Images (21)

Apush Final Timeline

  • Jamestown

    In 1607, colonists from England sailed to the Chesapeake Bay for opportunity through land. They settled in an area now known as Jamestown. 80% of the population would later die due to starvation and disease, otherwise known as the Starving Times. It was considered to be the first successful English colony in America. The discovery of tobacco in Jamestown allowed the colony to grow economically. When other colonies formed, tobacco became a vital crop.
  • Slavery is brought to America

    Slavery is brought to America
    In 1619, 20 blacks from Africa were kidnapped and brought to the Jamestown Colony. This marked the beginning of slavery in the American colonies. In the Jamestown colony, the slaves were mainly used to grow the largest cash crop at the time; tobacco. Slavery became very popular; especially in the South. The slave population increased greatly in the colonies due to the Atlantic Slave trade. By the 1690s, over 30,000 people a year were being bought and brought to America from Africa.
  • The Navigation Acts

    The Navigation Acts
    In the early 1600s, many European shippers bought colonial goods from the English colonies and carried them to foreign markets. So in 1651, the Navigation Act was passed and required colonial goods to be carried on ships owned by English or colonial merchants. Future Navigation laws also lead to bans on foreign traders. Although many colonists benefited from English trade, they still broke the acts and continued trading with foreign nations, which significantly angered the British.
  • Metacom War

    Metacom War
    From 1675 - 1676, Metacom, the chief of the Wampanoag tribe, led an alliance of Native American tribes against the settlers. Metacom believed that the English colonists had to be removed from the land because of their disrespect towards Native Americans, so he formed an alliance with other tribes and attacked colonial settlements. In the end, 1,000 white settlers and 4,500 Indians died in this event, making it the bloodiest war up to this point in American history.
  • Salem Witch Trials of 1692

    Salem Witch Trials of 1692
    Mass hysteria caused by paranoia and religious fervor in Salem, Massachusetts led to the Salem Witch Trials of 1692. The Trials were a series of prosecutions and hearings of people accused of practicing witchcraft in Salem. By 1693, 25 people were killed due to the trials. The Salem Witch Trials contributed to reform in the American court system, like instituting rights to legal representation, creating cross-examinations for the accusers, and the 'guilty until proven innocent' idea.
  • The Molasses Act of 1733

    The Molasses Act of 1733
    In 1733, Britain passed the Molasses Act, which imposed a tax on molasses, sugar, and rum that were imported from non-British countries into the American colonies. It was designed to take advantage of the colonists and force them to buy British goods. In 1764, the British passed the Sugar Act, which reduced the Molasses Act tax from 6 percent to 3 percent. The Sugar Act led to colonists' protests of "No taxation without representation", leading to anti-British mindsets.
  • Stono Rebellion

    Stono Rebellion
    The Stono Rebellion was the largest slave uprising in Colonial America. In 1739, 20 African Americans raided a store near the Stono River for weapons. They then headed south and killed more than 20 white people while also recruiting even more members. Although the slave rebels were eventually captured, this slave revolt terrified South Carolina. As a result of the revolt, white lawmakers imposed a moratorium on slave imports and enacted a harsher slave code.
  • Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God

    Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God
    In 1741, Jonathan Edwards wrote the sermon "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God" and preached it in Northampton, Massachusetts, and Enfield, Connecticut. In the sermon, Edwards appeals to sinners about God's wrath and how his judgment will be more painful and fearful than they could ever imagine. This sermon is considered a major part of the Great Awakening, which was a movement dedicated to creating a more personal relationship between us and God.
  • The Albany Plan of Union

    The Albany Plan of Union
    The Albany Plan of Union was a proposition to unite the American colonies together. The Albany Congress, made up of the most important people from each colony, initially met to discuss negotiations between the Iroquois Confederation and other Natives, they also discussed colonial cooperation on various issues. The Congress voted against it, but a lot of colonists liked the idea. This was the first plan to try and unify under one government.
  • The Proclamation Line of 1763

    The Proclamation Line of 1763
    After the British and Americans won the French and Indian War, France surrendered its territory east of the Mississippi. Britain created a Proclamation Line in the Appalachian mountains making it illegal for Americans to settle west of it because they wanted to manage Americans. This line angered Americans because they believed should have full access to the land they won. This led to anti-British resentment growing among the colonists.
  • Virginia Stamp Act

    Virginia Stamp Act
    Patrick Henry, a legislator in Virginia, created the Virginia Stamp Act in response to the numerous acts passed by the British. This act stated that all of Virginia would not pay taxes. “Give us liberty or give us death." None of the colonists from America were in Parliament which made it easy to tax them. This furthered the rising tensions between Britain and the American colonists.
  • The Boston Massacre

    The Boston Massacre
    On March 5, 1770, a group of patriots in Boston began throwing snowballs, stones, and sticks at a group of British soldiers. At the time, many Americans were angry at the various taxes put on them by the British parliament without American representation. They showed their anger at these British soldiers. Suddenly, someone in the area yelled, "Fire!" and the British fired their weapons, killing 5 people. This event made the Americans resent Britain more.
  • The Boston Tea Party

    The Boston Tea Party
    Patriots dressed up as Indians and threw the tea on the ship overboard in the middle of the day. They destroyed over a million dollars in tax revenue. Britain wanted to punish Boston, so they closed the port of Boston, outlawed assemblies, and took control of the colonial government. The Quartering Act was created and enforced due to this.
  • Formation of the 2nd Continental Congress

    Formation of the 2nd Continental Congress
    After the Battle at Lexington and Concord, the 2nd Continental Congress was formed in order to prepare for the American Revolutionary War. In it, the Continental Army was established and George Washington was appointed as its chief. The Olive Branch Petition was also drafted in the meetings, but King George the Third refused to hear it and declared the American colonies in revolt. The Declaration of Independence was also approved by the meetings.
  • Thomas Paine's Common Sense

    Thomas Paine's Common Sense
    Thomas Paine's pamphlet, Common Sense, laid out the arguments for independence from Britain. It was a huge hit in the colonies because he wrote in the common tongue. Common Sense changed many colonists' minds, brought them against the British, and brought more people to the independence cause. He donated all the profit to the war effort. Paine would go on to write American Crisis; a series of 9 essays written to the soldiers. It also greatly increased morale in the American armies.
  • The Battle of Saratoga

    The Battle of Saratoga
    The British were beaten due to miscommunication between their armies. The Americans were able to sneak up on them and capture the entire British army. This was a significant victory because no other army had been able to do this so far. After this, it became easier to get colonists to support the cause, join the armies, and get more funding. Benjamin Franklin convinced the French to ally with the colonies against the British.
  • Battle of Yorktown

    Battle of Yorktown
    General Lord Cornwallace was a brilliant British general, he fell back to Yorktown and planned to arrive in the winter. Washington laid siege in the cold winter catching the British by surprise. The French and colonial armies bombarded Yorktown with their Navies due to Yorktown being near water, forcing the British to retreat. Cornwallace did not give his sword in person to George Washington, and instead sent his lieutenant to deliver the sword. This marked the end of the war.
  • The Treaty of Paris

    The Treaty of Paris
    After the British surrender at the battle of Yorktown in 1781, America and Britain met in Paris in 1783 to sign the Treaty of Paris. The Treaty officially ended the American Revolutionary War and formally recognized the United States of America as an independent nation. Britain also ceded its territory east of the Mississippi River to the United States, doubling the size of our country. After fighting for 8 years, America finally gained the independence it desired.
  • Shays' Rebellion

    Shays' Rebellion
    Shays' Rebellion represented the problems with the Articles of Confederation. After the Revolutionary War, many farms were in massive debt. Daniel Shay led a rebellion with other farmers affected by the debt to close the courts to prevent them from foreclosing upon their debt-encumbered farms. The government could not suppress the Rebellion due to the Articles of Confederation. This event convinced many Americans to believe we needed a new system of government.
  • Constitutional Convention

    Constitutional Convention
    In 1787, the Constitutional Convention was called to create a constitution for the United States. The men split into two groups; Federalists and Anti-Federists. Some Ideas discussed at the convention and later implemented into the constitution were the 3/5 compromise, the Bill of Rights, the Connecticut Compromise, the improper clause, and the 10th Amendment. The convention's creation of the constitution established a more balanced government in the USA.
  • Hamilton's Financial Plan

    Hamilton's Financial Plan
    During George Washington's presidency, the secretary of the treasury, Federalist Alexander Hamilton, came up with a financial plan for the country. In it, he planned to assume state debts, raise federal government revenue through tariffs, and create a national bank. Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson were in disagreement over the national bank. Jefferson believed it to be unconstitutional. Eventually, Hamilton's plan passed in 1790 and helped solve many financial problems in America at the time.
  • XYZ Affair

    XYZ Affair
    When France began seizing American ships, John Adams sent 3 diplomats to Paris to sort out the issue with France. France stated that they would only stop if the Americans paid a bribe, which made the U.S. angry. Americans were ready for war against France, but Adams negotiates for peace with Napoleon, which ended hostilities with France. During the XYZ Affair, Adams passed the Alien and Sedition Act due to his anticipation of a war with France. The acts limited speech and immigrant rights.
  • Louisiana Purchase

    Louisiana Purchase
    In 1803, President Thomas Jefferson sent James Monroe to negotiate the purchase of New Orleans for $3 million dollars. Napoleon isn't interested unless Jefferson buys the whole Louisiana Territory for $15 million dollars. Jefferson agrees, and it doubles the size of the United States. The purchase also secured New Orleans and the Mississippi River for the United States. In 1804, Jefferson sent Lewis and Clark to explore the new territory and find a water route to the Pacific Ocean.
  • Marbury v. Madison

    Marbury v. Madison
    Marbury v. Madison established the Supreme Court's ability to apply judicial review to legislative & executive acts. The case began after James Madison refused to give William Marbury his appointment letter. Judge Marshall said that Marbury had a right to the appointment due to the Judicial Act of 1789, but since the act conflicted with the constitution, it was declared unconstitutional and therefore null and void. With this case, the supreme court could use judicial review in all future cases.
  • The Embargo Act of 1807

    The Embargo Act of 1807
    In 1807, the Embargo Act was passed under Thomas Jefferson's presidency. It closed all U.S. ports to exports and restricted imports from Britain and France. France and Britain were at war and Jefferson wanted to remain neutral. The Act negatively affected agriculture, shipping industries, the existing market, and unemployment, and it overall just devastated America's economy. It also encouraged manufacturing in America, which was the opposite of what Jefferson wanted.
  • The Declaration of the War of 1812

    The Declaration of the War of 1812
    Britain was impressing many American ships in order to increase its fleet and forced kidnapped Americans to work for them. The British had also decided to support Native American resistance against the United States. America decided that they were done with the British's antics and declared war on June 18, 1812. Americans had a weaker military compared to the British and many didn't think they would win. After the war, America became more patriotic and gained respect from other countries
  • Burning of the Capital

    Burning of the Capital
    In August of 1814, the British Army invaded the United States and marched in Washington D.C. After a brief fight, the city surrendered and nearly all government buildings were burnt down. Dolly Madison managed to save many priceless treasures from the capital, and she became a national hero. Fortunately, the structure of the White House wasn’t too badly damaged and was rebuilt. This attack caused many to Americans rally to the war effort.
  • The Battle of New Orleans

    The Battle of New Orleans
    American forces were a multicultural motley band made up of whoever would fight. Andrew Jackson was the general. He comes up with an ambush plan that works perfectly. The British, a trained army, are virtually mauled by American forces hiding behind earthworks and cannons. In the end, there were 2,042 British Casualties and 71 Americans.
    Jackson is assumed to be the reason the war ended because of this victory.
  • Election of 1824

    Election of 1824
    Popular votes didn't apply to this election because it was a four-way race. Henry Clay purposefully dropped out of the race because he was in third place and already had plenty of power. Adams and Clay meet privately, and nobody knows what is discussed. After the meeting, Clay supports Adams and persuades the house to elect Adams. Clay is then appointed as secretary of State. Jackson supporters complained that it was a “Corrupt Bargain”.
  • Steam Engines come to America

    Steam Engines come to America
    When the steam engine first came to the United States in 1829, it revolutionized America. It became the power source of many machines and vehicles, such as trains, factories, and steamboats. The invention of such innovations made it easier for people to buy, sell, and ship goods throughout the country. The Steam Engine's impact on America was also a pivotal moment in America's Market Revolution, which was an event that changed America's economy.
  • The Indian Removal Act of 1830

    The Indian Removal Act of 1830
    Andrew Jackson signed the Indian Removal Act in 1830, which would kick out any Native Americans living on United States land and move them to reserved Indian territory. Although the act affected many Native American groups, the Cherokees were affected the most. From 1838-1839, the Cherokees were forced to move west with little time to prepare. Half of them died on the trail, and the ones that survived had to adapt to a new way of life. This event was known as "The Trail of Tears".
  • First Issue of the Liberator

    First Issue of the Liberator
    The Liberator was a successful weekly abolitionist newspaper that was published and printed by William Lloyd Garrison, a leader in the abolition movement. It denounced all people and acts that would prolong slavery, which was quite radical and controversial for its time. The success of the newspaper mainly came from free blacks, who were 75% of its readers. It was the most influential antislavery periodical pre-Civil War and converted many Americans to become abolitionists.
  • Jackson's Bank War

    Jackson's Bank War
    Jackson's Bank policy became one of the most disastrous fiscal policies in American history. Because of his hatred towards the 2nd National Bank, President Andrew Jackson vetoed a bill extending its charter and moved most government funds from the national bank to state banks. These state banks began to print more and more paper money, causing rapid inflation. This inflation and rampant land speculation at the time cause the Panic of 1837, which was an economic depression that lasted until 1843.
  • "Remember the Alamo!"

    "Remember the Alamo!"
    In 1836, during the Texas Revolution, when Americans rebelled against Mexico's President Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna and proclaimed Texas as independent, the Mexican Army wiped out the Texas garrison defending the Alamo. Santa Anna believed he had crushed the rebellion, but newspapers published in the U.S. romanticized the deaths of the attack and told Americans to "Remember the Alamo". This convinced many Americans to go to Texas and fight for independence, which eventually happened in 1836.
  • The First Telegram Message Sent

    The First Telegram Message Sent
    In 1844, communication was revolutionized when the very first telegram message ever sent, "What hath God Wrought", was sent by Samuel B. Morse from Washington D.C. to Baltimore, Maryland. The telegram allowed people to send messages to each other from across the country. It allowed us to send full thoughts and ideas to others using the morse code as an alphabet. The telegraph was a major part of America's Market Revolution, and it drastically changed American communication at the time.
  • The Irish Potato Famine

    The Irish Potato Famine
    From 1845 - 1852, Ireland had a potato famine that resulted in starvation and disease. Due to the famine, 1.5 million Irish people immigrated to America for a better life. 5 million Germans also came to America during the 19th century for better opportunities. The surge in Irish and German immigration improved the American economy and increased nativist sentiments. European immigration also led to the creation of the Homestead Act and provided labor for railroad construction
  • Seneca Falls Convention

    Seneca Falls Convention
    The Seneca Falls Convention was the first women's rights convention in America. Ideas discussed at the convention were women's rights to higher education, property rights, divorce, etc. Although most men and women at the time dismissed the convention as nonsense, it led the way for women's rights movements all around America.
  • The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

    The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
    After the United States won the Mexican-American War, they signed a treaty with Mexico called "The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo". The treaty stated that Texas's border is the Rio Grande River and that America will receive the Mexican Cession, which includes parts of modern-day California, Arizona, Nevada, Arizona, New Mexico, and Colorado. The Treaty helped extend America's borders all the way to the Pacific Ocean and the country officially became bicostal.
  • Uncle Tom's Cabin

    Uncle Tom's Cabin
    Harriet Beecher Stove's novel, Uncle Tom's Cabin, displayed the immoral nature of slavery. The novel depicted the whippings, sexual abuse, separation of families, and white guilt innate in slavery, and convinced many Americans and people around the world to become abolitionists and fight against slavery. The book also increased the sectional divide in America as it inspired many abolitionists to speak out against slavery. In 1862, Lincoln joked that the book caused the war, showing its influence
  • The Potawotamie Massacre

    The Potawotamie Massacre
    The Pottawatomie Massacre represented the sectional tension during Bleeding Kansas. In response to the pro-slavery sacking of Lawrence, Kansas, Abolitionist John Brown and his associates hacked 5 proslavery settlers to death with sabers in Potawatomie Creek, Kansas. The massacre set off a major guerilla war in Kansas and made it an unsafe place. In contrast with Charles Sumner's caning, Northerners mostly ignored the event while southerners were angered by it, causing more sectional conflict.
  • The Election of 1860

    The Election of 1860
    In the 1860 election, Republican Abraham Lincoln won with 108 more electoral than Democrat John Breckenridge. This caused outrage in the Deep South, where Lincoln was not even on the ballot in many states. Slowly, one by one, the South began to secede from the Union, and in December 1860, these seceded states formed the Confederate States of America. The Confederacy officially began the Civil War with the attack on Fort Sumter on April 12, 1861.
  • The Pacific Railway Act (1862)

    The Pacific Railway Act (1862)
    The Pacific Railway Acts were created in order to create a transcontinental railroad in the U.S. Many Americans thought the task was impossible, but it was completed in 1869 due to the intense competition between the Central Pacific and Union Pacific companies. The railroad's creation leads to the easier spread of goods throughout the country. For example, Americans in the west could now easily receive goods created in New England and vice versa. It also reduced travel times in the US.
  • The Battle at Gettysburg

    The Battle at Gettysburg
    The Battle of Gettysburg is considered to be the turning point of the Civil War for the Union. The battle started when the union and confederate armies accidentally met in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. Both armies fought for 3 days, with the Union winning the battle on the final day. Overall, 93,321 Union and 71,699 Confederates died in the battle, making it the deadliest battle in the war. Lincoln's Gettysburg Address after the war helped motivate American to support the Civil War efforts.
  • Emancipation Proclamation

    Emancipation Proclamation
    Abraham Lincoln enforced the freedom of all slaves in the South with the Emancipation Proclamation. He offered a chance for the South to rejoin the Union. If they did, they would have gotten to keep their slaves. This gave them the illusion of choice. They didn't accept which other countries took notice of. They didn't want to be seen as slavery supporters, so the countries didn't support the South.
  • The Passing of the 13th Amendment

    The Passing of the 13th Amendment
    Although the Emancipation Proclamation banned slavery in the Confederacy (which was not effective due to their secession), the 13th Amendment banned slavery throughout the entirety of the United States in 1865. The amendment also banned involuntary servitude and peonage. Although the Amendment did not guarantee equal rights for black Americans, it was a step in the right direction for equal rights for all Americans, and lead the way for the civil rights and suffrage movements in America.
  • The Reconstruction Acts of 1867

    The Reconstruction Acts of 1867
    These stripped the Southern states of their political power and divided them into five military districts which were placed under the jurisdiction of the Union army.
    They stated that, if a Southern state wanted to rejoin the Union, it had to ratify the 14th Amendment and create a state constitution that guaranteed all men the right to vote. Lots of the Union were still against the Southern states ever returning.
  • The 15th Amendment

    The 15th Amendment
    After the 14th amendment granted greater citizenship rights and made it easier for people to become citizens, the 15th amendment expanded citizens' rights even more. It prohibited any state from discriminating against any citizen's right to vote due to race, color, or previous condition of servitude. After the passing of this amendment, many black men began to run for office and vote for politicians. Today, we now remember this amendment as a defining moment of 1800s civil rights progress.
  • American Progress

    American Progress
    John Gast's American Progress represented the American belief in manifest destiny that was popular from 1812 to 1867. The angel represented the popular belief that god wished for westward expansion. The weather shows that many Americans believed the westward migration would improve the west. The angel is also holding a telegraph line, telling us that westward expansion would bring technological advancements to the west. The painting showed westward migration's popularity in the 1800s.
  • Little Big Horn

    Little Big Horn
    In the post-civil war era, various conditions lead to greater westward migration, which caused many conflicts with Native Americans living in the era. One of these conflicts was the Battle of Little Big Horn. In it, the Sioux nation fought with the American military. Although the Sioux won, their victory was viewed as evidence of the volatility and violence of Native Americans, bringing more US troops to Indian Territories. This event shows the conflicts of the Indian Wars in the 1800s.
  • Plessy vs. Ferguson

    Plessy vs. Ferguson
    A man was sold a first-class ticket for a train but wasn’t allowed to take his seat. In 1896, the United States Supreme Court ruled, in a 7-1 vote, that “separate but equal,” accommodations on railroad cars conformed to the Fourteenth Amendment’s equal protection. The decision was used to justify the segregation of all public facilities, including schools.
  • The Spanish-American War

    The Spanish-American War
    The immediate cause of the Spanish-American war was the explosion of the USS Maine in Havana Harbor, which the U.S. blamed on Spain. The conflict lasted only a few months and ended with the signing of the Treaty of Paris, which granted Cuba independence from Spain and gave Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines to the United States. The war marked the end of Spanish colonial rule in the Americas and the Pacific.
  • JP Morgan creates US Steel companies

    JP Morgan creates US Steel companies
    JP Morgan reorganized several major railroads and financed industrial companies that made US Steel. He merged with Carnegie Steel Company for $480 million. US Steel became the first billion-dollar company in America. It was the largest steel producer and largest corporation in the world when it was founded. It was also the largest business enterprise ever launched in America.
  • Pure Food and Drug Act

    Pure Food and Drug Act
    Upton Sinclair's novel "The Jungle" revealed poor sanitation practices in meat production, prompting Congress to establish federal responsibility for public health and welfare. The Act prohibited the sale of misbranded or adulterated food and drugs in interstate commerce, laying a foundation for the nation's first consumer protection agency. The law required that food be inspected by the government to ensure its safety and led to the creation of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
  • Hepburn Act

    Hepburn Act
    United States federal law expanded the jurisdiction of the Interstate Commerce Commission and gave it the power to set maximum railroad rates, which led to the discontinuation of free passes to loyal shippers. The Act effectively created the federal government's first true regulatory agency. The Act gave the government the power to set and limit shipping costs, which changed the government's role in industry.
  • Creation of the NAACP

    Creation of the NAACP
    The NAACP was created in 1909 by an interracial group of WEB Du Bois and others concerned with fighting for the rights of African Americans. It was created following a deadly race riot in Springfield. The NAACP went on to lobby for landmark legislation including the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965. It is the nation's oldest civil rights organization and led the black civil rights struggle in fighting injustices throughout the 20s and 30s.
  • Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire

    Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire
    The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire killed 146 garment workers, with most of them being young immigrant women. It was a critical event because of its impact on the US labor movement, the New Deal, the development of occupational safety and health standards, and the New York Fire Department. The tragedy led to fire prevention legislation, factory inspection laws, and the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union.
  • Federal Reserve Act

    Federal Reserve Act
    The severe panic in 1907 led Congress to write the Federal Reserve Act, which was implemented to establish economic stability in the US by creating a central bank to oversee monetary policy, which is one of the most influential laws shaping the US financial system. The system consisted of twelve regional Federal Reserve banks jointly responsible for managing the country's money supply, making loans and providing oversight to banks, and serving as a lender of the last resort.
  • 16th Amendment

    16th Amendment
    The 16th Amendment allows Congress to levy a tax on income from any source without apportioning it among the states and without regard to the census. Essentially, the amendment established Congress's right to impose a federal income tax. This affects the US today as Congress can also put laws on taxes in order as well. The collected income taxes allow the government to keep an army, build roads and bridges, enforce laws, and carry out other important duties.
  • Clayton Antitrust Act

    Clayton Antitrust Act
    The new law declared strikes, boycotts, and labor unions legal under federal law. The act continues to regulate US business practices today. It 1) prohibits anticompetitive price discrimination 2) prohibits against certain exclusive deal practices 3) expands the power of private parties to sue and obtain damages 4) permits union organization 5) prohibits against anti-competitive mergers.
  • National Park Service

    National Park Service
    President Woodrow Wilson signed the act to create a new federal bureau in the Department of the Interior which would be responsible for protecting the 35 national parks and monuments that were managed at the time and that were to be established.
  • Espionage Act

    Espionage Act
    The Act prohibited obtaining information, copying descriptions, or recording pictures of any information relating to the national defense with intent or reason to believe that the information may be used for the injury of the US or the advantage of a foreign nation. It made it a crime to intervene or attempt to undermine the efforts of the US armed forces during a war or to assist enemies' war efforts.
  • US enter WW1

    US enter WW1
    On April 4, 1917, the US Senate voted in support of declaring war on Germany. The House concurred two fays later and the US then declared war on German ally Hungary on December 7, 1917. US reasons for entry into the war included unrestricted submarine warfare, the German invasion of Belgium, American loans, and the Zimmerman Telegram. The entry of the US into WWI meant that the defeat of Germany would be possible.
  • The Fourteen Points

    The Fourteen Points
    The Fourteen Points was a statement of principles for peace that was used for peace negotiations in order to end WWI. It ensured open diplomacy without secret treaties, equal trade conditions, economic free trade on seas, decreased armaments among all nations, and an adjustment of colonial claims. The points were designed to undermine the Central Powers' will to continue and to inspire the Allies to victory. Woodrow Wilson wanted to outline the specific goals of the war for the US.
  • The Red Scare

    The Red Scare
    During the Red Scare, fear over the spread of communism filled Americans as many feared recent immigrants and dissidents. They repealed communist, socialist, or anarchist ideologies. Palmer conducted a series of raids on individuals he believed were dangerous to American security, deporting 249 Russian immigrants without just cause. The Scare led to the deportation of many people and Americans greatly feared communism, assuming any immigrant or member of a labor union was one.
  • Nineteenth Amendment

    Nineteenth Amendment
    The Nineteenth Amendment granted women the right to vote. This milestone was the result of decades of protest and determination for women's' rights. It extended the vote to 26-30 million women, which made it the single largest expansion of voting rights in US history. The ratification of the 19th Amendment was a turning point in women's history in the US. Women could now be taken seriously and participate in political activities.
  • Immigration Act of 1924

    Immigration Act of 1924
    The act banned limited the number of immigrants allowed entry into the United States through a national origins quota. It gave visas to two percent of the total number of people of each nationality in the US from the 1890 census. It completely excluded Japanese and other East Asian immigrants.
  • Scopes Monkey Trial

    Scopes Monkey Trial
    American legal case in 1925 where a substitute teacher was accused of violating Tennessee's Butler Act, which made it unlawful to teach evolution in any state-funded school. He was found guilty and was fined, but the verdict was overturned on a technicality. This trial set the stage for larger culture wars between fundamentalists and their theologically liberal counterparts on feminism, abortion, and the LGBTQ movements that shaped the 20th century.
  • The Bonus Army

    The Bonus Army
    The Bonus Army involved a gathering of between 10,000 to 25,000 WWI veterans who converged in Washington DC to demand immediate bonus payment for wartime services to alleviate the economic hardships of the Great Depression. The US Attorney General Mitchell ordered veterans to be removed from all government property, resulting in two dead veterans. Congress later passed the Adjusted Compensation Payment Act in 1936, paying over $2 billion to veterans of WWI.
  • First New Deal

    First New Deal
    The First New Deal was designed to boost prices to a level that would restore profitability to American agriculture and alleviate rural poverty. President FDR wanted to provide immediate economic relief and bring about reforms to stabilize the economy. The three goals of the New Deal were relief, recovery, and reform. It provided support for the unemployed, youth, farmers, and the elderly. It had new constraints on the banking industry and efforts to re-inflate the economy after prices fell.
  • Indian Reorganization Act

    Indian Reorganization Act
    The Act was created to conserve and develop Indian lands and resources, extend to Native Americans the right to form businesses and other organizations, establish a credit system for them, and to grant certain rights of home rule and education to them. The Act was aimed at decreasing federal control of American Indian affairs and increasing their self-government and responsibility. The Act improved the political, social, and economic conditions of American Indians in many ways.
  • Social Security Act

    Social Security Act
    The Social Security Act was signed into law by President Roosevelt. It granted several provisions for general welfare alongside creating a social insurance program designed to pay retired workers over 65 a continuing income after retirement. It established two types of provisions 1) Federal aid to the States to enable them to cash pensions and 2) a system of Federal age-old benefits for retired workers. Social Security remains one of the nation's most successful, effective, and popular programs.
  • Second New Deal

    Second New Deal
    The Second New Deal included programs to redistribute wealth, income, and power in favor of the old, the poor, and labor unions. The most important programs included Social Security, the Banking Act of 1935, and the National Labor Relations Act. The second New Deal focused on social justice and economic security instead of a simple economic recovery. Roosevelt established the Works Progress Administration, giving millions of Americans jobs by constructing stadiums, roads, and bridges.
  • Munich Conference

    Munich Conference
    The Munich Conference was a European diplomatic conference in 1938 where Britain and France conceded to Hitler's demand for Czechoslovakia as long as he agreed to expand no further. It was a settlement between Germany, Great Britain, France, and Italy that allowed Germany to annex Sudetenland. The agreement averted the outbreak of war but gave Czechoslovakia away to German conquest.
  • Pearl Harbor

    Pearl Harbor
    Japanese planes attacked the US naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. This surprise attack by 350 Japanese aircraft caused 2,403 US personnel deaths with 19 US Navy ships being destroyed or damaged during the attack. The unprovoked attack brought the US into WWII as they immediately declared war on Japan. This attack forever ended the US's pre-1941 stance on isolationism and neutrality as it marked the entry of the world's mightiest military power into WWII.
  • Executive Order 9066

    Executive Order 9066
    The order authorized the evacuation of all people deemed a threat to national security from the West Coast to relocation centers further inland. Over 100,000 Japanese American men, women, and children were moved into internment camps, although over half the people evacuated were second-generation Japanese Americans). None of the internees were actually convicted of helping the Japanese government. In 1988, President Reagan signed the Civil Liberties Act, giving each former internee $20,000.
  • CORE

    Nonviolent civil rights organization that was founded in 1942, committed to the "Double V Campaign". The organization worked to improve race relations and discriminatory policies through direct-action projects. In the late 50's, CORE challenged public segregation and launched voter registration drives for AAs. After WWII, CORE became a major force in the civil rights movement with the Freedom Rides of 1961 and the Freedom Summer Project of 1964 being major achievements.
  • GI Bill

    GI Bill
    Congress wanted to reward almost all wartime veterans with a bill that provided WWII veterans with funds for college education, unemployment insurance, and housing. It put higher education into the reach of millions of WWII veterans. The program was regarded as a success and a major contributor to stabilizing the post-war economy and America's long-term economic growth. It also kept millions of veterans from flooding the job market all at once.
  • D Day

    D Day
    June 6 1944 was the day Allied forces launched the largest amphibious invasion in the history of warfare, where Allies landed on the beaches of Normandy to liberate north-west Europe from Nazi occupation. D-Day was ultimately successful as, by the end of August 1944, all of northern France had been liberated which marked the beginning of the liberation of Western Europe. D-Day also served to convince the high German command that their complete defeat was upon them.
  • Atomic Bomb

    Atomic Bomb
    The US bombed the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki (the first instance of atomic bombs being used against humans), killing tens of thousands of people and obliterating the cities. The bombing aimed to bring an end to the war by destroying the enemy's war industries, killing employees of those industries, and undermining civilian morale. President Truman knew that attempting to invade Japan would result in horrific American causalities, while the bombs would bring a speedy end.
  • The United Nations are founded

    The United Nations are founded
    The United Nations was founded in 1945 after WWII, wherein 51 countries committed to maintaining international peace and security, developing friendly relations among nations, and promoting social progress, better living standards, and human rights. The UN is one of the most powerful international organizations that is used to promote international cooperation. The UN has helped many countries and has also put in place a legal framework to combat terrorism.
  • Truman Doctrine

    Truman Doctrine
    Truman established the doctrine to establish that the US would provide political, military, and economic assistance to all democratic nations under threat from internal or external authoritarian forces. It was intended to prevent the spread of communism following WWII by providing support to targeted countries. The Truman Doctrine became the foundation of American foreign policy that led to the formation of NATO in 1949. It demonstrated that the US would not return to isolationism after WWII.
  • Levittown

    Levittown was created following the shortage of housing following WWII. The nation's first planned community was designed to provide a large amount of housing at a time when there was high demand for affordable family homes. This suburban development was the symbol of the "American Dream" because it allowed thousands of families to become homeowners. These suburbs allowed people to escape the cramped conditions of the cities. Levitt also revolutionized the process of home building.
  • Marshall Plan

    Marshall Plan
    The Marshall Plan was a US program designed to rehabilitate the economies of 17 western and southern European countries in order to create stable conditions in which democratic institutions could survive the aftermath of WWI. It resulted in a resurgence of European industrialization and stimulation of the US economy. Rendered as one of the greatest economic and foreign policy successes of the US, the Marshall Plan ultimately transferred $13 billion dollars to Europe.
  • NATO

    The North Atlantic Trade Organization was created by the US, Canada, and some Western European nations to provide collective security against the Soviet Union. The binding principle of the alliance is collective defense, a commitment to protect each other. NATO marked the US's departure from an isolationist foreign policy as it became the nation's first peacetime military alliance with states outside of the Americas. It also shaped the politics of the Cold War and is still an organization today.
  • Brown vs. Board of Education

    Brown vs. Board of Education
    The Supreme Court ruled that racial segregation in public schools violated the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution. It declared that separate educational facilities for white and African American students were inherently unequal. The decision marked a turning point in the history of race relations in the US, stripping away any constitutional sanctions for segregation by race and marking a victory in the NAACP's decades-long campaign to combat school segregation.
  • Emmett Till

    Emmett Till
    On August 28, 1955, a 14-year-old African-American boy from Chicago was brutally murdered for allegedly flirting with a white woman four days prior. The real killers were ruled not guilty by an all-white jury and later confessed to having murdered him. The tragedy of his murder made an immense impact on American society because it drew attention to the brutality of racial violence, helping the civil rights movement. Many black people were also even more fearful of violence following his murder.
  • Montgomery Bus Boycott

    Montgomery Bus Boycott
    Lasting 381 days, the Montgomery Bus Boycott resulted in the Supreme Court ruling segregation on public buses was unconstitutional. It helped eliminate early barriers to transportation access and played a big role in civil rights and transit equity. Almost the entire AA population of Montgomery refused to ride the buses, propelling the movement through publicity and national press. It also made King well-known in the US and inspired other direct nonviolent protests against racial discrimination.
  • National Highway Act

    National Highway Act
    The Act authorized the building of highways throughout the nation, which became the biggest public works project in the nation's history. It established a 41,000-mile interstate highway system in the United States. It also allocated $26 billion to pay for it, wherein the federal government would pay 90 percent of the cost of construction. The system had a profound effect on the American economy and it contributed significantly to improved economic efficiency and productivity.
  • Southern Christian Leadership Conference

    Southern Christian Leadership Conference
    The SCLC was an organization formed by MLK, aiming to mobilize the vast power of black churches on behalf of human rights. The original goals of the SCLC included recruiting affiliate groups in the South, bringing an end toblack disenfranchisement, and coordinating protest movements. Training and testing African Americans' ability to remain calm so they could participate in nonviolent marches and sit-ins, the SCLC played a key role in the March on Washington and the Selma Voting Rights Campaign.
  • National Defense Education Act

    National Defense Education Act
    The act was passed to provide $300 million in loans to students, funds, and the development of new instruction material to ensure a higher level of national security. It became one of the most successful legislative initiatives in higher education, establishing the legitimacy of federal funding of higher education and making substantial funds available for low-cost student loans. It also spurred the development of technology and was passed in response to Soviet acceleration of the space race.
  • Bay of Pigs

    Bay of Pigs
    A group of Cuban exiles organized and supported by the US Central Intelligence Agency landed at the Bay of Pigs in Cuba in an attempt to overthrow Fidel Castro. However, it ended in disaster and the failed invasion strengthened the position of Castro's administration. The disaster caused a lasting impact on the administration to initiate a plan to sabotage and destabilize the Cuban government. JFK had hoped that this invasion would halt the spread of communism to the Americas.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis

    Cuban Missile Crisis
    The Cuban Missile Crisis was a major confrontation that brought the US and Soviet Union close to war due to the presence of Soviet nuclear-armed ballistic missiles in Cuba. President Kennedy insisted that the leader of the USSR, Nikita Khrushchev, to remove the 42 missiles secretly inserted in Cuba. The Soviets eventually did but although the crisis ended peacefully, the situation came close to causing WWIII, a threat which forever changed Americans' perception of the Cold War.
  • Assassination of JFK

    Assassination of JFK
    Lee Harvey Oswald killed JFK while riding the presidential motorcade in Dallas with his wife and Johnson. JFK's assassination was very helpful to the cause of civil rights because it made Lyndon B Johnson president, who was very supportive of civil rights and was good at pushing bills through Congress. Johnson pushed the Civil Rights Act of 1964 through Congress because JFK wanted him to. His assassination also made the country fear what would happen next without their president.
  • Civil Rights Act

    Civil Rights Act
    As the most comprehensive civil rights legislation ever enacted by Congress, the Civil Rights Act hastened the end of legal Jim Crow by securing AAs equal access to transportation, restaurants, and other public facilities. It enabled black people, women, and other minorities to break down barriers in the workplace while strengthening the enforcement of voting rights and the desegregation of schools. The Act created the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission to ensure fair hiring processes.
  • Voting Rights Act

    Voting Rights Act
    President Johnson declared a new voting rights bill needed to be signed following Bloody Sunday. The Act outlawed discriminatory voting practices adopted in many southern states after the Civil War, including literacy tests. The impact was immediate as by the end of 1965 a quarter million new black voters had been registered. It contained great measures to dismantle Jim Crow segregation and combat racial discrimination. The Act transformed patterns of political power in the South.
  • Immigration Act

    Immigration Act
    The Immigration and Naturalization Act eliminated the long-standing national origins quota system that had set limits on the number of individuals from any given nation who could immigrate to the US. It doubled the number of immigrants allowed to enter annually and it allowed close family members to be excluded from the count. Immigration was largely from Asia and Latin America. It removed de facto discrimination against Southern Eastern Europeans, Asians, and others.
  • Environmental Protection Act

    Environmental Protection Act
    A governmental organization that was signed into law by Nixon to regulate emissions, pollution, and other factors that negatively influence the natural environment. They are responsible for the protection of human health and the environment. Its creation marked a newfound commitment by the federal government to combat environmental risks, making it a big victory for environmentalists. The EPA was largely responsible for the decline in air pollution emissions between 1970 and 1990.
  • Equal Rights Amendment

    Equal Rights Amendment
    The Equal Rights Amendment was originally introduced in 1923 and passed by Congress in 1972. It was to provide the legal equality of the sexes and prohibit discrimination based on sex. In the 1970s, a conservative backlash against feminism eroded support for the amendment, causing it to fall short of the necessary three-fourths support of state legislatures. Fewer women also wanted to enter the workforce by the 1970s and only seven states ratified the amendment.
  • Watergate Scandal

    Watergate Scandal
    This stemmed from the Nixon administration's continual attempts to cover up its involvement in the break-in of the Democratic National Committee headquarters. It resulted in 69 government officials being charged and 48 being found guilty This impacted America because many Americans lost faith in the government and caused the reputation of the presidency to be greatly damaged.
  • Harvey Milk Assassination

    Harvey Milk Assassination
    Harvey Milk was a visionary human and civil rights leader who became one of the first openly gay elected officials in the US. He emerged as a leading political activist for the gay community and spearheaded important anti-discrimination measures. During his tenure as a San Francisco supervisor, he helped pass a gay rights ordinance for the city that prohibited gay discrimination in housing and employment. He became a hero for the gay rights movement due to his persistence for equality.
  • MLK assassination

    MLK assassination
    On April 4, 1968, Martin Luther King Jr was assassinated by a white man who resented the increasing black influence in society. His murder set off a new round of riots across the country as the loss of this incredible leader was mourned. The assassinations triggered active unrest within black communities where strikes and movements took on a new level of urgency. The civil rights movement began to lose the unity and direction King had given it in terms of nonviolent protest.