done quickly by having 2 railroad companies fight to get as far as they could for profits. The railway was completed and was huge for the American economy and development as towns sprouted along the tracks; they also stressed Native Americans who had previously inhabited the areas.
  • Sharecropping Established

    Sharecropping Established
    Sharecropping was established by former slave owners who were desperate for help farming their land as they could not do it on their own. The system was essentially supposed to be plantation owners hiring freedmen and poor men to do the work in place of their slaves while being paid for part of their crops and were also given housing on the land. The system was heavily manipulated but helped quickly rebuild the southern economy.
  • Civil Rights Act

    Civil Rights Act
    The Civil Rights Act, though ahead of its time, was a tremendous step in the right direction to equality among races. The Civil Rights Act banned discrimination in public places as well as banned things such as segregated restaurants and segregated bathrooms.
  • The Dawes Act

    The Dawes Act
    Native Americans, who were being put onto actively shrinking reservations, were offered land just as those under the Homestead Acts. The Natives were offered land as long as they farmed it for 5 years; desperately they accepted. Unfortunately, the land granted under the Dawes Act was taken from the existing reservations- eventually dwindling and almost killing Native traditions and communities.
  • Plessy v Ferguson

    Plessy v Ferguson
    Plessy, a freed African American, was traveling by train and had purchased a first-class ticket as he was very well off. Upon arriving to the train, Plessy was told that he may not sit in first class despite his expensive ticket, and he was not white. When taken to court, SCOTUS ruled that it was legal for things to be 'separate but equal' the South obliged partially, by leaving the 'equal' part out of the equation
  • De Lome Letter Intercepted

    De Lome Letter Intercepted
    The De Lome Letter was a letter sent by a Spanish ambassador of the United States to the Prime Minister of Spain at the time, Don José Canelejas, criticizing U.S. President William McKinley, saying he was weak and only concerned with his public image. The letter brought anger to the American people and brought U.S. support to the war cause against Spain over the issue of independance for the Spanish colony of Cuba.
  • War of 1898

    War of 1898
    The War of 1898 ended with the U.S. gaining independent territories in the Pacific and Latin America. These were Cuba and Puerto Rico; the first territories gained by the United States not to be adopted as states into America.
  • Zimmerman Note Intercepted

    Zimmerman Note Intercepted
    The Zimmerman note was a letter from Germany to the prime minister of Mexico asking to join forces in exchange for helping them regain the territories lost previously in the Mexican-American war. This letter was extremely important as it was a tipping point for most Americans who were on the fence about joining the Great War. As the nation was now furious and scared over the possibility of their border country, Mexico, attacking them with the help of Germany, they joined WWI.
  • War Industries Board Created

    War Industries Board Created
    The War Industries Board was arguably one of the most crucial factors in the states' success in winning the war. The board allowed the government to support businesses in exchange for them building parts to help with the war effort (i.e. tanks, helmets, etc.). The quick production of war goods was a huge helping factor in the U.S. victory in the first World War.
  • The Treaty of Versailles

    The Treaty of Versailles
    The Treaty of Versailles could be considered the largest cause of WW2. Signed into action by allied forces, the majority of the largest European countries agreed to essentially strip Germany of all of its power in the military to keep them from being 'too strong'. After facing years of dispair, with Hitler in power, Germany went against the treaty and eventually started the second world war.
  • The Great Migration

    The Great Migration
    During the second world war, most white men from the big cities had either enlisted or were drafted in the war, leaving a significant amount of jobs open in the more urban areas. Upon seeing this, rural African Americans saw the openings along with the need for war production as an opportunity for jobs that had not been given to them before. To gain these jobs, large numbers of African Americans moved to these urban areas- wildly changing their demographics.
  • 19th Amendment Ratified

    The 19th Amendment marked the first time in history that women were allowed to vote. Throughout
  • Prohibition

    The prohibition was a national ban on alcohol in the states with the intent of bringing down the levels of alcoholism seen in the people. Unfortunately, the ban ironically raised levels of alcoholism and came with other unforeseen consequences. As a result, crime rates spiked enormously and tax revenue went down significantly as people were not paying federal taxes on the alcohol they were buying.
  • Harlem Rennaisance

    Harlem Rennaisance
    The Harlem Renaissance was a very important part of history for the culture of African Americans living in America. The movement was essentially a regeneration of culture that had been lost over the years in the black community as well as a surge of art depicting the influence that slavery and discrimination had on the community. At its roots, the Harlem Renaissance gave the African American Community a more solidified Identity.
  • Nuclear Missiles Created

    Nuclear Missiles Created
    The creation of nuclear missiles was undeniably a pivotal moment in world history, including the US history. Nuclear weapons were the cause of many fears held by people as they were incredibly effective at destroying anything for the means of war. For the US, nuclear weapons were used to bomb Hiroshima as well as to win the Second World War when it seemed like there may never be an end to it.
  • Stock Market Crash

    Stock Market Crash
    The Wall Street stock market crash on black Thursday was when share prices and stocks collapsed on Wall Street, leading to a decade of economic hardship known now as the Great Depression. The stock market crash put many people out of business as companies were not being purchased from as people were more worried about paying their bills and feeding their families than they were buying more materialistic items. The depression also inevitably forced incredible numbers of people into homelessness.
  • Hitler Elected

    Hitler Elected
    Following the Treaty of Versailles, the German people faced years of hopelessness and economic disaster due to the harsh restrictions put on them; Hitler came into power with the intent of striking down the treaty and ending the streak of despair that the German people had faced for so long. In his time ruling, Hitler struck down the treaty and restored hope and patriotism in the German people. Unfortunately, Hitler also instated the Holocaust and was the main cause of WW2.
  • 1935 Social Security Act

    1935 Social Security Act
    Signed into act by FDR, the 1935 Social Security Act was incredibly beneficial for the quality of living for working people in the states. The Social Security Act ensured that anyone working would be able to eventually retire and still gain enough money to live until they died. The act granted anyone 65 or over income based off of their prior occupation to keep them alive.
  • FDR's New Deal

    FDR's New Deal
    Franklin D. Roosevelt's 'New Deal' was a series of projects funded by the government to help people build their lives by employing people through the government. These jobs were also doing work for the country, such as building bridges that the American people needed. The New Deal was a large blow to the U.S. economy but also changed the way that the American people saw and treated the government.
  • Pearl Harbor

  • D-Day

  • US Attack on Hiroshima

  • NATO Formated

  • Brown v. Board of Education

  • Bay of Pigs Invasion

  • The Cuban Missile Crisis

  • The March on Washington

  • Apollo 11 Moon Landing