• Apr 17, 1492

    The Commissioning of Christopher Columbus

    The Commissioning of Christopher Columbus
    Columbus wanted to find a new route to India, China, Japan, and the Spice Islands by sailing East. King Ferdinand and Queen Isabell of Spain commissioned Columbus in return for the gold, spices, and riches he might find. This led to the discovery and colonization of the Americas.
  • 1560

    Triangular Trade

    Triangular Trade
    Triangular Trade was the exchange of goods between the colonies, Africa, and Europe. It was good in the context that new foods, manufactured goods, new livestock, and other resources could now be traded between continents. However, there was a darker side. It expanded the slave trade. They were used for labor, which would eventually lead to the large slave trading business in the Cotton South.
  • The Headrights System

    The Headrights System
    The Headright System started in the Jamestown colony in an attempt to solve labor shortages. It granted 100 acres to people already in the colony. Any new settler was awarded 50 acres, and 50 more for each person you pay passage for. It attracted new settlers and encouraged families to move together.
  • Albany Congress

    Albany Congress
    As the French and Indian War began, Benjamin Franklin called the Albany Congress because he didn't trust the British to take care of them. He proposed the Albany Plan of Union where all of the individual colonies banded together to fight against the French. This was the first time that we became a unified front.
  • The Proclamation of 1763

    The Proclamation of 1763
    The Treaty of Paris ended the French and Indian War and awarded the British colonies all the land between the Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi River. Colonial citizens were excited to move West to have the opportunity of land, but the Proclamation of 1763 outlawed Western expansion. Colonists went anyway, which was the beginning of growing tensions between the colonies and the British Empire.
  • The Stamp Act

    The Stamp Act
    Acts were passed by parliament to pay for the war. Since the war was fought on colony soil it should be paid for by the colonists. It placed a tax on any legal document you wanted to be recognized by the government. Acts like the Stamp Act, the Quartering Act, and the Townshend Acts gave us chants such as "Give me liberty or give me death" and "No taxation without representation". They were passed without colonist representation in Congress. These acts added fuel to the independence movement.
  • The Boston Massacre

    The Boston Massacre
    The Boston Massacre was a product of British soldiers staying in the colonies after the end of the French and Indian War. With the addition of the Quartering Act, where they were forced to allow the soldiers into their homes, they became a symbol of their oppression and felt like it was an invasion of privacy. It all came to a head when a crowd of civilians started to harass a group of soldiers. The soldiers thought they heard a shot and began firing into the crowd, killing 3 men and injuring 8.
  • The Boston Tea Party

    The Boston Tea Party
    The Boston Massacre was a protest done by the Sons of Liberty. The colonists were given no representation in Parliament, so they were protesting a British tax on tea that was forced on them unjustly in their eyes. It was done during the day, so most were able to escape through the crowd. It soon became a symbol of the independence movement.
  • The Coercive/Intolerable Acts

    The Coercive/Intolerable Acts
    These were a series of acts that were passed by the British Parliament to punish the colonies for the Boston Tea Party. They closed the Port of Boston and took control of the colonial government. The colonists saw this as open warfare. This caused tensions and the want for independence to continue to grow.
  • The Shot Heard Round the World

    The Shot Heard Round the World
    Patriots began stockpiling weapons and money in Concord. British intelligence learned of this, and when Samual Adams and John Handcock were in Concord they moved to invade so they could capture the leaders of the rebellion and diminish their supplies. Paul Revere and others alerted the local militia. 77 militiamen gathered against 700 British soldiers. No one knows who shot first, but fighting broke out. We continued to ambush the British soldiers. This is considered the start of the revolution.
  • The Battle of Bunker Hill

    The Battle of Bunker Hill
    During this battle, the colonial army successfully pushed the British army back several times. Even though we were eventually defeated, this proved that we could hold our own against the British Army and that we weren't fighting a hopeless battle. This battle solidified the fact that reconciliation with the British was no longer a possibility.
  • Second Continental Congress

    Second Continental Congress
    At the Second Continental Congress, every colony sent a delegate to discuss relations with the British. Conservatives led by John Dickenson wanted reconciliation with the British because they were skeptical that we would win. Liberals, led by John and Samual Adams, wanted war. They decided to compromise. They sent the Olive Branch as a last attempt to make a peaceful resolution. However, if that didn't work the colonies that wanted reconciliation had to support the war effort.
  • Common Sense

    Common Sense
    Thomas Paine wrote Common Sense as a piece of propaganda. It laid out a passionate case for independence. It was written in the common language and was accessible to the common people. It began to grow and the ideas written influenced the opinions of the American people and began turning people to the independence movement.
  • The Signing of the Declaration of Independence

    The Signing of the Declaration of Independence
    At the Second Continental Congress, they charged Thomas Jefferson and others to write the Declaration of Independence. It was adopted by the Continental Congress on July 4, 1776, This document declared ourselves as an independent nation in the eyes of the British and the rest of the world and was the first time that we were officially a unified nation instead of 13 individual colonies.
  • American Crisis

    American Crisis
    In the winter of 1776, army morale was low. They were undersupplied and many were dying of starvation, cold, and illness. Thomas Paine wrote American Crisis to the soldiers to remind them of their cause. George Washington had the essay read aloud to his troops at Vally Forge to boost their morale in an attempt to save the war effort.
  • The Battle of Trenton

    The Battle of Trenton
    The Continental Army was facing defeat after defeat. Trenton was protected by British German mercenaries. However, they didn't expect an attack on Christmas because it was seen as bad war etiquette This is when the famous crossing of the Delaware took place. George Washington and his troops liberated Treton and secured a colonial win. In the eyes of the soldiers, this boosted their morale and saved the war effort.
  • The Battle of Saratoga

    The Battle of Saratoga
    The Batte of Saratoga is considered to be the turning point in the revolution. The Continental Army was able to outmaneuver the British army and capture an entire British Army. Simultaneously, Benjamin Franklin was in France trying to persuade them to aid us in our war for independence. Winning at the Battle of Saratoga convinced them, and they aided us with much-needed navy ships, soldiers, and supplies. It also succeeded in lowering British morale and boosting American morale.
  • The Surrender of General Cornwallis

    The Surrender of General Cornwallis
    General Cornwallis came up with a plan to let the Continental Army push them back to Yorktown where they would be safe with the protection of their navy ships. However, he didn't know that the French navy had defeated their navy ships at Yorktown. When they discovered this they were forced to surrender. This was the last major battle of the Revolutionary War and ended any major fighting. The Revolutionary War was then officially ended by the Treaty of Paris.
  • The Constitutional Convention

    The Constitutional Convention
    The CC met to revise the Articles of Confederation. That soon proved futile. Different states wanted different forms of representation. The New Jersey Plan proposed that every state had an equal vote. The Virginia Plan proposed that the number of representatives was based on population. The Connecticut Compromise was created. In the Senate, all states had an equal vote. In the House of Representatives, it was based on population. This convention created the government that we know today.
  • The Northwest Ordinance

    The Northwest Ordinance
    After winning the Revolutionary War, we were granted all of the land West of the Mississippi River. All of this was considered territory. The Northwest Ordinance created a plan that all the territories had to complete to be admitted to the Union as a state. They had to establish their borders, have a population of 60,000 people, establish a territorial governor, and organize towns. This plan allowed the territories of Michigan, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio to become states.
  • Inaugation of George Washington

    Inaugation of George Washington
    Being their first president, George Washington had to set standards for the presidents that came after him. He created the Presidential Cabinet, created an independent court system, and set the standard for two four-year terms. His actions were important for setting the standards for future presidents.
  • The Invention of the Cotton Gin

    The Invention of the Cotton Gin
    The Cotton Gin was invented by Eli Whitney. This made cotton a profitable crop, causing the Cotton Boom. Prior to this slavery was on the downturn in the South. However, when cotton turned profitable they needed slaves for labor. The dependency on slave labor in the South will eventually lead to the start of the Civil War.
  • The Alien and Sedition Act

    The Alien and Sedition Act
    The Alien Act gave the president permission to deport any alien that was deemed dangerous. The Sedition Act made it illegal for newspapers to print any material that was critical of the president or Congress. These were passed because they feared Democratic-Republican Criticism. This led to the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions, which stated that the states could void laws id they were deemed unconstitutional. This created the concept of nullification.
  • Marbury vs Madison

    Marbury vs Madison
    At the end of Adams's presidency, he was attempting to fill all federal courts with loyal federalists because they had lost the presidency and congressional power. The letter to John Marbury was never sent and was found by President Madison. Marbury sued him because he thought that he deserved his seat in federal court. The Supreme Court sided with Madison because they found part of the Judiciary Act unconstitutional. This decision is when The Supreme Court claimed its right to Judicial Review.
  • The Louisianna Purchase

    The Louisianna Purchase
    President Jefferson was a strict Constitutionalist. He didn't believe that he had the authority to purchase land for the U.S. However, he decided to go against his personal beliefs and do what he thought was good for the country. The purchase from Napoleon was originally for New Orleans, but the offer doubled the size of the country, allowing for more westward expansion. Jefferson commissioned the Lewis and Clark expedition to explore and find a water route to the Pacific Ocean.
  • The Embargo of 1807

    The Embargo of 1807
    Jefferson wanted to remain neutral in the war between Britain and France because he finally had good trade relations with them. So instead of choosing a side, he placed a ban on all foreign trade. This encouraged domestic manufacturing. However, it did exponential damage to the American economy. After the War of 1812 was over the money they were tied up in Europe began to flow back into American businesses. This spurred Henry Clay to develop the American System.
  • The Burning of Washington

    The Burning of Washington
    The War of 1812 began because the British were impressing American soldiers and aiding the Native Americans in their resistance. The British marched the capitol, burning down buildings in their wake, and we were forced to surrender. Americans began to rally to the war effort after our capitol was burned down.
  • The Battle of New Orleans

    The Battle of New Orleans
    Andrew Jackson led a group of diverse people against British invaders. They dug trenches so they were able to get the high-ground advantage against them. Our troops decimated the British. The War of 1812 was officially ended by the Treaty of Ghent on December 14, 1814. However, this battle was the way it ended in the eyes of Americans, which sent a sweep of nationalism. This battle put Andrew Jackson on the map, eventually leading to his appointment as president.
  • The Second Great Awakening

    The Second Great Awakening
    The second Great Awakening differed from the first in the way that the church was used as a vehicle of social change, and that it gave women a greater role in churches. It caused an increase in interest in the issues of abolitionism, women's suffrage, and temperance. Anti-slavery organizations started forming to raise awareness and take political action.
  • The Election of 1824

    The Election of 1824
    This was the end of "the era of good feeling". None of the candidates was able to achieve the fifty percent majority of the electoral votes to win the presidency. This led to the 12th amendment where, in this case, the House of Representatives decides who the winner is. Henry Clay dropped out of the race because he was Speaker of the House. However, Jackson's supporters believed that he made a Corrupt Bargain with Adams. This led to a strong opposition to Adams's presidency.
  • The Tariff of Abominations

    The Tariff of Abominations
    At the start of the new election, Adams was searching for something that would get him reelected. He passed the Tariff of Abominations, which benefited U.S. manufacturing by making foreign goods more expensive. However, the South believed that this Tariff was unconstitutional because it favored the North. Eventually, the South threatened to nullify the law, causing a nullification crisis.
  • Trail of Tears

    Trail of Tears
    The Indian Removal Act applied to five Native American nations and moved them to Oklahoma. Jackson removed them from their homelands so the lands that they inhabited could be used to better the economy. They were forced to march with only what they could carry on their backs. Many starved or froze to death. Jackson went directly against the decision of the Supreme Court and disrupted the checks and balances.
  • Cherokee Nation v Georgia

    Cherokee Nation v Georgia
    After Jackson passed the Indian Removal Act it was almost immediately challenged in court. The Supreme Court ruled in the Cherokee nations' favor and found them as American citizens. They were found to be a nation within ours, which meant that the U.S. had to uphold the treaties that we made with them. Jackson disrespected the decision of the Supreme Court and went ahead with the Indian Removal Act. He wasn't impeached because he had the support of American citizens and Congress.
  • Jackson Vetos the Chater of the Second Bank of America

    Jackson Vetos the Chater of the Second Bank of America
    Jackson campaigned against the Second Bank of America because he believed that it only existed to profit the wealthy, When he vetoed the recharter the money was given to small state banks, aka "pet banks". This caused major inflation, which led to The Panic of 1837.
  • The Force Bill

    The Force Bill
    South Carolina was upset about the Tariff of 1828 and threatened secession. Jackson tried to compromise by reducing the tariff in 1832. However, South Carolina was still not appeased. So they passed the Ordinance of Nullification, which declared the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832 null and void. Jackson asked Congress to pass the Force Bill, which would allow him to use military force to make South Carolina follow the tariff.
  • The Schism

    The Schism
    Women took a special interest in the issue of abolition. They felt a kinship with slaves. However, they felt that they couldn't do anything about the issue of slavery without the right to vote, so many women left the abolition movement for the suffrage movement.
  • The Annexation of Texas

    The Annexation of Texas
    Texans needed help in their war for Independence from Mexico, so we annexed them into the U.S. There was disputed territory where the Mexican-American border was, so President Polk set a small troop of men into it. They were all killed by Mexican soldiers. This gave Polk a reason to start the Mexican-American War, which he knew he was going to win. The war ended with the Treaty of Guatalupe-Hidalgo. He was aiming for the Mexcian Cession land which made America a bicoastal country, which he got.
  • Senaca Falls Convention

    Senaca Falls Convention
    This was the first women's rights convention. A group of advocates for women's suffrage met together and created the Declaration of Sentiments. It brought to light the denied citizenship claims of elite women. This was the starting pistol for a broader movement for women's suffrage.
  • The Compromise of 1850

    The Compromise of 1850
    In the new territories, there was the question of whether they would allow slavery in the new territory or not. The Compromise of 1850 allowed California to be a free state, the slave trade would be abolished in Washington D.C., and a strict fugitive slave law would be enacted in the North. Every new state that wanted to enter the union would decide if it wanted to be a free state or a slave state under the concept of popular sovereignty
  • The Dred Scott Case

    The Dred Scott Case
    Dred Scott was a slave, but then his masters moved to a free state. He wanted to sue for his freedom and eventually made his way to the Supreme Court. They ruled against him, and it is considered one of the worst decisions to come out of the Supreme Court. It split the country, nullified the Missouri Compromise, and established the precedence that there was no such thing as a "free state".
  • The Battle of Fort Sumter

    The Battle of Fort Sumter
    After Lincoln was elected the South started seceding and formed the Confederacy. The Confederacy attacked several convoys that were heading to the fort to give them supplies. This event was the beginning of the American Civil War.
  • The Anaconda Plan

    The Anaconda Plan
    This plan was proposed as a way to cut off the Confederacy's supplies and cut them in half. They would take control of The Mississippi River, which would cut them in half and make it difficult for them to communicate with each other. The North was waging war against the Southern economy. If they succeeded in completing this plan it would be a major contributor in ending the war.
  • The Battle of Bull Run

    The Battle of Bull Run
    The North thought that this was going to be an easy war because they had so many advantages over the South. However, at the Battle of Bull Run, they were surprised by how serious the South was and were faced with defeat. The defeat made the North face the reality that they were going to have to fight a war.
  • Pacific Railway Act

    Pacific Railway Act
    The Pacific Railway Act was commissioned by Lincoln. Two railway companies started on either side of the country and met in the middle. It cut the traveling time from coast to coast from 6 months down to one week. This act was successful in connecting each side of the country, unifying us.
  • The Homestead Act

    The Homestead Act
    The Homestead Act granted 160 acres of land to the head of any family that was willing to move West and improve that land. The homesteaders were required to live on the land before it was completely titled to them, and they were expected to use it for agricultural use. This encouraged the settlement and development of western lands but also increased conflict with Native American tribes.
  • The Emancipation Proclamation

    The Emancipation Proclamation
    Originally, the war was about preserving the Union. However, the Emancipation Proclamation gave the South a peaceful way to rejoin the Union. Lincoln knew it wouldn't work, but he now gets to say that he tried. The Emancipation Proclamation was a cunning move made by Lincoln. By declaring all of the slaves free, he made it so if any foreign country tried to aid the South it would also look like they were supporting slavery, which was mostly abolished in Europe.
  • Lincoln's 10% Plan

    Lincoln's 10% Plan
    They had to come up with a plan for reconstruction. Lincoln proposed that if the states wanted to be readmitted to the Union 10% of their voters had to swear loyalty oaths and they had to write a new constitution that outlawed slavery. Congress thought that this was too lenient, so they proposed the Wade-Davis Bill. 50% had to swear loyalty oaths and only non-confederates were allowed to vote and hold office. Lincoln refused to sign but then he was assassinated and Johnson became president.
  • The Surrender at Appomattox

    The Surrender at Appomattox
    During the Final Virginia Campaign, the Union won every battle. General Lee of the Confederacy retreated to Richmond for a period of rest. They made a desperate run for Appomattox where they had weapons stored. General Grant's Army Split. One half would engage Lee's army to slow them down, and the other would continue on to Appomattox. Lee soon realized that he was trapped, and was forced to surrender, ending the Civil War.
  • The Civil Rights Act of 1866

    The Civil Rights Act of 1866
    The Civil Rights Act was passed in 1866 and gave citizenship to African Americans. However the Radical Republicans were worried about what would happen when the Democrats came back to power, so they looked for a more permanent solution in the form of amendments. They passed the 14th Amendment which gave citizenship to anyone born on U.S. soil, and the 15th Amendment which gave voting rights to all citizens regardless of race.
  • Election of 1876

    Election of 1876
    This election marked the end of reconstruction. Every southern state had been readmitted to the Union and was voting. There was suspected voter fraud in the original and the recount, so the decision went to Congress. The Republicans were desperate to hold on to the White House, so they made a deal. Hayes would be president, but they had to end military oversight in the South. Reconstruction is considered somewhat of a failure because many of the advancements aren't enforced.
  • The Dawes Act of 1887

    The Dawes Act of 1887
    The Dawes Act was similar to the Homestead Act in the fact that it granted Native Americans 160 acres of land. However, if they claimed the homestead the land came from Indian Reservation land. In addition, any land that wasn't claimed by Natives was then opened up for white settlement. It was championed for being an olive branch to the Native American tribes, but in reality, it weakened the tribal community.
  • Plessy v Ferguson

    Plessy v Ferguson
    Ferguson had bought a first-class ticket for the train but he wasn't permitted to be in the car. He sued and The Supreme Court ruled against Ferguson and stated that "separate but equal accommodations on railroads conformed to the 14th amendment guarantee of equal protection". That decision was used to justify segregating all public facilities. This ruling was held until the Brown v Board of Education decision in 1954.
  • The de Lome Letter

    The de Lome Letter
    Cuba was still under Spanish control. There was a series of Cuban revolts, which were met with brutal and inhumane treatment from the Spanish soldiers. The U.S. intervened because we had citizens and property and Cuba, and tried to negotiate a peace treaty. This letter was intercepted, which stated that Spain would never follow a peace treaty, and insulted the president. These events led to the breakout of the Spanish-American War. The S.A. war is where Roosevelt first gained popularity.
  • Anthracite Coal Strike

    Anthracite Coal Strike
    Coal miners went on strike, but the owners refused to negotiate. Roosevelt demanded that the owners negotiate or he would use the U.S. military to take over the mine, which is unconstitutional. This signaled a big shift because, for the first time, the government sided with labor over business. This is considered Rossevelt's biggest mistake.
  • The Shame of Cities

    The Shame of Cities
    Lincoln Steffans wrote "The Shame of Cities". In this, he exposed the corruption of political machines, cities' sanitary conditions, and the consequences of rapid industrialization. It brought attention to people who began to sympathize and strive for change.
  • Pure Food and Drug Act

    Pure Food and Drug Act
    Theodore Roosevelt was an advocate for consumer reform. He passed the Pure Food and Drug Act, which eventually became the beginning of the modern FDA. Other consumer reform acts that were passed during Rossevelt's presidency include the Meat Inspection Act and the Elkins and Hepburn Act.
  • The Model T

    The Model T
    Henry Ford introduced the Model T in 1908 for $850 dollars, which was extremely unaffordable for most Americans. He used scientific management and created the moving assembly line, which reduced the build time from 12 hours to 90 minutes. This reduced the cost to $280. This caused expansion in the steel, glass, oil, rubber, insurance, and construction industries, and was the beginning of the automobile becoming an integral part of American culture.
  • The Great Migration

    The Great Migration
    There were large numbers of white men entering the war and factories were gearing up for war, which meant that there were numerous amounts of jobs in the North. Black individuals and families migrated North in search of opportunity and to escape sharecropping. This caused a flourishing of black culture in the North.
  • The Zimmerman Letter

    The Zimmerman Letter
    WWI had started in 1914, but for the U.S. the war was "over there". With the discovery of the Zimmerman letter, where Germany was caught negotiating with Mexico to join the war, so they would have a North American foothold, and the combination of unrestricted submarine warfare, the U.S. decided to enter the war.
  • The Selective Service Act

    The Selective Service Act
    At the beginning of the war, the U.S. army was small and unprepared for war. President Wilson passed this order to grow the military. It worked, and 4.5 million troops mobilized. U.S. businesses also mobilized to make and build supplies for the war effort.
  • The Sedition Act

    The Sedition Act
    The freedom of the U.S. people was greatly impacted during WWI. The Sedition Act prohibited any speech that criticized the U.S. government or flag. Many people were imprisoned for up to 25 years. This is was infringement on free speech, but it was accepted because we were at war and needed to put up a united front.
  • 18th Amendment

    18th Amendment
    The passage of the 18th Amendment banned the manufacture and sale of alcohol in the United States. This led to the creation of mass underground networks for alcohol such as speakeasies, bootleggers (bootleggers eventually led to the creation of NASCAR) This was eventually repealed by the 21st Amendment.
  • The Palmer Raids

    The Palmer Raids
    People feared the spread of communism, and with the rise of unions, there were a series of bombings. Attorney General Mitchel Palmer encouraged raids and arrests of suspected anarchists, communists, and radicals. This led to rising tensions.
  • The Harlem Renissance

    The Harlem Renissance
    Many black Americans moved during WW1, which caused a flourishing in the black community. There was an influx of black expression where journalists, poets, musicians, and artists created pride in being black and created works that talked about the experience of being black. This also ushered in the Jazz Age which began as a musical style in the black community, but quickly became popular in white America.
  • Sacco and Vanzetti

    Sacco and Vanzetti
    There was a lot of animosity towards immigrants in the 1920s. With very little evidence, two Italian immigrants, who were known anarchists, were charged with the murder of an employee of a shoe store during an armed robbery. They were found guilty and sentenced to death. Their deaths sparked widespread protest and debate about civil rights.
  • The Treaty of Berlin

    The Treaty of Berlin
    An armistice was called to negotiate a peace treaty to end WWI. In the United State's opinion, the Treaty of Versailles was too harsh, so they didn't sign and decided to sign a separate treaty with Germany. The Treaty of Versailles sent Germany into a huge economic recession, which eventually led to the break out of WW2.
  • The Great Gatsby

    The Great Gatsby
    After WW1 there was a dramatic shift in literature. Writers during this era were known as 'The Lost Generation', and embraced the idea of living for the moment and they rejected seemingly rigid social rules. Those feelings were a byproduct of the Great Depression and WW1. It can also be seen in the iconic 20s symbol, the flapper. These women rejected social rules for women and smoked, drank, and showed their ankles.
  • The Bonus Army March

    The Bonus Army March
    After WW1, the U.S. was a creditor nation, which led to the stock market crashing Banks had to close and people lost their life savings. This is known as the Great Depression. WW1 veterans were promised a stipend, but they weren't supposed to get it for a few years, they wanted it now and marched to D.C. where they were denied. Some camped outside the White House where the U.S. army eventually removed them and burned the camp down. This led to Hoover not being reelected.
  • The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation

    The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
    Roosevelt was elected instead of Hoover and created the New Deal. This was a product of that. They created a national bank holiday where all were shut down, investigated, and only allowed to reopen if they were stable. It also ensured that money up to a certain amount was insured if the bank collapsed so that people wouldn't lose their life savings. This was one of many of his programs. People loved him for at least trying and for not being Hoover. This is still in place today.
  • The Dust Bowl

    The Dust Bowl
    The Dust Bowl added to the problems during the great depression. In the West, it was used for farming, and they had plowed up all of the roots that were holding the soil together. This, combined with a drought, caused the soil to dry up and cause massive sand storms that made it impossible to grow or farm anything. This caused food storage and a mass exodus from that part of the country towards California.
  • The Social Security Act

    The Social Security Act
    The New Deal provided jobs. However, the economic collapse made people of retirement age lose all of their savings, so people weren't inclined to retire. The SSA was a safety net for all Americans, was meant to supplement, and gave people incentive to retire and open up jobs for the younger generation. This is one of the long-lasting effects of the New Deal because Social Security is still in place today.
  • Pearl Harbor- Day of Infamy

    Pearl Harbor- Day of Infamy
    For a very long time, the U.S. was not getting involved in WW2. The U.S. put an oil embargo on Japan and demanded that they withdraw from China because they locked the U.S. out of the market. Japan thought that attacking the U.S. would be an easy win, and end the oil embargo. This led the U.S. to be pulled into WW2. The U.S. and GB declared war on Japan on 12/8, and Italy and Germany declared war on the U.S. on 12/11. Everyone was pulled into WW2 because of secret treaties.
  • The Double V Campain

    The Double V Campain
    Black Americans were serving in WW2 and on the homefront. They began wanting and advocating for more rights. With this, they used the double V campaign which stood for victory overseas against fascism and victory at home for the civil rights movement.
  • Executive Order 9066- Japanese Internment

    Executive Order 9066- Japanese Internment
    After the Bombing of Pearl Harbor, Americans didn't trust the loyalty of Japanese Americans. Order 9066 allowed FDR to place the Japanese into internment camps They had no choice if they went or not, so they had to sell their things for extremely cheap. If they didn't go they risked going to jail. Korematsu defied the order and he took the case up to the SC, and they said that it was constitutional, even though we know it isn't. This shows that even the SC can be biased in certain situations.
  • Detroit Race Riot

    Detroit Race Riot
    The Detroit Race Riot started because the black community heard that a group of white men threw a black woman and her baby over the Belle Isle Bridge. The white community had heard a rumor about the bridge, but instead, it was that a group of black men had raped and killed a white woman on the bridge. This was an extreme example of the rising tension between the two groups at the beginning of the Civil Rights Movement.
  • Operation Ovelord- D-Day

    Operation Ovelord- D-Day
    The Great Depression ended because jobs were created to support the war effort. It took the U.S. a while to gather their strength. D-Day was planned for years, so they could get a foothold in Europe and alleviate the pressure on Russia. It is the largest seaborne invasion in history. By the end of the week that D-Day occurred we had gotten 80 miles of coast. This is considered to be the turning point of WW2.
  • The G.I. Bill of Rights

    The G.I. Bill of Rights
    After WW2, the government wanted a way to say thank you to soldiers. The G.I. bill paid for soldiers' education whether that was college or trade school. It gave low-interest home and business loans. This had a huge impact because suddenly education was attainable for a population that it previously hadn't been and it is still in place today.
  • The Atomic Bomb

    The Atomic Bomb
    Germany surrendered on May, 8th, which left Japan as the last Axis power of WW2. The United States dropped two atomic bombs on Nagasaki and Hiroshima in Japan. This caused them to surrender on September 2nd, officially ending WW2.
  • Victory Loan Drive

    Victory Loan Drive
    Industries had adapted to support the war, and so did many Americans. Patriotism was sweeping the nation, and The Victory Loan Drive was asking the American people to buy war bonds to help finance the war. People also started victory gardens to grow their produce, so more canned items would go to soldiers. Women also mobilized to take the jobs for men that were overseas. The war was not just fought overseas, but at home as well.
  • Iran Conflict

    Iran Conflict
    The USSR and the U.S. were extremely tense because of opposing ideas and the possession of nuclear weapons. During WW2, the British and Soviet troops occupied Iran to protect a large oil reserve from Germany, but after the end of WW2, the Soviets refused to leave. The U.S. intervened, and this is considered the first conflict of the Cold War.
  • The Suburbs

    The Suburbs
    Levitt and Sons created a new type of neighborhood that had similar homes, which reduced the build time and cost. The affordable price allowed families to move out of apartments or older buildings of the inner city and fulfilled a part of the American dream. During the Great Depression, we saw a shrinking as people moved in with family to save costs, and this was the beginning of seeing people expand again.
  • The Marshall Plan

    The Marshall Plan
    The Marshall Plan sharpened the Truman Doctrine and came up with a definitive plan to keep communism out of countries. The U.S. would provide money to help countries rebuild and provide hope so communism had no place to take root. It also caused an expansion of trade an increase in exports and an increased economic corporation among European countries.
  • Berlin Airlift

    Berlin Airlift
    Truman has said that he would never abandon West Berlin but the blockade made it almost impossible to provide them with food without risking war. They came up with the airlift and provided food and supplies for an entire city for almost a year. This was also a show of strength to the USSR and showed them that the U.S. was not a push over.
  • NATO

    Dean Acneso became the Secretary of State under Truman in 1949 and helped develop NATO. Their main idea was that "an attack against one is an attack against all". The countries that joined from the beginning include, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, the UK, and the U.S.. This made it impossible for the USSR/ Stalin to push through the Iron Curtain.
  • Emergence of Rock

    Emergence of Rock
    Rock started as "black" music but soon started appealing to the younger generation when it was introduced to them by Elvis. They wanted to rebel against the conformity of their parents that stemmed from living during the Great Depression and WW2. Some "boomers" went even further and were called "beatniks". They experimented with music, poetry, clothing, sex, and drugs. They were the people that set up the Hippies in the 70s.
  • Kinsey Report

    Kinsey Report
    The Kinsey Report brought sexuality to the forefront where it had previously only been talked about behind closed doors. It exposed the higher degree of premarital sex, marital infidelity, homosexuality, and "deviant behaviors" within the population. People previously thought that these rates were extremely low. He was discredited. However, this report set up future generations/ decades being more open about sexuality.
  • The Korean Armistice Agreement

    The Korean Armistice Agreement
    Eisenhower promised to end the Korean War in his campaign. The U.S. had been aiding South Korea and defeating/ pushing back communism in the North, but they were finally at a stalemate at the 38th parallel. On July 27th, 1953, after 3 years of fighting an armistice was signed and the Korean War was over. The country was split at the 38th parallel and each border is protected by miles of BMSs on each side.
  • The Baby Boom

    The Baby Boom
    After WW2, there was a surge in births so high that there was not enough infrastructure to support them. This caused an increase in jobs and many manufacturing industries because they had to build hospitals, schools, etc. and then those places had to be staffed.
  • Brown v. Topeka Board of Education

    Brown v. Topeka Board of Education
    Plessy determined that schools could be segregated if they were equal, but they weren't. The NAACP was looking for a case to take to the SC, and they used Linda Brown. Thurgood Marshall led the case, the SC overturned Plessy and schools had to integrate. Marshall went on to become the first black SC justice. By 1957 schools in the South weren't integrating which led to the "Little Rock 9" being the first black students to integrate a white highschool
  • Rosa Parks

    Rosa Parks
    Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat on the bus to a white man and was arrested for that. This led to a bus and rail boycott that lasted over a year. The bus company eventually joined in the right for civil rights so they could get their customers back. This protest is where MLK Jr. began to get his fame. A few years later he would be a founder of the SCLC.
  • The Eisenhower Interstate Highway Act

    The Eisenhower Interstate Highway Act
    This was the largest public works project in history and was done to update and modernize America's roadways, but it also connected the entire country more effectively than the single-lane highways. Eisenhower passed it by playing on Cold War fears. He said it would make evacuation easier and act as emergency runways. This project was the what railroad was in the 1850s. Although this act had many great benefits, many towns that ran right along highways began to die because they were bypassed.
  • The Election of 1960

    The Election of 1960
    In the Election of 1960, Nixion was the better-qualified candidate of the two. However, this was also the first time that the campaigns had television on this side, which the Kennedy Administration knew better. Their first television debate is what cost Nixon the presidency because Kennedy looked more presidential. People loved him and he benefitted from his youth, but he was not strong enough to stop the Berlin Wall or communism in Cuba. The Election of 1960 marked a new way of campaigning.
  • The U-2 Incident

    The U-2 Incident
    Stalin died in 1956 and was replaced with Khrushchev. We thought that we might be able to work with him, but he was prone to personality changes, and whenever they met with him they didn't know who they were going to get. The U-2s were spy planes that were supposed to be impossible to take down, but one did and the pilot didn't follow directions on what to do in that situation and got caught. The USSR used this as an excuse to not attend The East-West Summit Conference in Paris.
  • The Cuban Missile Crisis

    The Cuban Missile Crisis
    U.S. intelligence had received intel that Cuba was building missile launch sites and U-2 photos confirmed. This was the closest that the world had ever come to nuclear warfare. The public was in a panic and JFK decided to enact the Cuba Quarantine Proclamation to stop any USSR ships. One ship eventually entered the blockade. The USSR eventually gave in and the missile launch sites were eventually removed from Cuba, but the blockade stayed in place.
  • March on Washington

    March on Washington
    The SCLC planned a march and rally in Washington D.C. with support from other organizations like the NAACP, SNCC, and CORE. There were over 250,00 thousand people in attendance, and they were bused in from all over the country. This march is where MLK delivered his famous "I Have a Dream" speech, and it wasn't long after that civil rights acts were passed.
  • The Gulf of Tonkin Incident

    The Gulf of Tonkin Incident
    FDR had sent troops into Vietnam, so LBJ inherited the war. A U.S. ship thought they were being fired upon, but it was foggy so they were unsure, and fired back. Congress passed the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution where they gave LBJ a blank check. This gave the president too much power. The war escalated. People weren't happy because they were losing their appetite for war. LBJ said that the war was going well. This was the beginning of the presidency not being honest with the public.
  • The Voting Rights Act of 1965

    The Voting Rights Act of 1965
    President Johnson passed the Civil Rights Act of 1964 which prohibited discrimination based on race, color, religion, or national origin, but many were still getting denied the right to vote. He then passed the Voting Rights Act of 1965 which prohibited discrimination in local, state, and national elections and polling places. It banned things like literacy tests, intimidation, and physical violence. These two acts were the achievements that the civil rights movement was after.
  • The Great Society

    The Great Society
    LBJ started "The War on Poverty". His legislation which is blanketed under The Great Society included things like the Civil Rights Act, the Voting Rights Act, Medicare, Medicaid, Headstart, Job Core, Corporation for Public Broadcasting, etc. Many were opposed to some of this legislation because of the cost, but LBJ was considered to be a bully, and he tended to get what he wanted. The Great Society had many programs that still impact us today such as Medicare and Medicaid.
  • Election of 1968

    Election of 1968
    People were tired of war and Nixon promised to restore peace. This was the beginning of the rise of the conservative movement. He promised "Vietnamization" where Vietnamese troops would slowly replace American troops. There were secret bombings to make the North Vietnamese give in to U.S. demands and the Paris Accords ended the war, but the South still fell to communism in April of 1975.
  • Watergate Scandal

    Watergate Scandal
    Nixon wanted to ensure that he would be reelected. A group of men working for him broke into the Democratic HQ. Nixon didn't know about or order this, but his mistake was trying to cover it up. This deepened the public's growing distrust of the government, and he decided to resign from office. Other than this he was a well-liked president and he strengthened our relationship with China and signed a treaty that limited nuclear weapons and ABMs.
  • American Hostages

    American Hostages
    An oil embargo was placed on the U.S. by Arab nations but in 1978 President Carter helped negotiate a peace agreement. However, it was overthrown by the Iranian Revolution of 1979 and another was placed. The situation got worse when hostages were taken at the American Embassy and Carter was unable to get them back. They were held for 444 days until Reagan became president and he signed the Algiers Accords.
  • Election of 1980

    Election of 1980
    Reagan's getting elected was a big milestone. There was a "new right" that was opposed to a large federal government. Conservatives argued against liberal programs and government entitlement spending. He favored supply-side economics which included tax cuts for the rich and the idea of trickle-down economics. He did something called the Reagan Doctrine, which provided military to the Contras in Nicaragua to reinstate the pro-American right-wing dictatorship.