APUSH Timeline

By Cole E
  • 1492

    Columbian Exchange

    Columbian Exchange
    Europeans brought livestock, cash crops, disease. The New World provided sugar, land, money, furs. Africa provided slaves, gold, salt. Supported mercantilism (An economic system originally designed to keep trade out of other nations, would continue and eventually become the major form of economy in America.) and kept US economically tied to Britain.
  • Period: 1550 to

    Slave Trade

    The Transatlantic slave trade lasted up until the end of Slavery in the Untied States and supplied over 10 million slaves to the New World. Scared, dirty, stolen, and beaten these slaves crossed the Atlantic, but as much as 14.5% of them got to the New World. After arriving they were sold into brutal lives of slavery.
  • Jamestown Colony

    Jamestown Colony
    English settlers sent to the New World, was the first permanent settlement. No gold was found but lots of resources & tobacco. After the Starving Time, England put in place mercantilism. Raw materials went to Britain and finished products to colonies. To encourage population growth there was the Headright System. For every person you paid to go, got 50 acres of land, and if already there got 100 acres. Set up the House of Burgesses which was a form of government.
  • Puritan Movement

    Puritan Movement
    The Puritans settled in Salem & Boston. They separated from the church. Their governor John Winthrop. Anne Hutchinson educated the other housewives, which was not allowed. There was also the Salem witch trials. Militiamen and allied natives went and fought other tribes. Called the Metacom’s War (1676). Separatists left the colony forming Rohde Island. In Rhode Island there was religious freedom and government was separate from the church.
  • Enlightenment, Scientific Revolution

    Enlightenment, Scientific Revolution
    The Enlightenment: Copernicus, John Locke, Natural Law “everyone deserves life liberty and property.” Big Benjamin Franklin published a lot of newspapers and pamphlets. There was also an influx in education, publications, and a general but firm step away in the belief of supernatural powers. This would be known as the Scientific revolution.
  • Period: to

    Americanization of Natives

    Although boarding schools were not founded until later centuries, since the beginning of established colonies there was a slow conversion and eradication of Natives. In 1700 there was trade and goods between Whites and Natives, and further along the line there were wars, massacres, ethnic cleansing, abuse, sexual assault, all in efforts to "kill the Indian, save the man"
  • Great Awakening

    Great Awakening
    A revival of Christianity, in emphasized the individuals relationship with god, it helped unify many groups, splitting some. Two opposite styled individuals. Johnathan Edwards: Sinners in the hands of an angry god, promoted a hateful and angry god that is distained by the sinful humans and only few will make it to heaven. George Whitfield: Taught a more kind and forgiving, a more modern view. This difference in teachings helps spread to more audience.
  • French Indian War

    French Indian War
    Washington was a British general in this war, but was handed a loss. Ben Franklin called delegates from colonies calling for unity, using "join or die". It did not work however brought the idea of unity. Britain won however brought trouble when they began to tax the colonies. Ended in 1763.
  • After French Indian War

    After French Indian War
    After the French Indian War, Britain sought it fit that their colonies should pay for the war expenses. To do so they enacted all of the acts. including: sugar act, stamp act, quartering act, declaratory act, Townshend acts. Was the end of Benign Neglect from the British and would lead to the Revolutionary war. other events like the Boston tea party also drove a gap in-between colonists and Britain
  • Boston Massacre

    Boston Massacre
    A group of British soldiers were being harassed by a mob of American colonists, when one soldier, with the order not to fire, fired into the mob, causing the rest to follow. although 5 people died it was overexaggerated and made into propaganda titled "The Bloody Massacre". This was printed and printed nation wide angering and drove the colonies closer to war.
  • 2nd Continental Congress

    2nd Continental Congress
    At the second continental congress there were delegates from all 13 colonies. They created the olive branch petition, as well as beginning to set up a continental army, print money, make a foreign policy committee, and made the declaration of independence.
  • Revolutionary War

    Revolutionary War
    The revolutionary war was the culmination of unfair taxation, no representation, and oppressed trade the 13 colonies went to war with Britain. During the cold winter at valley forge union troops were reinvigorated and inspired by work like Thomas Paine's common sense. The Turing point of the war, Saratoga, was a colonists victory and also helped the French to agree to fight with us. At the end of the war the treaty of Paris was signed.
  • Constitution

    The Articles of Confederation, predecessor to the Constitution, gave the Federal government little to no power. The constitution followed suite however it was not fully agreed apron due to the difference in economy of the north and south and issues such as slavery. Because of this the Bill of Rights was passed as an agreement. The first real proof that this document would really work is after the whiskey rebel ion where Washington was able to have them stand down without violence.
  • Washington Presidency

    Washington Presidency
    Washington was the first US President, meaning there was little to no guide of what his job and powers really were. Because of this he made many precedents like making a cabinet, running two terms, and more. He also greatly listened to Alexander Hamilton who was a federalist and supported a national bank and neutrality to France.
  • Second Great Awakening

    Second Great Awakening
    Another Protestant revival, where many new secs were made, while also leading the charge with women for social change. Predominant figures were Charles Finney, Lyman Beecher. Although some Like Joseph Smith saw this as an opportunity to separate from the American life and form new religions and communities. There was also a sentiment of abolitionism and temperance throughout the Second great awakening as in gods eyes were all the same as well as viewing alcohol as the root of social evils.
  • John Adams

    John Adams
    He was the 2nd president, by defacto. He had the XYZ affairs after the French were impressing American ships and good. This avoided war however worsened his image. He also created the US Navy for this reason. The passed the Alien and Sedition acts which lengthened the Naturalization process for immigrants as well as made it illegal to negatively press about the government. This sparked the Kentucky and Virginia resolutions which stated to nullify the acts.
  • Revolution of 1800

    Revolution of 1800
    This was the first time and proof of concept for the constitution for the passing of power from one president to another. John Adams lost to Jefferson. Before leaving office however Adams appointed Midnight Judges. This resulted in Marbury v Madison as well as the Supreme court claiming power for themselves. During Jefferson's presidency he also bought the Louisiana Purchase from Napoleon, and had the land explored.
  • Period: to


    This was a movement, driven by women during the second great awakening. It was driven because many women, who had control of the household, felt that their husbands were being corrupted by alcohol for many reasons. being drunk is disorderly as well as makes some people violet. It also costs money and blurs judgement. Some important groups were the Women's Christian Temperance Union and Anti-Saloon League. This movement switched gears to proabortion after the 18th Amendment.
  • Marbury v Madison

    Marbury v Madison
    After one of the letters containing the appointment of a Midnight Judge was found and thrown away the to be appointed took James Madison to court. Over tis Supreme Court case the Supreme found that Madison, aka Jefferson, won. They also added that the Supreme court had the ability to nullify any law it deems to be unconstitutional AFTER IT"S PASSED. This gave the Supreme Court and immense amount of power it lacked beforehand.
  • Louisiana Purchase

    Louisiana Purchase
    During the Napoleon Crusades, He needed more money for his fighting so after Jefferson showed interest in New Orleans Napoleon agreed to a much larger deal. This would effectively more than double the size of the US as well as be sold for 4 cents an acre. After deliberations of Executive power Jefferson agreed. To explore this vast land he had Meriwether Lewis and William Clark record everything as they travelled to the west coast.
  • Embargo Act 1807

    Embargo Act 1807
    Jefferson's big blunder that turns out to be a intelligent mis-input. By taxing foreign products it effectively protected and established American goods. This allowed said goods to be competitive as well as cutting into the Federalist beloved mercantilism and supported American industry. In the long term it bolstered the economy and created some sense of independence from foreign markets.
  • Cotton Gin

    Cotton Gin
    Eli Whitley's Cotton gin, although not very effective it is a proof of concept. It is then taken and improved so greatly that cotton is now a viable cash crop. This greatly bolsters the South's economy, complimented by the North's and Britain's Textile industry. This also makes slavery that much more vital and increases its lifetime. This also destroys much of the diversity in the south's framing industry dooming it to fail when its markets are taken away from them.
  • War of 1812

    War of 1812
    The war of 1812 was when the British were impressing American Ships and crews as well as supplying Natives through Canada to resist and attack settlers and defy the Government. They train and armor the Natives, compared to the US' poorly trained soldiers, and weak navy. The Battle of Thames was the turning point of the War as Native leader Tecumseh was killed during it. There was also the battle of New Orleans that would boost Jackson into presidency. Also proves American pride and strength.
  • Transportation Revolution

    Transportation Revolution
    During the transportation revolution there were the government protected and allocated construction of canals, roads, railroads, as well as the creation of steam boats and trains. This allowed markets and rural areas previously cut off to the major or international markets now interconnected and able to do business. The telegraph as well as US Postal service is established.
  • Missouri Compromise

    Missouri Compromise
    The Missouri Compromise was a way that sufficed the South and North. It admitted Missouri to the Union as a slave state and Maine as a free state, while banning slavery from the remaining Louisiana Purchase lands located north of the 36º 30’ parallel. This was an imperfect and non-permanent solution to slavery. Really a Band-aid on a bullet wound. This was later nullified by the compromise of 1850 or Kansas-Nebraska Act.
  • Industrial Revolution

    Industrial Revolution
    With the invention or interchangeable parts, as well as steam powered factories in the north and a huge population of jobless immigrants the industrial revolution hit it off. Products are now made faster and cheaper, meaning they're sold cheaper as well. With all these modern commodities standard of living goes up. This created the American System, a government program to balance the agriculture, commerce, and industry.
  • Period: to


    Abolitionism, mostly driven by freed blacks and Second Awakening women. Was the push to end slavery, this however was not the same as equality by race. This had many outspoken leaders such as Willian Lloyd Garrison and his The Liberatore, or The North Star written by Fredrick Douglass, or Uncle Tom's Cabin by Harriet Beacher Stove. This movement of course ended with the civil war and the passing of the 13th amendment.
  • Monroe Doctrine

    Monroe Doctrine
    The Monroe Doctrine was a United States foreign policy position that denied Europe in the Americas. Its aid any intervention in the Americas was potentially hostile against the US. Monroe reinforced the idea the New World and the Old World were to remain distinctly separate spheres of influence. In turn, the US. would not interfere with existing European colonies nor meddle in the internal affairs of European countries
  • Corrupt Bargain of 1824

    Corrupt Bargain of 1824
    This was from the election of 1824 where neither Adams or Jackson won majority. However it was left to the House of Representatives who was led by Henry Clay. Clay and Adams had a closed doors meeting with only themselves and after it he endorsed Adams, winning him the precedency over Jackson. However Clay also got selected to be Head of State. This was viewed and possibly was possibly wasn't a corrupt bargain to ensure both parties mutually benefitted.
  • Age of Jackson

    Age of Jackson
    Won the election because there were 2 candidates. Jackson, a common man. However he struggled as president, when the Tariff of 1824 passed it caused discourse in southern states. South Carolina’s reacted with nullifying it and the threat of secession (John C. Calhoun). Jackson got congress to pass the Force Act, using the army to collect taxes. Luckily the compromise tariff 1833 was passed resolving it. He also passed the Indian Removal Act, popular for its time, which is now frowned upon today.
  • Indian Removal Act

    Indian Removal Act
    Legislature supported by Jackson to have Natives from mostly southern territories into the west. These Natives had to walk over 5000 miles, when not allowed to prepare for it. Due to this many died of disease, and many more of exhaustion. This would be a black spot in Jackson's precedency, and was another step in the continuous eradication of Natives from their lands.
  • Antebellum Slavery

    Antebellum Slavery
    Antebellum Slavery is most know however it ranged in tactics and styles. In the northern, Southern states slaves mostly would work on a task system. Everyday they do a certain task, and the rest of the day is off. With smaller farms and more rice/tobacco, families were broken, children or parents sold. In the deep south and west south you would have large plantations of cotton and sugar. These would use gang labor to ensure constant work and would give some slaves a sense of authority and power.
  • Bank Wars

    Bank Wars
    Jackson fought hard against the preexisting American System as he saw it as an overstepping of the federal government. Therefore he vetoed many internal improvement bills. Jackson saw the (2nd) National Bank as an abuse of federal power and fought hard to keep its charter from being renewed. He demanded all federal transactions be dealt with by state banks, and all new land purchases be paid in gold or silver to help prevent inflation.
  • Oregon Trail

    Oregon Trail
    As gold was being found in California, tensions rose in the states, and along with US fashion, people moved west. This time however they had to travel over the entire nation, to do so they used of Conestoga Wagons, and farm the plains with John Deere's steel plow. There were many justifications, idea of Manifest Destiny, land gold, independence, forward progress, civilizing natives. There was was about 250,000 who went to the west coast, however 1/10 died on the journey.
  • Texas

    Texas was a Mexican, fresh from independence, territory. They had no population to settle it, so they invited Americans to come under certain rules. They were not followed and it led to war. The Alamo was very famously when Texas militia went and fought against the Mexican army. This also produced strong support to help Texas from our government. Texas declared independence and, very nearly hadn't, asked the US to annex it. Under the control of the US, president Polk sent troops to the boarder.
  • Mexican-American War

    Mexican-American War
    When the patrol troops lost and died the US army was sent and a declaration of war was signed. The US army won handedly and pushed all the way to Mexico City, signifying the end of the war. With the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo the US got Texas, Arizona, New Mexico, Nevada, and California, as well as setting the Texas Boarder at the Rio Grande.
  • Utopias

    During the Second Great Awakening there were many new religious leaders. Utopias were often founded off of religion, and were created to separate from the preexisting American economy, lifestyles, social norms, and religious ideals. One was Joseph Smith who founded Mormonism, however in stark contrast you had Utopias like Oneida. With none of them working, everyone either assimilated back into society, or moved out west.
  • Compromise of 1850

    Compromise of 1850
    The Compromise of 1850 did four things. Admitted California as a free state, it stopped the sales of slaves in D.C., it enacted and enforced even stricter fugitive slave laws, and it also said any territory applying for statehood has to hold a vote to decide weather or not they will have slaves (this was the idea of popular sovereignty). This was another attempt at fixing the Western slavery issue and would lead to Bleeding Kansas
  • Bleeding Kansas

    Bleeding Kansas
    People flooded the territory to swing it one wat, both slavery and free. This lead to fighting and murder in multiple cases by both sides. One infamous case was of John Brown a radical abolitionist who believed in equality enough to ride with people into towns and behead those who supported slavery. The election showed Kansas as a slave state however it was clearly fraudulent.
  • Dred Scott

    Dred Scott
    Dred Scott was owned in Missouri, but moved to Wisconsin. He filed a lawsuit for his freedom on the grounds he lived in a free territory. In 1850 the court declared Scott free, but it was reversed in 1852 by the Missouri Court. The case reached the Supreme Court, which in 1857 decided Scott was not free. This was the worst decision made by the court ever. Taney believed Blacks could not sue in federal court because they were not citizens. Scott’s suit, therefore, should have been dismissed .
  • Election of 1860

    Election of 1860
    This election was new on many aspects, one there were debates between Lincoln and Douglass. This was completely new to the election and it gave Lincoln and astounding advantage. With this Lincoln won, however with a Republican presidents, South Carolina and then the rest the southern states seceded, fearing his policies. This election along with other events was a determining factor in the Divide in and war against the Union.
  • Lincoln Admin.

    Lincoln Admin.
    Under Lincoln and with half of the states out, there was an overwhelmingly republican atmosphere. His administration presided over the passing of legislation. The Homestead Act, the Morrill Land-Grant Act, the Pacific Railroad Act of 1862. Along side these he won the Civil War with the help of Ulysses S Grant and changed the why of the war to slavery by passing the Emancipation Proclamation. This effectively made the conflict about race.
  • Radical Republicans Super-majority

    Radical Republicans Super-majority
    When half of the Southern Democrat states seceded they took their representatives with them. This allowed a rare super majority in congress. Through this power the Homestead Act, Trans Pacific Act Dawes Act,14th and 15th amendment, Civil Rights Act of 1866, as well as establishing the Freedman's Bureau. The 1th Amendment states anyone born in the US is a citizen, and all their rights. AS well as giving citizens protection in the law. The 15th prohibited citizens the right to vote by race.
  • Civil War

    Civil War
    The beginning of the Civil War was Fort sumpter. During the war the North had a surplus of advantages over the South however also was on the offensive. The South with little to know industry and not as many food crops struggled to defend their land. Over the war 750,000 American soldiers died. The Appomattox Court house was where Robert E Lee surrendered to Grant, and the Thirteenth Amendment ended any dispute over states rights to slavery.
  • Homestead Act of 1862

    Homestead Act of 1862
    During the Civil War Lincoln's admin passes the Homestead act. This encouraged families, as well as individuals, to move west. The movement still supported by Manifest destiny and 160 acre to the head of a household. However they must live on the land, farm it for 5 years, and upkeep it. This attracted many in the crowded north as well as helping settle the west and add to the economy. This entire Act was made possible by the transcontinental railroad.
  • Andrew Johnson

    Andrew Johnson
    Andrew Johnson became president after Lincoln's assassination. However he was a Democrat and found hard against the Republican congress. However they had a supermajority and therefore could bypass him. He was able to cut funding to the Freedman's bureau, pardon Confederate Leaders and was eventually impeached but not removed. The first president ever to do so.
  • Reconstruction

    After the war there were different attempts to bind the nation back together. Lincoln's 10% plan was too lenient for Republicans. Johnson's plan went under the radar and in the end nullified punishment from Confederate leaders. Black Codes were passed in the south, helping reinforce slavery in all but name. Groups like the Ku Klux Klan and other organizations prevented blacks from voting or living. Lots of efforts made but none to successful.
  • Transcontinental Railroad

    Transcontinental Railroad
    The Pacific Railway Act of 1862 had two companies go east to west and west to east to build a transcontinental railroad. This was completed in 7 years and payed both companies handsomely. This opened trade up to China and Asia as well as those goods to East coast and Europe. This was the largest undertaking yet and was instrumental in the US economy as well as making the Homestead Act possible. This also allowed additional lines to be made interconnection the West and Midwest to every market.
  • Gilded Age

    Gilded Age
    As America continues advancing in technology and industry the gilded age arrives. Highlighted by business and academic minds alike we see a huge push in technology like the uses of oil, sky scrapers, lightbulbs, motion pictures, telephones, and more. Made by the likes of Thomas Edison, Nickola Tesla, Andrew Carnegie, John D. Rockefeller, Alexander Gram Bell, J.P. Morgan.
  • Post Reconstruction South

    Post Reconstruction South
    After the Election of 1868, Republicans lost their super majority. With that being the case the South returned to life similar yet more dangerous than before the war. With Black Codes and Jim Crow laws in full swing as well as Plessy V. Ferguson being taken advantage of the south segregated. Confederate leaders attempted through law and violence to "Redeem" The south to its prewar glory.
  • Capital v. Labor

    Capital v. Labor
    Although factories needed large workforces, an overwhelming influx of immigrants fulfilled and exceeded this demand. Creating a surplus of workers allowed corporations to separate the laborers from complex skills reducing their individuality and inherent worth. By separating the skill from worker the replaceable nature of any worker threatened their job security as well as lowered their wages and lengthened work hours.
  • Urbanization

    With a large amount of immigrants entering the country in the large east coast cities, these cities naturally began to grow up creating more urbanization. Skyscrapers began to appear along with water, sewage, and power. This along with another agricultural revolution-supporting the cities-, and political machines (driving the legislature), was urbanization.
  • Corporations

    A new entity being created in the time period, to be fully realized later, corporations and trust funds worked for the interests of the companies and not the individual worker. This included the vertical integration, that would eventually lead to monopolies. This perfected by big businessmen like ford and Rockefeller become very prominent and strong economic force.
  • James A. Garfield/Pendleton Act

    James A. Garfield/Pendleton Act
    Due to the spoils system James A. Garfield is assassination by a disgruntled campaigner. This leads congress to pass the Pendleton Act which put in place the merit system to replace the spoils system. This requires all government employees take a test before assigned a job that would measure their qualifications, to prevent the spoils system, as well as ensuring competent leadership in government.
  • Edison V. Tesla

    Edison V. Tesla
    Thomas Edison a large name in the world of inventions and technology, would hire researchers to create inventions or solutions to existing problems. Nickola joined Edison but wanted further freedom and research and left, creating a rivalry. Notes for both are Edison's DC electricity and Nickola's AC. In the end we see Edison win as a businessman, and Nickola is not recognized in his time.
  • Haymarket Square

    Haymarket Square
    With the separating of Capital from Labor comes unions and workers rights. Several campaigns of differing success ultimately ended at Haymarket Square, where 1500 workers in Chicago rallied and went on strike. Turning violent, the police came and there was a shootout. Most likely caused by a terrorist group wanting to incite violence it ended the Nights Labor, a prominent worker union, leading to their decline.
  • Populist Party

    Populist Party
    A result of the unionizing workforce and agricultural workers wanting more legal change the populist party was created to represent them. However after showing promise the democrat part mostly ingested the populist party and their politicians like Williams Jennings Bryan and keeping less radical beliefs of theirs.
  • Muckrakers

    Muckrakers emerged in the cities and more and more symptoms of Urbanization began to show themselves. This included in the dilapidated housing, child labor, poor labor conditions, poorly regulated food production, and other faucets of life. Some of these people include Jacob Riis, Lewis Hine, Upton Sinclair, Lincoln Steffans, Ida M. Tarbell, Ida B. Wells. This was met with several successes in their own facets, the FDA, Lawsuits against Rockefeller, Building codes.
  • Progressive Era

    Progressive Era
    With the beginning of the muckrakers, the unionizing workers, poor work and living conditions, change was due. Seen through a new force from the middle class women of America doing most of the lifting. This period is highlighted with women's suffrage, temperance to prohibition, improvement in workplace, home life, technology and lots of legislature passed by Theodore Roosevelt and Howard Taft.
  • American Imperialism

    American Imperialism
    American imperialism although having very little fighting was a period where our Manifested Destiny ran out and we needed more. With better weapons, communication, economic power, and democracy, America took upon itself to help the rest of Central and South America and the Philippines. This meant uncolonizing them from European power, except the Bahamas, and ensuring their economies are successful. Also the liberation of Cuba.
  • End of Indian Wars

    End of Indian Wars
    At this point the fighting of Native Americans were either done or very declined. With most tribes on reservations or dead, the government no long had to fight against them. The Americanization of Natives through the use of boarding schools was also well established, however would not end until many years later. This purposeful separation of children and their ancestral land, supplemented by the Dawes act, essentially ended all native culture that was left.
  • Women's Suffrage

    Women's Suffrage
    Although existing since before the civil war, the support from each other and the church began giving the movement steam and eventually leads to the 19th amendment. Notable figures being Susan B. Anthony, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Victoria Woodhull, Lucy Stone, Julia Ward Howe, Alice Paul. Through the National American Women's Suffrage Association (NAWSA).
  • Temperance

    A movement eventually culminating into the 18th amendment, the only amendment repealed, pushed strongly by the church and newfound middle class women. This saw alcohol as the root of all evils and its end in America. Although successful it is a true insight into America's past beliefs. Notably there was the Woman’s Christian Temperance Union (1874) as well as leaders like Frances E. Willard and Carrie A. Nation (destroyed bars across the nation with an axe).
  • African American Leaders

    African American Leaders
    Although free, African Americans faced great prejudice and racism. In reaction of this many black leaders rose the the occasion. People like Booker T. Washington who started the Tuskegee Institute, and fought hard to uplift the black community separate of the white south, believing the only bring change was to earn the respect of the white man before change. Or W.E.D. DuBois who graduated from Harvard an founded the NAACP, an instrumental organization in the civil rights movement.
  • Teddy & Taft

    Teddy & Taft
    Both Teddy Roosevelt and Howard Taft were the strong Progressive presidents. They pushed for trust busting, with the Sherman Anti-Trust Act, TR founded the Food and Drug Administration, both set aside huge parcels of land for National parks (Taft economically utilizing them), TR passed the Antiquities Act, Taft made the Children's Bureau. Taft's presidency ending in 1913. TR had big stick diplomacy with the White Navy, and Taft with Dollar Diplomacy for American Imperialism.
  • Wisconsin Plan

    Wisconsin Plan
    An idea from the man Robert "Fightin Bob" La Follette, Governor and later Senator from Wisconsin, it proposed many changes in America's administration of democracy. This included to do away with monopolies, trusts, high costs of living, and predatory wealth. Reforms in labor and worker's rights were major aspects of the Wisconsin Idea.
  • Great Migration

    Great Migration
    The Great Migration was a large demographic movement of African Americans from Southern U.S.A. to the north and west around WWI. This not only allowed those African Americans not only escape the Jim Crow Laws of the South, but also gave them opportunities in factories and other work with many white men being drafted into the war. This will lead to the Harlem Renaissance.
  • WWI

    Due to a mix of reasons like unrestricted U-boat warfare, the Zimmerman Note (A note from German Ambassador telling Mexico to attack America for German Support and a part of America), as well as America's strong economy America was drawn into a non-American war. This was a terrible war that was slow and very deadly (disease). It showed the possibility of gas, machine guns, planes, and U-boats. It also helped out economy with War Industry Boards, and ended in the allies winning
  • Wilson's 14 points

    Wilson's 14 points
    At the end of WW1 that addresses the reasons of WW1 and how to end it. 1. No more secret Allies 2. Freedom in the seas and trade 3.No Tariffs, trade barriers to help relations 4. Reductions of arms in Europe 5. Adjustment of colonial claims, 6-13. Adjustment of European boarders 14. creation of League of Nations.
  • Prohibition

    An absolute failure. With alcohol illegal, gangs and gang violence grew as more of them got into the game. This also led to speak easys (places to get drinks), complex systems to conceal alcohol, and Nasar. This lasted 13 years before being repealed. One of America's weirdest time periods.
  • Treaty of Versailles

    Treaty of Versailles
    At the end of WW1, the allies won. The only reason the war ended was because Germany agreed to an armistice if the treaty that come out of the country's aligned with Wilsons 14 points. However this was not respected leading to the Treaty of Versailles were Germany was pinned with fault and had to pay huge reparations that were meant to be unpayable. They also reduced their military, and didn't allow Germany's military on its own land. This bred the conditions for Hitler.
  • Roaring 20's

    Roaring 20's
    The Roaring 20's are highlighted by the good economy, new women, stocks and credit, jazz and black music, prohibition, and changing society. Women out and enjoying the night life and casual sex was normal if not glorified. The flapper which smoked, drank, bobbed their hair, and wore short dresses encapsulated this idea. This era is highlighted with city vs country as half of America was now in a city, and the two very different lifestyles. Fast, complicated, immoral, vs simple, slow, peaceful.
  • Harlem Renaissance

    Harlem Renaissance
    A large movement in the African American movement of art, literature, music, and civil rights. There are many writers still being read from this period, and Jazz very quickly became mainstream. This was a strong movement of black pride and self recognition. Notable people being Langston Hughes, Zora Neale Hurston, Louis Armstrong, Marcus Garvey, and Bessie Smith.
  • Al Capone

    Al Capone
    A product of the prohibition of alcohol, Al Capone gained predominance in Chicago bootlegging alcohol. A large scar on his face deemed his nickname "Scarface" and eventually an STI and tax evasion got him. His legacy is bigger than most of what was done in the daily life of his work.
  • Radio/Jazz/Blues

    A product of not only the Harlem Renaissance, but advanced technology and the good economy of the Roaring 20s. Bessie Smith being one of the best known women in blues and Louis Armstrong for Jazz. Its popularity grew world wide and all over the United States. It spread very quickly as more people could afford radios and listen to it.
  • 19th Amendment

    19th Amendment
    The end of women's suffrage as it gives "the right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex." or women can't be discriminated against when trying to vote. However this is not equality, no gender quality ever has passed through the government yet.
  • Great Depression

    Great Depression
    A preceding depression in the agricultural sector of America, and poverty across Europe warned the U.S. of recession. On top of those unsafe bank loaning and low restrictions on it led to several rushed mass withdraws, sparking the depression. It started with community aid groups helping as much as possible, however it was not enough. FDR was elected on the platform of government change and passes the New Deal programs, that went mediocrely. The ultimate end of the depression was WWII.
  • Depression Under Hoover

    Depression Under Hoover
    In the beginning of the depression president Herbert Hoover was tasked with helping the nation. He opposed direct federal aid and provided help to banks hoping America could ride it out. This led to his unpopularity and view as a do nothing and eventually FDR's election. Under Hoover WWI veterans asked for a bonus, they were promised before enlisting, several years early as the depression was setting in. They marched to Washington and camped outside the White House until forcefully removed.
  • Great Dust Bowl

    Great Dust Bowl
    An ecological effect of not only the agricultural depression but also the research done into the planes and sustainable growing practices. Because when converting plains to farmland the farmers dug up the deep rooted grasses, strong winds picked up now loose soil creating the dust bowl. Eventually solved with the help of the CCC as well as an industry wide change in farming practices.
  • FDR

    Hoovers reluctance to give direct Aid, let FDR run under it. He promptly started signing legislature. He stopped the Banks and enforced good practices as well as ensured banks with the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. He created government jobs, social security, huge infrastructure overhauls. Even though all of this passed the New Deal generally failed in saving us from the Depression. There's also the court packing scandal and laissez-faire economics and huge debt the government is in.
  • The New Deal: Alphabet Soup

    The New Deal: Alphabet Soup
    Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (banks), Security & Exchange Commission (Wall street), Federal Emergency Relief Act (direct aid), National Industrial Recovery Act (minimum wage), Civilian Conservation Corps (parks), Soil Erosion Service (Dust bowl), Tennessee Valley Authority (hydropower), Works Progress Administration (infrastructure), 1935 Social Security Act.
  • Pearl Harbor

    Pearl Harbor
    Although WW2 had been raging on for quite a while, the allies were only being supported economically by us. The surprise attack on Pearl Harbor by the Japanese air force was the entry point for us. Swearing to defeat Nazi Germany before Japan, America mobilized and jump starts its economy for wartime production. One of the first things it makes are America's navy as much of it was at Pearl Harbor.
  • Double V Campaign

    Double V Campaign
    Civil rights movement started by African American veterans and activists at home. Arguing if we send troops abroad to stop tyranny then racism should also be ended here. This was met with mild success, but was a seed sown for the civil rights movement.
  • GI Bill of Rights

    GI Bill of Rights
    A huge piece of legislature that redefined American values. After serving in WW2, soldiers would come home to an education, trade school or college, low interest home loans, low interest business loans. Not only did it help to employ those 18 1/2 million who served, it also gave opportunity rather than money or jobs for those soldiers to create a good life. Because of this an emphasis was placed on higher education and it supports the American Dream.
  • End of WW2

    End of WW2
    In the West this was months after D-Day and the taking back of Europe, Hitler committed suicide, and the Germans were defeated. In the east this did not end until the second atomic bomb was dropped on Japan. At the end, importantly, the USSR did not leave eastern Europe as well as took over places like Afghanistan and other nations. This leads to Eastern Europe falling under an Iron Curtain and the start of the Cold War.
  • Baby Boom

    Baby Boom
    With 18 1/2 million men coming home to their wives many children were made. This led to tons and tons of babies. The largest generation ever. This also means jobs at every level to support these babies. More nurses, schools, clothes, food, daycares, homes, cars, everything. This generation however doesn't enjoy the conformity of their veteran parents and out comes the Beatniks (Alan Ginsburg). Also enjoyed Rock & Roll and Elvis Presley.
  • Red Scare

    Red Scare
    Lasted until around 1957, as the population was continuously growing a fear of communists in the midst of our great democracy. Although there was a threat, blowing it out of proportion let senator George McCarthy use it as a political weapon, this included the Hollywood 10 and the ostracizing of thousands of individuals based on nothing. Eventually ending McCarthyism when he targeted out military (big nono).
  • Cold War

    Cold War
    Cold War was the product of a very long spy game between USSR and America effectively ending with their collapse. Its early years saw the Marshall plan, NATO, helping Turkey and Greece, and West Berlin. NATO designed to stop the spread of communism (confinement), Turkey and Greece helping with military (not direct conflict). The Marshall Plan rebuilt Europe to prevent another Hitler and the spread of Communism, as well as do well for our economy, supported by our us dollars, and berlin airdrops.
  • Technology

    Now this is scary, because with the knowledge of ICBMs with Nuke warheads, existed. This led to bomb shelters and the CD. There was also the television where civilians could watch real tapes from Vietnam or Birmingham and be disgusted. This spread of knowledge even affecting the 1960 election allowing JFK to win against Nixon.
  • Civil Rights Movement

    Civil Rights Movement
    Started debatably with brown v board 1954 and when until beyond 1965. This included a range of organizations, NAACP, SNCC, SCLC, CORE, working together as well as large names like, MLK, Little Rock, Linda Brown and many more. Most of the court cases were engineered for victory under the law slowly picking away at segregation. Sit ins, marches, freedom rides all popular.
  • Vietnam

    A number of nations taken by the USSR, Iran, Afghanistan, Korea, Cuba, China and Vietnam. Tons of fighting and eventually the US pulled out abandoning the rebel fighters leading to communist victory. This will also be LBJ's biggest mistake, escalating the conflict with the gulf of Tonkin resolution, and rolling thunder as well as other millitary abuses. This anti war was fueled by the youth. The Vietnam War also saw over 2,450,000 deaths, direct and not.
  • National Interstate and Defense Highways Act of 1956

    National Interstate and Defense Highways Act of 1956
    An act passed under Eisenhower that not only would interconnect major cities throughout America, supporting its automotive industry, as well as commerce and had a military background. The roads could be use as landing strips and to help evacuate cities in case of attacks or nukes. This greatly improved automotive sales as well as the commerce between cities. However it worked like rivers and railroads, as it took the life out of smaller, not connected towns.
  • Space Race

    Space Race
    Minor part of the Cold War, but a huge part of human history. With a more friendlier side, instead of spying the USSR and USA put stuff into space then men on the moon. No clear winner and a sight of strength by the governments.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis

    Cuban Missile Crisis
    With the USSR backed Fidel Castro in power of Cuba, it was found that ICBM launching stations were in Cuba. This led to a big blockade around the island as the ship with the ICBMs came from Russia. Crossing the no cross line US ships fired warning shots around the Russian boat and it turned around, not only avoiding all out war but also keeping America safe. Largest development in the cold war that thankfully never came out to anything.
  • March On Washington

    March On Washington
    This happened right after the summer of 1963 in Birmingham where King was arrested. This was the culmination of all the protesting, lawsuits, deaths, and segregation in the South. MLK was the key note speaker and delivered his famous I have a dream speech. Around 250,000 people showed up in support, and was a sign of end in the Conflict.
  • The Great Society

    The Great Society
    Under LBJ and the Warren Court (Griswold v Connecticut, row v wade, Map v Ohio, Gideon v Wainwright, Maranda v Arizona) there were huge advancements of civil rights for all peoples to create The Great "Society". This included rights for Mexican Americans, Native Americans, the gay community, environmentalists, and lots of movement in handling the law and a fair court system. A war on poverty and education were also influential in his presidency.
  • Civil Rights Act of 1964

    Civil Rights Act of 1964
    The legislature signed into by Johnson, however drafted by JFK that was to give everyone equality. Stating " prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex or national origin". However this was met with not enough compliance and voting was still very restricted. This led to the Voting Rights Act of 1965
  • Voting Rights Act of 1965

    Voting Rights Act of 1965
    The last of legislation that enforces the voting rights guaranteed by the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments, barring any voting poles or tests. This however was not the end of the movement as later groups like the Nation of Islam, Black Panthers, and Malcom X came and went.
  • Race Riots

    Race Riots
    From places like LA, Newark, and Detroit, there were many race riots throughout the nation taking place in the second half of the 1960s. As a result in the shifting movement, civil rights and integration was redirecting into black pride and power. This change, coming with the radicalization or CORE and SNCC and the growth in power of the Nation of Islam and the militant Black Panthers, illustrates frustration in the African American population, which was seeing "real change" for the past decade.
  • Nixon

    Through Nixon's presidency he accomplished many things, Title 9 (prohibits sex-based discrimination in school or programs that receives federal funding), the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency), Détente (deescalation of the cold war with china and SALT 1). However all of this was overshadowed by watergate. Nixon, directly ordering them or not, abused his power as president to attempt to cover up the scandal, leading to his resignation or otherwise impeachment.
  • Jimmy Carter

    Jimmy Carter
    AN Arab Oil Embargo in 1973 and subsequent oil shortages led to inflation and the detente of Nixon led to factory jobs moving out of the nation. Carter inherited these issues. He founded the Department of Energy and the Department of Education. He presided over the Panama Canal Treaties, 1977, called for the return of the canal to the people of Panama. The Camp David Accords, 1978, agreement calling for Israel and Egypt to get along.
  • Peanut Farmer pt.2

    Peanut Farmer pt.2
    In 1979, A mechanical failure and a human error at Three Mile Island permitted radiation to escape over a 16 mile radius. Then Russians invade Afghanistan 1979. Iran Hostage Crisis 1979, revolutionaries stormed the American embassy in Tehran and held 52 Americans hostage. The Carter administration tried unsuccessfully to negotiate for the hostages release. In 1981, the day Carter left office, Iran released the Americans, ending their 444 days in captivity.