Vincia - APUSH Final --> second sem starts with 1877

By vincia
  • 1492

    Christopher Columbus Arrives in the Americas

    Christopher Columbus Arrives in the Americas
    In 1492, Christopher Columbus obtained support from King Ferdinand II and Queen Isabella of Spain to find an ocean route to Asia. Months later, he arrived in the Americas, which he mistakenly thought was Asia. He came into contact with many Indians, whom he thought of as savages. The Columbian Exchange, which ensued shortly after his landing, saw the trade of ideas, food, animals, and diseases between the two worlds. His arrival ultimately resulted in the death of many Natives.
  • First Appearance of Great Awakening Principles in America

    First Appearance of Great Awakening Principles in America
    The Great Awakening was a religious revival that saw an increase in religious piety, emotionalism, and emphasis of a personal relationship with God. Preachers now used a more emotional approach than before for their sermons, which they hosted in large outdoor areas. Ideas from the Great Awakening such as the emphasis on personal empowerment later played a pivotal role in influencing the American Revolution.
  • Seven Years War Starts

    Seven Years War Starts
    As Britain and France both sought to expand their territory in the New World, there were disagreements on territory borders. When Washington and his patrol group saw some French soldiers cross into what they believed was American territory, a skirmish quickly developed. Before long, the French, allied with the Indians, were at war with the British. The British were victorious and gained all land east of the Mississippi, but the poor finanacial state of GB later led to the American Revolution.
  • Proclamation of 1763 Issued

    Proclamation of 1763 Issued
    This proclamation issued by the British after the Seven Years War prohibited settlers from moving West of the Appalachian Mountains. The British hoped that by doing so, they would reduce the number of Native/colonist conflicts. However, the colonists were outraged because they felt that they fought a war for land that they now could not even access. Therefore, this proclamation added even more fuel to the fire of the movement for independence.
  • Rise of Nonimportation Movement

    Rise of Nonimportation Movement
    As the British levied more and more taxes to help compensate for the money spent during the French and Indian War, the colonists grew increasingly discontent. In reacton to the Stamp and Townshend Acts, colonists boycotted English goods. In order to fill the hole left by the absence of British cotton and tea, many American women spun their own cloth, fashioned their own clothes, and drank herbal teas. This movement was one of the most effective means of colonial resistance against the British.
  • Boston Massacre

    Boston Massacre
    In 1770, more than 2,000 soldiers patrolled the city of Boston to enforce the stringent tax laws. On the night of March 5, 1770, a single soldier who was standing guard was verbally insulted and threatened before being pelted with ice, stones, and sticks. The violence escalated, and by the end of the night, 5 colonists were left dead. While the colonists were largely the instigators, this event gave them further reason to push for independence.
  • Boston Tea Party

    Boston Tea Party
    Colonists boycotted tea after the introduction of the Tea Act and refused to let cargo ships carrying tea to land. However, when one cargo ship forced its way into the harbor, the Sons of Liberty dressed up as Indians to hide their identities, stormed the ship, and poured around 46 tons of tea worth around $1.7 million in modern day money into the habor. This event further convinced Britain that they needed to crack down harder on the colonists.
  • Second Continental Congress

    Second Continental Congress
    A little over a month shots had been fired at Lexington and Concord, the Second Continental Congress met inside Independence Hall to prepare for war. They selected George Washington as the commander of the Continental Army, but also drafted the Olive Branch Petition in hope of peacefully resolving the issue with King George III. The Congress, which also passed the Declaration of Independence, was crucial for the U.S. to organize itself in its campaign for freedom.
  • Adoption of the Declaration of Independence

    Adoption of the Declaration of Independence
    Delegates at the Second Continental Congress signed the Declaration of Independence on August 2, 1776 but finally adopted it on July 4. The DOI formally marked declared that the U.S. was separating from Britian. Many enlightenment ideals are shown in the DOI, such as the fact that all men have the unalienable rights of Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness. The DOI allowed for friendly foregin governments to recognize the US as a separate country.
  • Battle of Saratoga (start)

    Battle of Saratoga (start)
    Up until Saratoga, the U.S. was fighting a losing battle. At Saratoga, British General Burgoyne wanted to team up with the other British armies to perform a pincher movement on the Continental Army, but after they failed to show up, he was defeated and forced to surrender his whole army. After the British's stunning defeat at this battle, the French decided to join the cause to help the U.S. The capture of 10,000 Brits also significantly diminished their army and gave the U.S. more supplies.
  • British Surrender at Battle of Yorktown

    British Surrender at Battle of Yorktown
    At this battle, Cornwallis tries to feign defeat and lead Washington to Yorktown, where he mistakenly thought his troops would be safe and backed up by the British navy. However, the British Navy had been defeated, and in its place was the enemy French navy. Finding himself surrounded, Cornwallis is forced to surrender, signaling the end Revolutionary War. Later, the war is officially ended by the Treaty of Paris in 1783, and the U.S. is officially an independent country.
  • Shay's Rebellion

    Shay's Rebellion
    After the Revolutionary War, the U.S. tried to pay back its debts via high taxes. However, poor farmers that had just returned from fighting the war struggled to pay the taxes as they hadn't been farming. Outraged that farmers were taken away to debtors prison when they couldn't continue paying the high taxes, Daniel Shays led fellow farmers in an armed uprising. This rebellion showed the weakness of the Articles of Confederation because it did not have its own military to stop the rebellion.
  • Benjamin Rush publishes Thoughts on Female Education

    Benjamin Rush  publishes Thoughts on Female Education
    Women were increasingly seen as more important to the welfare of the family. In his book, Thoughts on Female Education, Rush argues that women were responsible for acting as "republican mothers" that would teach the next generation the principles of freedom and the government. Though women were now commonly acknowledged to have an important job , they were still discouraged from exercising influence in public.
  • Constitutional Convention (start)

    Constitutional Convention (start)
    In the aftermath of Shays Rebellion, the states realized that the Articles of Confederation did not have enough power. There was much debate about the power of each state: the Viriginia plan proposed that states have more votes based on population whereas the New Jersey proposed that each state have one vote. After settling on the Connecticut Compromise, where the U.S. would have a bicameral legislature. This convention laid the foundation for the Constitution that is still in place today.
  • Ratification of Bill of Rights

    Ratification of Bill of Rights
    Many anti-Federalists were hesitant to sign the Constitution because they feared it gave the government too much power with no guarantee and individual rights/liberties. In response, delegates led by James Madison drafted the Bill of Rights, a list of 10 amendments that guaranteed individual freedoms and checks on federal power. Thanks to the Bill of Rights, citizen rights are maintained. The Bill of Rights remains very influential with many governments modeling similar constitutions off of it.
  • Invention of the Cotton Gin

    Invention of the Cotton Gin
    The cotton gin was invented in 1793 by Eli Whitney. Prior to its invention, cleaning cotton was a very labor-intensive process, resulting in a low cotton production. With the cotton gin, workers produced 50 times as much cotton, allowing for the growth of the textile industry. Although this invention was very beneficial for the Southern economy, it led to the increased demand of slaves and contributed to tensions that would result in the Civil War.
  • End of the Whiskey Rebellion

    End of the Whiskey Rebellion
    Hamilton recommended that the U.S place an excise tax on whiskey to help generate income for the government. This tax disproportionately affected small farmers, with large producers barely noticing as they could pay a larger upfront free so it averaged out to less than 6 cents per gallon (versus the 9 cents that others were forced to pay). Violence broke out as producers refused to pay the taxes. This rebellion proved that the new federal government now had the ability to enforce its laws.
  • John Adams takes Office as Second President of the United States

    John Adams takes Office as Second President of the United States
    John Adams is voted into office, squeezing ahead of Thomas Jefferson by 3 electoral college votes. Though he creates the U.S. navy, his presidency is very rocky, with the XYZ affair where the French essentially attempt to bully U.S. diplomats into paying an exorbitant price to get U.S. merchant ships that were seized. Later in his first and only term, he signed into law the Alien and Sedition Acts, which violated the first amendments. However, he did succeed in avoiding war with GB and France.
  • Idea of Interchangeable Parts Develops

    Idea of Interchangeable Parts Develops
    Prior to the widespread adoption of the interchangeable parts system, most goods were made by master craftsmen. After Eli Whitney developed his idea of interchangeable parts, where each component of a product was standardized, many goods could be made via a low-skilled labor assembly line. In addition, repairing products was also much easier as one could easily find a replacement piece. While this system made goods cheaper and more efficient to make, many craftsmen lost their jobs as a result.
  • Louisiana Purchase

    Louisiana Purchase
    After Jefferson sent diplomats to France to ask for the purchase of New Orleans, Napoleon offered the sale of the whole Louisiana territory. Though Jefferson had advocated for a strict interpretation of the Constitution throughout his whole career, he was now forced to change his views in order to purchase this land. Ultimately this purchase doubled the size of the U.S. at an unbelievable deal of 4 cents per acre. Jefferson soon sends Lewis and Clark to explore the new territory.
  • First Commercial Steamboat Debuts

    First Commercial Steamboat Debuts
    In 1807, Robert Fulton's steamboat, the Clermont, sets sail from New York to Albany. Steamboats revolutionized water travel because they could go upstream, whereas boats had been forced to ride with the current in the past. Though over 50% of early steamboats exploded due to problems with the pistons, steamboats greatly expanded trade and travel, ultimately contributing to the success of the market revolution.
  • White House is Burned (War of 1812)

    White House is Burned (War of 1812)
    After the British impressment of U.S. sailors, the U.S. declared war on Britain. The British Army ultimately marches on Washington D.C., forcing U.S. officials to flee to a secure location. After eating the untouched meal from Madison's interrupted dinner party, the British burn down the White House. This event drastically injured the United States' morale. However, First Lady Dolly Madison was quick-witted and able to save some artifacts before fleeing.
  • Battle of New Orleans

    Battle of New Orleans
    While the War of 1812 had already officially been ended in by the Treaty of Ghent in December of 1814, because word had not yet reached America, the British engaged in another battle in New Orleans. Having extensive knowledge of the terrain, Jackson predicts the British's landing area and digs a trench in the surrounding area, forcing the British to climb uphill amid relentless gunfire as they invade. The British suffered stunning casualties and many thought that this was decisive final battle.
  • Beginning of Charter of the Second Bank of the US

    Beginning of Charter of the Second Bank of the US
    After the end of the charter for the 1st Bank of the U.S. and economic challenges during the War of 1812, the U.S. chartered the 2nd Bank of the U.S. to handle the governments transactions and help stabilize the economy. The charter lasted for 20 years, with the bill for a recharter being vetoed by President Jackson, who thought the bank had too much power and concentrated wealth in few hands. The absence of a national bank later contributed to financial instability in the U.S. (Panic of 1837).
  • Beginning of Construction of the Erie Canal

    Beginning of Construction of the Erie Canal
    The Erie Canal was proposed by Governor Dewitt Clinton of New York. It ultimately spanned 363 miles, connecting New York to the Great Lakes. The canal allowed for the improved transport of raw materials from the Midwest to the New York area for manufacturing and manufactured goods back to the Midwest for sale. Along with the deveopment of roads, canals played an instrumental role in the transportation revolution.
  • Passing of the Missouri Compromise

    Passing of the Missouri Compromise
    When Missouri tried to apply for statehood, Congress debated over whether to admit it as a slave or free state because doing so would cause an imbalance in Congress. To maintain the balance, Missouri was admitted as a slave state and Maine as a free state. Slavery was also declared legal in the states below the 36°30' line and illegal in the states above the line. While this decision temporarily resolved the conflict, the Kansas-Nebraska act later overrode it and arguments continued.
  • Election of 1824 - "Corrupt Bargain"

    Election of 1824 - "Corrupt Bargain"
    In the election of 1824 between Clay, Adams, and Jackson, no candidate received a majority of the electoral college vote, so the H.O.R. was tasked with deciding the president. Since Clay was also Speaker of the House, he dropped out as to not arouse suspicion if he won. In the days prior to the election, Adams and Clay have a private meeting, after which Adams is selected as president and Clay is instated as Secretary of State. Due to the events, many believed this election was corrupt.
  • David Walker Publishes Walker's Appeal

    David Walker Publishes Walker's Appeal
    David Walker was a free African American, self-educated man who published a moving pamphlet calling for the violent uprising of slaves against the whites. His pamphlet represented the challenge to the discriminatory beliefs of white citizens. Pamphlets such as that of David Walker inspired rebellions such as Turner's Rebellion, where slaves rebelled against their masters and killed anyone who tried to stop them.
  • Indian Removal Act

    Indian Removal Act
    As Americans continued to move West, they demanded that Indians be moved off of their ancestral lands to free more space for settlement. In 1807, Jackson pushed the Indian Removal Act with a narrow vote of 102 to 97. Though this act promised money and reserved land for Natives who moved, many still refused, moving only when Jackson sent troops to forcibly remove them. This act blatantly disregarded the Natives' lifestyles and resulted in the deaths of many due to starvation on the new lands.
  • Turner's Rebellion

    Turner's Rebellion
    When Nat Turner (a slave) had a vision that Christ told him to fight against slavery, he gathered a group of rebels and killed 55 white men, women, and children. He hoped to coordinate an uprising of hundreds of slaves from nearby plantations and liberate more as they went from plantation to plantation. Unfortunately, his group was stopped by local militias and many rebels faced death sentences/harsh punishments. Southern states adopted harsher discriminatory laws afterwards to suppress blacks.
  • Charles Finney Hosts Revivals in Rochester, New York

    Charles Finney Hosts Revivals in Rochester, New York
    Charles Finney was a minister involved with the Second Great Awakenin — a religious movement that aimed to eliminate evils such as drunkeness, aldultery, prostitution, and crime. This movement focused on the fact that people could choose through their actions if they would receive salavation or not. Finney began preaching every day for six months, rapidly converting many influential merchants and manufacturers in the New York Area. He inspired many to reform their behavior for the better.
  • Panic of 1837

    Panic of 1837
    After the Bank of England tried to boost the British economy by cutting off the flow of money and credit in the U.S.. American planters, merchants, and canal corporations were forced to withdraw gold from domestic banks to pay foreign debts. America quickly fell into a deep depression, with unemployment skyrocketing. Many blamed Jackson for destroying the Second Bank of the U.S. This crisis highlighted the need for reforms in the country's economic policies and banking system.
  • Cherokees Start Trail of Tears Journey

    Cherokees Start Trail of Tears Journey
    Following the Indian Removal Act of 1830, Indians were systematically removed from their homelands. In the 1835, U.S. officials signed an agreement by a minority of the Cherokees that they would resettle, but when most failed to move by May of 1838, President Van Buren used military force to round up 14,000 Cherokees and marched them by foot to Oklahoma, which was 1,200 miles away. Thousands died due to exposure and starvation in the process because they were given little time for preparation.
  • Beginning of Mormon Migration

    Beginning of Mormon Migration
    The Mormon Church was founded by Joseph Smith, who emphasized family as the heart of religious and social life, Though he also encouraged frugality, hard work, and enterprise, many outsiders feared Mormons because of their secretive practices and embracement of plural marriage. In order to escape constant harassment and religious persecution, Smith led his followers to Utah, where they settled near Salt Lake City. To this day, there is a significant Mormon population in Utah.
  • US-Mexico War Starts

    US-Mexico War Starts
    President Polk hoped to annex California by inciting a revolution similar to that of Texas's. After Polk attempted to buy the provinces of California and New Mexico for $30 million, he ordered General Taylor and and his army to occupy the disputed lands near the Rio Grande, but insisted that Mexico needed to be the one who started the war. The land gains doubled the size of the U.S. but many argue that Polk engineered the war and caused unnecessary bloodshed because of his greed for land.
  • Seneca Falls Convention

    Seneca Falls Convention
    This convention was a gathering of women's rights activists in the New York town of Seneca Falls. They developed the Declaration of Sentiments, which proclaimed that "All men and women are created equal" and that women decided their "spheres" based solely off her own conscience and her God. Many looked down upon the convention as "nonsense," but this convention inspired a series of conventions around the U.S. and was the catalyst for a stronger women's suffrage movement.
  • California Gold Rush

    California Gold Rush
    On January 24, 1848, gold was discovered at a mill in Coloma, California. The news spread quickly and triggered a flood of prospectors hoping to strike it rich in California, with many towns quickly turning into busy cities. After all of the easily accessible gold was picked off, people turned to methods such as hydraulic and hard rock mining, both of which disfigured the countryside. While the gold rush stimulated the US economy, it led to the displacement of many Native Americans.
  • Passing of the Fugitive Slave Act

    Passing of the Fugitive Slave Act
    This act was passed as part of the Compromise of 1850 and legally required all citizens and law enforcement officials to assist in catching of fugitive slaves denied alleged slaves the right to a jury trial. Northern states believed this act was a violation of states' rights and personal liberty because they had to turn over slaves even if they opposed slavery. This new act incited new resistance in the form of the Underground Railroad and led to a stronger abolitionist movement.
  • Harriet Beecher Stowe publishes Uncle Tom's Cabin

    Harriet Beecher Stowe publishes Uncle Tom's Cabin
    Stowe's book, Uncle Tom's Cabin, humanized the struggles of slaves. It depicted the barbirty of whippings and sexual abuse along with the cruel separation of slave families. Stowe's novel sparked widespread outrage in the North and led to the passage of personal liberty laws in response to the Fugitive Slave Act. In addition, the struggles depicted in the book sparked renewed abolition efforts.
  • Kansas-Nebraska Act

    Kansas-Nebraska Act
    The Kansas-Nebraska act was created to address the issue of slavery in the territories acquired in the Louisiana purchase. This act stated that states could choose whether to permit slavery by popular sovereignty, where the residents of each state would vote to decide. This act repealed the Missouri Compromise and led to the outbreak of violence during the "Bleeding Kansas" period, where settlers from both the North and South fought to try and influence Kansas into being a slave or free state.
  • Dred Scott vs Sandford

    Dred Scott vs Sandford
    In this notorious court case, Dred Scott and his wifesued for their freedom on the basis that because they lived in a free state, they could not be legally bound by slavery anymore. They lived with their master, an army surgeon in Wisconsin, which was a free state according to the Missouri Compromise. However, the court decided that because slaves were not considered to be citizens, they were not protected by the federal government. This decision implied that no "free" state was really free.
  • John Brown's Raid on Harpers Ferry

    John Brown's Raid on Harpers Ferry
    Harpers Ferry Raid was a raid of an armory staged by John Brown, a abolitionist who thought he was sent by God to get rid of slavery. He hoped to gain arms to arm slaves and incite a slave rebellion. After John Brown was captured and executed, many Northern churches rang bells to signify his death. Many in the South were upset because they viewed Brown as a terrorist for his murders of pro-slavery families in the South. This event further escalated tensions between the North and South.
  • Election of Abraham Lincoln

    Election of Abraham Lincoln
    Lincoln gained victory in the election of 1860 after the Democratic party could nominated two instead of one candidate. Though he did not explicty state he was abolishing slavery, many Southern states feared that he would eventually because he had abolitionist values had proclaimed that he would make sure the US stayed as one whole either way. By 1861, all the Deep South states seceded, setting the stage for the Civil War.
  • Emancipation Proclamation

    Emancipation Proclamation
    Initially, Lincoln fought the war exclusively to maintain the Union of the North and South, but as the war dragged on, he faced pressure to shift the focus to freeing slaves. After the victory of the Union at Antietam, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which stated that all states in rebelling states were freed. He onlly targeted the rebelling states as to not upset the border states that were part of the Union. This proclamation was an important step in the elimination of slavery.
  • Gettysburg Address

    Gettysburg Address
    Many see the Battle of Gettysburg as the most bloody and final decisive battle in the Civil War. In this battle, Lee abandoned the defensive position of the Confederates, but was defeated and suffered so many losses that the South's "back was broken." In Lincoln's following Gettysburg Address, he dedicated the battlefield as a national cemetary and honored the Union soldiers' ultimate sacrifice. This adress redefined the war as a fight to preserve the ideals of freedom in the United States.
  • South Surrenders at Appomattox Court House

    South Surrenders at Appomattox Court House
    The South finally surrenders in the Civil War after being weakened by the North's strategy of fighting a war of attrition. General Sherman's March to Sea caused the South to greatly lose morale as they saw their homes being burned down to the ground by the Union soldiers. After Grant gains control of a crucial railroad and forces Lee to abandon Richmond, the South finally surrenders. In return for promising to not fight again, the Confederates is allowed to just take their weapons and go home.
  • Assasination of Lincoln

    Assasination of Lincoln
    Though the Civil War had been won, many Southerners still were strong supporters of slavery. While Lincoln was watching a play at Ford's Theatre, he was assasinated by John Wilkes Booth, who was a Confederate sympathizer. His assasination brought grief nationwide and led to Andrew Johnson's rise to power. He adopted a different Reconstruction plan that was extremely conciliatory and enabled Southerners to essentially restore slavory in all aspects but name.
  • Completion of the Transcontinental Railroad

    Completion of the Transcontinental Railroad
    As the Civil War was being fought in the East, workers were hard at work bringing Lincoln's dream of a transcontinental railroad to life. Lincoln motivated railroad companies to finish the job in a timely manner by granting each company land and money for each mile that they built. The completion of the railroad allowed for increased economic growth and promoted settlement of Americans in the west. However, with more settlers in the West, conflicts with Native Americans only increased.
  • Passage of 15th Amendment

    Passage of 15th Amendment
    The 15th Amendment addressed the issue of voting rights for all male citizens in the U.S. It deemed that citizens' right to vote would not be restricted by their race, color, or previous condition of servitude. However, women were greatly upset as they had been campaigning for suffrage but were still barred from voting in elections. Though the 15th Amendment was a groundbreaking step for Black rights, many African Americans were still impeded by Jim Crow laws.
  • Battle of Little Bighorn

    Battle of Little Bighorn
    As the U.S. government pressured the Lakota Sioux and Cheyenne to move off reservations, Native Americans grew increasingly outraged. When Colonel Custer led a group of soldiers to wipe out Native American resistance, the soldiers found themselves outnumbered. Though the Natives were victorious in this battle and were able to kill Custer and 210 soldiers, it led to the US government launching fiercer military campaigns against the rebellious Natives.
  • Jim Crow Laws

    Jim Crow Laws
    After the end of Reconstruction, the many laws made to protect the rights of freedpeople were becoming less enforced. In the South, Jim Crow laws began to take root as the North and federal government did nothing about it. These laws ensured segregation and ultimately arose in every southern state. In Plessy v. Ferguson (1896), the Supreme Court even says that segregation is legal, as long as amenities were "separate but equal". This era also saw white violence against Blacks who spoke out.
  • Chinese Exclusion Act

    Chinese Exclusion Act
    This act barred the Chinese from entering the country and prevented those already here from obtaining citizenship. The CEA represents one of the first legislative attempts to restrict imigration based on nationality and promoted racism against Chinese immigrants. Labor unions hated the Chinese because they were a source of cheap labor while businesses loved them. Political machines also loved them because they were another source of votes and power.
  • Haymarket Riot

    Haymarket Riot
    The Haymarket Square Riot started as a protest hosted by the Knights of Labor for 8-hours workdays. As days passed, the ideas of the protest became more pro-socialist and anarchical. However, chaos quickly ensued when a bomb was thrown, resulting in the deaths 7 police officers and countless other people wounded. This protest hurt the image of labor unions as they were now seen anarchist organizations. Poor worker conditions would later lead to disasters such as the Triangle Shirtwaist fire.
  • Dawes Severalty Act

    Dawes Severalty Act
    The Dawes Severalty Act broke up tribal lands into individual allotments and gave citizenship to natives who agreed to live on those plots and farm the land. Many didn't take it because they didn't want to leave their tribal way of life. This act still led to the loss of millions of acres of tribal land and the erosion of tribal traditions. Combined with the forced assimilation of native children ("kill the native save the man") at boarding schools, tribes suffered a huge loss of culture.
  • Creation of Hull House by Jane Addams

    Creation of Hull House by Jane Addams
    Hull House was a settlement house in Chicago that aimed to provide social and educational services to immigrants. Hull House offered programs such as childcare english classes, and recreational activities. Hull House also served as a center for reform and activism, as Addams campaigned for women's suffrage, the outlawing of child labor, and better factory conditions. Hull House served as the model and inspiration for many other settlement houses and fought for women's & immigrants' rights.
  • National American Women's Suffrage Assocation is Founded

    National American Women's Suffrage Assocation is Founded
    NAWSA was the result of the merging of the National Woman Suffrage Assocation and the American Woman Suffrage Assocation. Prominent leaders of NAWSA included Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton. NAWSA organized Congress lobbys, public demonstrations, and other events, challenging traditional gender roles and women's role in society in the process. NAWSA also worked closely with labor rights, temperance, and civil rights activsts to achieve their common goals of equality/social justice.
  • Sherman Antitrust Act

    Sherman Antitrust Act
    This act was designed to break up the concentration of power in the hands of big business and robber barons, as they had complete control over sectors of the economy and could control the prices of certain commodities. However, "good trusts" were still allowed. Though this act was not strictly enforced, it paved the road for future antitrust legislation. An outcome of this act was the growing debate of if the gov. has the constitutional power to control the economy/if it is gov's role
  • Yosemite National Park Created

    Yosemite National Park Created
    Yosemite National Park was the outcome of conservation efforts and showcases the beauty of the American west. Similar to Yellowstone, Yosemite drew many visitors due to the growth of railroad tourism (an effect of the transcontinental railroad). While an immediate impact of the park creation was the preservation of precious ecosystems and biodiversity, Yosemite's creation was also a testament to America's commitment to conservation and set a precendent for the conservation of other U.S. parks.
  • Battle of Wounded Knee

    Battle of Wounded Knee
    The Battle of Wounded Knee involved the U.S. army and the Lakota Sioux tribe at Wounded Knee Creek in South Dakota. As U.S. soldiers attempted to disarm a group of Lakota, a misunderstanding led to a scuffle where soldiers fired indiscriminately at a group of unarmed Lakota, quickly massacring 150-300 men, women, and children.Together with Sand Creek and Little Bighorn, this event demonstrated the uglier side of American government and westward expansion.
  • Management Revolution

    Management Revolution
    This revolution was a series of changes in manufacturing aimed to increase efficiency, productivity, and profits. After applying scientific principles to mangement, companies experienced greater productivity & reduced costs. However, this revolution often led to the degradation of workplace conditions, as laborers were encouraged to push themselves to their limits and paid barely livable wages. This revolution allowed industrialists such as Carnegie and Rockefeller to amass their wealth.
  • Panic of 1893

    Panic of 1893
    The Panic of 1893 was caused by railroad overconstruction & agriculutural overproduciton and led to the collapse of banks and a run on gold supply. Millions of Americans lost their jobs and social unrest exploded. Coxey's Army marched in D.C. in 1894 to demand gov. relief while Pullman workers striked to protest wage cuts and layoffs until gov. troops were sent in. This event also led to banking reform such as the National Banking Act of 1893 which was intended to stabilize the industry.
  • Plessy v. Ferguson

    Plessy v. Ferguson
    After Homer Plessy challenged railroad car segregation, this court case ruled that racial segregation was constituitonal under a "separate but equal" doctrine. This decision enabled Jim Crow laws to flourish, and subjected Black Americans to many more years of systemic racism and segregation. Plessy v. Ferguson inspired many civil rights activists to fight harder for racial equality. In Brown v. Board (1954), this decision was finally overturned, marking an important civil rights victory.
  • USS Maine Explodes in Cuba

    USS Maine Explodes in Cuba
    The deaths of 260 American sailors on the USS Maine, combined with the De Lome Letter and yellow journalism (Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst), escalated tensions between the U.S. and Spain. The cry "Remember the Maine, to Hell with Spain!" pushed the U.S. gov for a declaration of war, ultimately resulting in the Spanish-American War and the gaining of territories such as Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines by the U.S. This event was later found to be a mechanical failure.
  • William McKinley is assassinated

    William McKinley is assassinated
    This assasination was by anarachist Leon Czolgosz, who hoped to spark a revolution against the capitalist system. McKinley's death elevated Vice President Theodore Roosevelt to the presidency. Roosevelt's presidency saw significant reforms and the emergence of the Progressive Era, marked by efforts to regulate big business, protect consumers, and expand the role of government in addressing social and economic issues.
  • Wright Brothers Fly First Flight at Kitty Hawk

    Wright Brothers Fly First Flight at Kitty Hawk
    The Wright Brothers' first successful powered flight on marked a monumental achievement in human history. Their innovation paved the way for the development of aviation, transforming transportation, communication, and warfare. The development of aviation played a crucial role in WWII, whether that be for bombing, spying, or supply delivery. Later on, the Berlin Airlift operations would have also not been possible without the Wright Brothers' contributions to aviation.
  • Roosevelt's Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine

    Roosevelt's Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine
    Teddy R. employed his "big stick diplomacy" to deter war via intimidation. This corollary asserted the United States' right to intervene in Latin American affairs to maintain stability and protect its interests. It warned of American intervention if European powers threatened the Americas. Taft instead preferred dollar diplomacy, where he used money to strengthen foreign relations. When an upset TR decided to run against Taft in 1912, they split the vote, allowing Wilson to come out on top.
  • Ford Model T Introduced

    Ford Model T Introduced
    The introduction of the Ford Model T in 1908 revolutionized transportation by making automobiles affordable for "ordinary" Americans as its assembly line production techniques (management revolution) significantly cut costs.The Model T fueled the growth of the car industry & spurred economic development. The accessibility of cars also encouraged suburban sprawl because people could now easily travel between the city and their homes.
  • Teddy Roosevelt's New Nationalism

    Teddy Roosevelt's New Nationalism
    TR proposed a child labor law, more recognition for labor rights and women's rights, and a curb on the power of federal courts. This plan was radical because it limited the court’s power because they were limiting reforms like Lochner v. New York. Many of the reforms stemmed from incidents that happened like the Triangle Fire. Other radical reforms came from groups like the Industrial Workers of the World who opposed capitalism by striking.
  • Sinking of Lusitania

    Sinking of Lusitania
    The British ocean liner was torpedoed by a German U-boat off the coast of Ireland, resulting in the deaths of 1,198 passengers and crew, including 128 Americans. The sinking of the Lusitania outraged the international community and contributed to growing anti-German sentiment. It also heightened tensions between the United States and Germany, ultimately playing a role in America's decision to enter the war.
  • Prohibition Begins

    Prohibition Begins
    Figures like Carrie A. Nation pushed for prohibition. The 18th Amendment banned the manufacture, sale, and transport of alchol. It led to the rise of organized crime as bootleggers and speakeasies, undermining law enforcement efforts and fueling corruption. Prohibition also sparked social and cultural changes, including the growth of jazz clubs and the empowerment of women (WCT), though failing to achieve its intended goals and being repealed in 1933 with the 21st Amendment.
  • Treaty of Versailles ends World War I

    Treaty of Versailles ends World War I
    The Treaty of Versailles was the treaty that officially ended WW1. Despite Wilson's wishes, the British and French wanted to punish Germany for the war, resulting in harsh consequences including heavy fines and complete demilitarization.These terms decimated the German economy and outraged its citizens, leading to a buildup that culminated in WWII. Because Germans were left hopeless, Hitler had the perfect environment to rise to power as he offered them achance at a different life.
  • 19th Amendment Passed - Women gain the right to vote

    19th Amendment Passed - Women gain the right to vote
    The 19th Amendment, giving women voting rights, was passed four months after suffrage activist Susan B. Anthony's passing. The suffrage movement first gained popularity out in the west as women worked hard to help settle the lands, earning the respect of men. When Wyoming was offered the opportunity to become a state if they repealed women's rights, they declined. Political support for women's suffrage also grew due to the role women played in the workforce during WW1.
  • Scopes Monkey Trial

    Scopes Monkey Trial
    When TN leaders banned the teaching of evolution as it contradicted the teachings of the bible, John Scopes taught it anyway as part of a premediated plan. He was expectedly sued by the state. with William Jennings Bryan as an opposing attorney. Though sentenced, he drew more attention to the debate over the role of religion in public education. According to the First Amendment, there should be separation of church and state, so the gov. should not promote religion in schools (unconstitutional).
  • Wall Street Crash of 1929

    Wall Street Crash of 1929
    While the US economy roared during the 20's, the purchase of goods on debt and over speculation of stocks built up an inevitable crash. When the market crashed due to ag. overproduction and overinflated shares, panicked stock selling dropped the price of stocks billions of $$ overnight. Bank runs also led to the collapse of the banking system, leaving many people destitute. Companies soon also laid off workers to save costs.This vicious cycle marked the beginning of the Great Depression.
  • Franklin D. Roosevelt is Elected

    Franklin D. Roosevelt is Elected
    After easily defeating Hoover, FDR became very popular through his fireside chats which he created relations with citizens. In his first 100 days, he created the New Deal which included reforms to stabilize banks (FDIC), raised crop prices, and create infrastructure projects to employ workers. He introduced debt spending (Keynesian economics) to help establish relief, recovery, and reform Many Republicans thought he overstepped his constitutional power in this initiative.
  • Social Security Act

    Social Security Act
    The Social Security Act is one of the most influential New Deal Act for the modern world, since Social Security is still around, although evermore obsolete. However, at the time it was very beneficial. The act had one major effect: getting the elder out of their jobs. Since they got paid by the government for retiring, Americans over 65 could leave to work force, making more room for the young working age Americans who desperately needed it, essentially creating jobs by getting rid of others.
  • Germany Invades Poland

    Germany Invades Poland
    Germany & Russia (promised half of Poland) march into Poland, marking the beginning of WWII. In the past, PM Chamberlain pursued a policy of appeasement (accomodating Germany every time they crossed the line), but the new PM Winston Churchill was ready to push back. In May 1940, Germany launched its Blitzkrieg tactics, suddenly raining bombs on France and the Netherlands. Soon, the Allies were pushed to the beaches of Dunkirk, where they relied on Operation Dynamo to evacuate them to safety.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor

    Attack on Pearl Harbor
    After Japan failed to concede to U.S. demands to withdraw from China and Indochina, the U.S. imposed an oil embargo. Japan saw this move as an act of war, attacking the U.S. fleet at Pearl Harbor to weaken US naval strength and regain access to oil. 2,335 servicemen and 68 civilians lost their lives. Japan had awakened a "sleeping giant" and the U.S. declared war on Japan. One positive was that this event sprung America out of the Great Depression as now they had to ramp up production for war.
  • Executive Order 9066

    Executive Order 9066
    Following Pearl Harbor, anti-Japanese sentiment hit an all-time high. With many Americans fearing that many Japanese on the West coast were spies working for Japan, FDR passed Executive Order 9066 that made Japanese citizens liquidate their belongings/businesses in a few days and relocate to internment camps for a majority of the war. Many families were left with nothing to return to after the war was over. Korematsu v. U.S. ruled that internment was constitutional because of military necessity.
  • Servicemen's Readjustment Act

    Servicemen's Readjustment Act
    The GI Bill gave veterans funds to go to college/trade school, get affordable housing, health care, and get loans. The following decades had the most educated workforce because many veterans took advantage of this bill. Additionally, the Veterans Administration (VA) helped veterans get homes with no downpayment spurring construction and the emergence of Levittowns. The economy was doing very well due to a more educated workforce and plenty of new jobs opening up due to the demand for houses.
  • Atomic Bomb drops on Hiroshima

    Atomic Bomb drops on Hiroshima
    With the Manhattan Project complete, the US had the capability to destroy entire cities with the atomic bomb. The war in Europe had ended, and Japan was the only country still standing against the Allies. While they were losing, Truman realized that the only way to make them surrender was a complete invasion of the mainland. This would have costed the lives of a million American soldiers, and seeing it as the best option, he decided to drop the nuke on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, ending the war.
  • Truman Doctrine

    Truman Doctrine
    Following WWII, the U.S. and Soviet Union were left as the last two standing powers. The Truman Doctrine was part of the U.S. containment policy and stated that the U.S. would provide political, military, and economic assistance to all nations under threat of communism. To uphold the doctrine, the U.S. fought the Korean War, Vietnam War, and Bay of Pigs invasion in Cuba. This doctrine also set the stage for the Marshall plan (strenghtening countries and promoting capitalism via economic relief).
  • Marshall Plan/Economic Recovery Act of 1948

    Marshall Plan/Economic Recovery Act of 1948
    This plan, like the Truman Doctrine, was another form of containment to stop communism's spread. By providing financial aid to nations recovering from WWII, even Germany, the U.S. hoped other nations will see that capitalism is superior to communism. Moreover, the U.S. wanted to avoid a recreation of the circumstances that fostered Hitler's rise. USSR nations who were barred by Stalin from accepting aid still experience the scar, as they are behind their European counterparts as a whole.
  • Civil Rights Act of 1950

    Civil Rights Act of 1950
    This act sought to address voting rights issues by authorizing federal inspection of local voter registration poles and creating penalties for obstructing the right to vote in federal elections. However, its impact was limited due to enforcement challenges and opposition from Southern politicians. This legislation set the stage for deeper voting rights protections with the Voting Rights Act of 1965 (inspired by Bloody Sunday), where discriminatory anti-Black voting barriers were eliminated.
  • Suprise Attack on Inchon

    Suprise Attack on Inchon
    This war, demonstrating the U.S.'s containment commitment, was one of the proxy wars fought against the Soviets. The U.S. supported SK as SK was democratic while NK was communist. When the North launched a surprise attack and took over most of Korea, General MacArthur led a surprise attack at Inchon that pushed NK past the 38th parallel, unfortunately inspiring China (sent 1M men) to help NK. Because MacArthur was explicitly instructed to not cross the parallel, he was soon relieved of duty.
  • Brown v. Board Decision

    Brown v. Board Decision
    After the Plessy v. Ferguson case resulting in "separate but equal" to justify segregation, the NAACP looked to the Supreme Court to overturn this. In this court case, Thurgood Marshall represented Brown and won, overturning Plessy. Integration was slow but presidents like Eisenhower helped by protecting the Little Rock 9 while protests like the Montgomery Bus Boycott after Rosa Parks was jailed and the Greensboro Sit-Ins hosted by organizations like the SCLC and SNCC maintained steady pressure.
  • Civil Rights Act of 1964 is Established

    Civil Rights Act of 1964 is Established
    Passed under LBJ, this act outlawed discrimination in employment based on race, religion, origin, and gender. This also banned segregation in schools and public places. The EPOC was created to look out for job discrimination. Now, blacks wanted the vote and tried to get it through things like the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party but failed. LBJ also passed the Voting Rights Act of 1965 which outlawed ways to prevent people from voting like literacy tests. Significant increase in black voters
  • Montgomery Bus Boycott

    Montgomery Bus Boycott
    The Montgomery Bus Boycott, sparked by Rosa Parks' refusal to give up her bus seat to a white passenger in 1955, was a pivotal moment in the civil rights movement. Led by Martin Luther King Jr., the boycott lasted over a year and resulted in the desegregation of public buses in Montgomery, Alabama. It inspired similar acts of civil disobedience and propelled King to national prominence as a leader in the struggle for racial equality.
  • Russia Launches Sputnik 1

    Russia Launches Sputnik 1
    The launch of Sputnik by the USSR is generally regarded as the start of the Space Race. This period would see a fight between the academics of the US and USSR to try and prove that one side was better than the other in terms of science and technology. While it has less than noble origins, the start of the space programs would prove to be greatly beneficial to technology and science as a whole, as well as being a source of great national pride whenever accomplishments were met before the other.
  • Peak of Baby Boom

    Peak of Baby Boom
    From 1945 to 1965, the Baby Boom was the dramatic increase in the US birthrate. When soldiers came back from WWII people were eager to "get busy", settle down, and start a family. The largest generation was targeted for consumption and advertising as they moved through age ranges, whether that be diapers & baby food for when they were babies or new clothing and movies for when they were teens. Our society continues to accommodate for their numbers now that they are seniors (geriatrics).
  • Freedom Rides Start

    Freedom Rides Start
    CORE employed SNCC's tactics and staged Freedom Rides to test their freedom after segregation in interstate commerce was deemed unconstitutional. KKK members harshly beat the riders in Birmingham and Montgomery while corrupt police officers turned a blind eye. In Birmingham, MLK then held a protest march for which he was jailed, later writing the Letter from Birmingham Jail. Afterwards, he marched on Washington where he gave his "I have a Dream" speech with permission of JFK.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis

    Cuban Missile Crisis
    This event brought the U.S. and the Soviet Union to the brink of nuclear war. The crisis was triggered by the discovery of Soviet ballistic missiles in Cuba, prompting a standoff between the two superpowers. Through diplomatic negotiations, John F. Kennedy and Nikita Khrushchev ultimately reached a peaceful resolution, averting nuclear conflict. Increased efforts to control nuclear weapons and reduce Cold War tensions led to the signing of the Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty in 1963.
  • Betty Friedan publishes "The Feminine Mystique"

    Betty Friedan publishes "The Feminine Mystique"
    This event led to the second wave of feminism in the United States. The book critiqued the limitations and expectations placed on women in postwar American society, sparking a national conversation about gender roles and inequality. Friedan's work inspired women to challenge traditional gender norms, leading to the emergence of the women's liberation movement and significant advancements in women's rights, including the passage of the Equal Pay Act of 1963 and Title IX in 1972.
  • March on Washington

    March on Washington
    The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom in 1963 was a landmark event in the civil rights movement, drawing over 250,000 demonstrators to the nation's capital. Martin Luther King Jr.'s iconic "I Have a Dream" speech delivered during the march became a rallying cry for racial equality and justice. The event pressured Congress to pass the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which outlawed segregation and discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin.
  • War On Poverty Initiative Begins

    War On Poverty Initiative Begins
    Launched by President Lyndon B. Johnson in 1964, this act aimed to combat poverty and inequality in the United States through a series of social welfare programs. It led to the creation of programs such as Head Start, Medicaid, and the Food Stamp Program, providing assistance to low-income individuals and families. Though the gov's role in addressing poverty was significantly expanded, this initiative's effectiveness and impact have been subject to debate and criticism over the years.
  • Black Panther Party Formation

    Black Panther Party Formation
    Inspired by Malcolm X who preached Nation of Islam, the radical Black Panther Party formed to protect blacks from police brutality. They believed in self defense, though doing so often got led to violent situations and frequent FBI monitoring. They spread to other cities in the 60s and hosted many community-organizing projects like free breakfasts for children. Additionally, they also inspired many organizations for civil rights for other ethnicities and races like the YLO and MALDEF.
  • Moon Landing

    Moon Landing
    Achieved by NASA's Apollo 11 mission in 1969, this event was a huge victory for the U.S. in the midst of the Cold War. Astronauts Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin became the first humans to set foot on the lunar surface, fulfilling President John F. Kennedy's goal of landing a man on the moon before the end of the decade. The Moon Landing inspired a sense of national pride as the U.S. won this aspect of the Space Race against the Soviet Union.
  • Nixon Announces End of Gold Standard

    Nixon Announces End of Gold Standard
    Nixon's announcement of the end of the gold standard in 1971, known as the Nixon Shock, marked a significant shift in global monetary policy. This decision severed the link between the value of the US dollar and gold, allowing currencies to float freely against each other. The move aimed to address economic challenges such as inflation but also led to increased volatility in currency markets and altered the dynamics of international trade and finance.
  • Watergate Scandal

    Watergate Scandal
    This event began with a break-in at the Democratic National Committee headquarters in 1972 and led to the resignation of Nixon in 1974. While he only played a role in its cover-up, it revealed widespread corruption and abuse of power within the administration (obstruction of justice). The scandal eroded public trust in government. Besides this marr, he is regarded (by Mr. Russell) as one of the best prezs, and his accomplishments include the EPA, voting age of 18, Title IX, and SALT treaty.
  • Roe v. Wade passed

    Roe v. Wade passed
    This case, decided by the Supreme Court in 1973, legalized abortion nationwide, established a woman's constitutional right to choose as the 14th Amendment protected the right of an people to choose to end their pregnancy. This decision sparked intense debate over reproductive rights, shaping the political landscape and fueling both pro-choice and pro-life movements and giving rise to Planned Parenthood.This case remains one of the most significant and controversial rulings in U.S. legal history.
  • Ronald Reagan Elected President

    Ronald Reagan Elected President
    Ronald Reagan beat Walter Mondale in the largest margin ever even though people had just been worried that he was too old for the job. In his first term, he implemented Reaganomics, was almost assassinated, put down a strike, invaded Grenada right after the Lebanon incident where marines died, and caused an economic revival. In his second term, the Iran-Contra scandal (illegal) was huge but he also made the USSR spend so much money that it broke up and the Berlin Wall fell as soon as Bush came.
  • Fall of the Berlin Wall

    Fall of the Berlin Wall
    The Berlin Wall was constructed to prevent East Germans from feeling and separated West (Democratic) Germany from the Soviet sector that was determined in the Potsdam Conference. Its fall was caused by a loosening of travel regulations to West Germany by the East and marked the weakening of the communist regime in Europe. The event accelerated the dissolution of the Soviet Union and led to the expansion of democracy. Countries were now free to join the EU and pursue greater economic freedom.