American History

  • 1492

    Columbian Exchange

    Columbian Exchange
    Caused by the European conquest of the Americas and the construction of societies and economies under European control. Due to these explorations of land (between the New World and the Old World), this same exchange brought with it a great mixture of people, deadly diseases (the most common was malaria), animals, crops, goods and commercial luxuries of the Native Americans. This resulted in a rise to an environmental revolution for all of humanity.
  • 1526

    Slavery Trade

    Slavery Trade
    It is said that the first slave transport trip, which came from Africa to the Americas, took place in 1526. It was caused by the expansion that took place in the English colonies, affecting their economy in the same way. This was the need for slaves, since as a new territory in formation, they demanded a lot of labor. The Portuguese were the first to initiate this "slave trade", and after the first transatlantic voyage of slaves to Brazil, other Europeans began to copy the example.
  • England's Tobacco Colonies

    England's Tobacco Colonies
    It is presumed that this event began when tobacco arrived in England in 1586 (Sir Walter Raleigh was the one who brought it to England from Virginia). This system not only helped the development and expansion of settlements but also formed the basis of the colony's economy (using servants, paying taxes, manufacturing goods from England, etc). These tobacco colonies were forced to adhere to the mercantile system, thus being able to acquire natural resources and raw materials from the colonies.
  • Life on the Plantations (Slaves).

    Life on the Plantations (Slaves).
    Although it was known that slave labor had already begun to be practiced, in 1619 Virginia was when it officially began. These new settlements required a lot of labor to be maintained. As the land became larger, there was more space to cultivate and therefore more people were needed.Cheap labor and a growing demand created this system.Tobacco profits were used to pay local taxes and for the purchase of manufactured goods from England, among others. Improvements in geography,economics,culture,etc
  • Bacon's Rebellion

    Bacon's Rebellion
    It was triggered when approval of Native American lands was rejected. One of the last events in which the black and white slaves in colonial Virginia rebelled and made themselves felt. Jamestown was the bustling capital of the Virginia colony, which ended up being captured by Nathaniel Bacon's militia. After Bacon's death, the rebellion collapsed.
  • First Great Awakening

    First Great Awakening
    Period in which religion and beliefs of society were highly valued, which is why it is known as the religious renaissance of the nation. It broke the monopoly of the Puritan churches when the colonists began to look for different religious unions and the interpretation of the Bible on their own, thus affecting the English colonies. Those in charge of promoting this idea were George Whitefield and Jonathan Edwards.
  • French-Indian War

    French-Indian War
    The initiation of this was due to the struggle of the American Indians to maintain control of their lands/cultural future while the French (and British) claimed the upper valley of the Ohio River, thus proposing a kind of trade between them and the Indians and control the area. Washington's attack on a French force at Jumonville Glen sparked this war. France lost all claims to Canada and handed over Louisiana to Spain,Britain got Spanish Florida, Upper Canada and other French possessions abroad.
  • Seven Years' War

    Seven Years' War
    Caused by a conflict between Great Britain and France over the claim to land ownership in the Ohio River Valley. Both helped themselves with the Native Americans to use their forces in the war. It ended when treaties were signed with Hubertusburg and Paris, where France loses its claims to Canada and hands over Louisiana to Spain; and where Great Britain receives Spanish Florida, the Canadian highlands, and other French territories.
  • Stamp Act

    Stamp Act
    It started with the idea of helping pay for the British troops that remained in the colonies during the Seven Years War. Law that required colonists to pay taxes (represented by a stamp), various forms of papers, playing cards, and other legal documents that circulated throughout the colonies. This law was repealed and in turn the colonies abandoned their prohibition on importing British products.
  • Sons of Liberty

    Sons of Liberty
    These sons of liberty participated in the Boston Tea Party and used grassroots activism to push back British rule. The sons of liberty managed to undermine British rule with the use of force, intimidation, violence, weapons stores, etc. , Their protests were based on seeking the approval of the stamp law. They had a motto with which they became known, "There are no taxes without representation." This was creating the path to the independence of the country (USA).
  • Daughters of Liberty

    Daughters of Liberty
    In resemblance to the Sons of Liberty, these women were formed in response to the implementation of British taxes on imported goods in the colonies. They became known when they reacted to the Townshend Acts (laws passed by the British Parliament) where they imposed customs on British glass, paint, lead, paper and tea. They referred to themselves as the women who fought for liberty during the American Revolution. After some time, they were mentioned for the first time in the press in 1766.
  • Boston Massacre

    Boston Massacre
    Influenced by taxes and angry/disgruntled settlers who resented that British troops were still stationed in Boston. A street fight (between American settlers and a British soldier) kicked off this event, thus turning into a bloody fight Six soldiers were found not guilty and two were found guilty on manslaughter charges. This event began to give way to the revolutionary war.
  • Boston Tea Party

    Boston Tea Party
    "taxes without representation" was what caused this event. The American colonists believed that the British (Great Britain) were taxing them, for no reason at all, to pay for the Indian and French wars. The colonists, upset at this imposition, took the audacity to throw away the boxes of tea imported by the British East India Company, thus creating the act of defiance between the British domain over the colonist. In the end, the British passed the intolerable acts.
  • First Continental Congress

    First Continental Congress
    Movement driven by coercive laws, which were known as the "Intolerable Laws".Parliament approved this law in 1774 in order to reaffirm their dominance over the colonies.The King was upset by the Boston Tea Party, he wanted to make his colonists pay for their actions. The leaders of the colonies had to decide what to do with Great Britain because of their taxes and treatment to the colonists. However, the Congress created a bill of rights, thus also affirming its allegiance to the British Crown.
  • American Revolution

    American Revolution
    Caused by a colonial opposition, since the British wanted to impose themselves to control the colonies and force the crown to pay them for having received their support and protection during the French-Indian war. and the intolerable laws influenced the realization of this revolution. 13 of the North American colonies relinquished imperial rule by Great Britain. This revolution causes transformations in politics, society, population diffusion, political forces, etc.
  • Declaration of Independence

    Declaration of Independence
    The colonists' belief that Parliament was taking away their freedom. It was Richard Henry who introduced a motion in congress declaring independence. He received support from various members of Congress but some of them believe that some colonies were not prepared to lead with this responsibility. Thomas Jefferson is the one who wrote the declaration of independence. It was based on: the government must protect the rights of the population and the rights of life.
  • Battle of Saratoga

    Battle of Saratoga
    Battle which was a turning point in the Revolutionary War. The plans of the British John Burgoyne were the ones that led this battle. It was based on trying to invade New England from Canada, in order to isolate New England from the rest of the United States. This battle was won by the continental army (the British), which caused the morale of the patriots to rise, thus creating the hope of achieving independence and receiving foreign support that would help them win the war.
  • Articles of Confederation

    Articles of Confederation
    Due to the need for a stronger union and a powerful government that could defeat foreign forces (Great Britain), it is believed that the colonies will need some form of official government uniting all thirteen of them. This was approved by the second continental congress after much effort, and was sent to the states to complete its ratification. These articles created a loose confederation of sovereign states and a weak central government, which led to the 1787 constitutional convention.
  • Treaty of Paris

    Treaty of Paris
    Event that ended the French-Indian War/Seven Years' War. It is recognized that France renounces all its territories on the North American mainland, which would put an end to any foreign military threat to the British colonies there. Also, the recognition of the independence of the United States is declared, it is confirmed the end of the american revolution, established borders for the new nation, and demanded payment of all debts incurred before the war.
  • Shays' Rebellion

    Shays' Rebellion
    It was the result of a monetary crisis due to a monetary debt, product of the Revolutionary War. The people of Massachusetts woke up to the fact that they were the focal point of this crisis, although other states also had similar conditions. A group of protesters who were being led by Daniel Shays were the ones who started this rebellion, which had the goal of avoiding the trial and imprisonment of indebted citizens. This accelerated the process for the reform of the Articles.
  • The Constitution of 1787

    The Constitution of 1787
    The authorization that the congress gave the delegates to meet in Philadelphia and be able to discuss the changes to the charter of government and the articles of confederation. After three months, the delegates gave the power to the detail committee to write their decisions. This causes the constitution to be ratified by Massachusetts, as well as Maryland and South Carolina.
  • Northwest Territory

    Northwest Territory
    Developed after the Revolutionary War. Rufus Putnam and Manasseh Cutler proposed the creation of the northeast ordinance. This land was used to compensate what was owed to the veterans of the revolutionary war. The armed conflict between the US and a group of Native American nations, is known today as the Northeastern Confederacy. A form of government was established that specified the various parts of the northeastern territory could be states and double the size of the country.
  • House of Representatives

    House of Representatives
    The constitution was in charge of giving the country's House of Representatives (USA) powers in the federal government, which symbolized the intention of the drafters to make the will of the people respond in a unique way, that they were valid and that they You can have the right to claim or ask for what you think you deserve without any war involved. The first meeting was held at Federal Hall in New York City.
  • The President’s Cabinet

    The President’s Cabinet
    Who had the idea to create this cabinet was George Washington, whose purpose was to bring together the heads of the three executive departments existing at that time and also the attorney general. In this way, the president (our first president) would receive help and support for the decisions he decides to make.The issues that are dealt with in a certain cabinet are based on the functions of the respective position of each member according to the department that he represents or is a part of.
  • Judiciary Act

    Judiciary Act
    Law drafted by Senator Oliver Ellsworth of Connecticut, which was based on the establishment of the structure and jurisdiction of the federal judicial system, it was signed by George Washington. The position of attorney general was also created. The supreme court, circuit courts, and district courts also have judicial power. To this day, this judicial system is still part of the government.
  • Second Great Awakening

    Second Great Awakening
    Neglect of traditional Christian beliefs in the late eighteenth century. This religious movement sets the stage for social reform movements, especially abolitionism and temperance. Also the focus to achieve changes in work, geography and the economy influenced this movement.
  • First Bank of the United States

    First Bank of the United States
    The EE.UU faced a very large debt and a commercially uncertain future after the Revolutionary War. Hamilton (secretary of the Treasury for the time) was the one who gave the initiation for the establishment of this bank, which gave the federal government more authority to manage the fiscal situation that was needed. Each state had a different form of currency. The 13 colonies needed a coin to exchange. The bank also raised fiscal income, gave loans, ensured government funds, etc.
  • Whiskey Rebellion (1794)

    Whiskey Rebellion (1794)
    Angered by a whiskey tax that negatively affected small businesses, Pennsylvanian farmers violently took to the streets. The rebellion was the first test of federal authority in the U.S. As a consequence President Washington issued The rebellion reinforced the idea that the novel government had the right to levy a particular tax that would impact citizens in all states.
  • Revolution of 1800

    Revolution of 1800
    Thomas Jefferson (Democratic Party) was in charge of marking for the first time the power that the country passed from one party to another after he won against John Adams (Federalist). He thus promised a way of governing as he believes the founders intended (decentralized government/trusting the people to make the right decisions for themselves).This revolution remarked that political power could be transferred in the democratic system in the country without causing any chaos or wars.
  • Louisiana Purchase

    Louisiana Purchase
    A transaction between France and the United States in which the United States purchased more than 800,000 square miles of land west of the Mississippi River for $15 million. France found itself in the position of accepting the protest due to the imminent war with Great Britain, the probable naval blockade, economic difficulties, etc. This undoubtedly impacted the size of the country, expanding it to the west.
  • Battle of New Orleans

    Battle of New Orleans
    Despite the fact that the peace agreement had already been signed (December 24), British forces complied by the Gulf Coast. The British wanted to seize New Orleans, with the hope and goal of being able to take the city and be able to separate Louisiana from the rest of the United States. Andrew Jackson was in charge of hastening the defense of the city. The Americans in the Gulf won, forcing the British to miss their goal. This battle marked the political incorporation of the state by the union.
  • Corrupt Bargain

    Corrupt Bargain
    The rumor of an agreement (blackmail) that there was between Henry Clay and John Q. Adams on the elections. Although this rumor could never be confirmed, Jackson's supporters had been the majority of the popular vote. The House of Representatives votes for the President, which ends up leaving John Quincy Adams as President. Jackson qualified for the crooked bargaining election for arguing that Clay had chanted to the House members to give Adams victory.
  • Tariff of Abominations

    Tariff of Abominations
    Tariff that caused taxes on imported manufactures to increase in order to reduce foreign competition with the manufacturing of the country (USA) after the war of 1812 and the Napoleonic wars. Southerners argued that the tariff enhanced the manufacturing interests of the north at their expense. Life in the south suffered because of this, as costs of living rose.
  • Trail of Tears

    Trail of Tears
    Act guided by the favored policies of President Andrew, which represented the removal of 100,000 Indians and American tribes that were found in Michigan, Louisiana and Florida, to the west of the country (USA) after the government gave orders to the military force of the country, to force/mistreat those who resisted. Many dying on the way to the plague, since the conditions they went to were inhumane, no food, no clothing to protect them from the cold, nothing.
  • Nullification Crisis

    Nullification Crisis
    A conflict between South Carolina and the US government driven by the opposition of the Tariff of 1828. The Nullification Crisis revealed the deep divisions between the North and the South. It showed how they could cause enormous problems. It brought forth the notion that secession was constitutional. However, the Federal Government proved its power by issuing a proclamation that asserted supremacy of the federal government.
  • Compromise Tariff

    Compromise Tariff
    Henry Clay drafted and helped negotiate a compromise bill, which slowly lowered rates over the next few decades. Calhoun, who was a political theorist from South Carolina, helped Henry Clay with this. The plan was accepted by South Carolina, and this brought an end to the annulment crisis. Although the south offered a solution to the threat, the south only looked after its interests as states. The gradual prevention of tariffs up to the income level of 20% was established.
  • Schism of 1840

    Schism of 1840
    As American society became divided, Garrison and his supporters pushed for the creation of a new government that would work to outlaw slavery. He argued that the US Constitution was an illegal document because it denied freedom to African-Americans. Garrison and his supporters denounced the country's constitution for this denial of freedom, were against established religion and also demanded organizational responsibility towards women, since they were always seen "as less capable than a man".
  • Mexican-American War

    Mexican-American War
    The country's (USA) first armed conflict to be fought on foreign soil. They faced a politically divided and militarily unprepared Mexico. President James Polk had accused Mexican troops of having attacked Americans on USA territory north of the Rio Grande, but Mexico claimed this land as its own territory and also accused the US military of invading its territory. This war ended when the Treaty-Guadalupe-Hidalgo was terminated where the country received the disputed territory.
  • Women's Suffrage

    Women's Suffrage
    Elizabeth Cady and Susan B. were the ones who gave initiation to this movement which had the objective of achieving the right to vote for women through a congressional amendment to the constitution. This event began in the early 19th century during the anti-slavery turmoil. Another of the achievements that this movement causes in favor of women was equal access to education and employment, equality within marriage and control of their own bodies.
  • Seneca Falls Convention

    Seneca Falls Convention
    Launching the Women's Suffrage movement, the Seneca Falls Convention passed several resolutions designed to gain certain rights and privileges that women of the era had been denied. The Convention set the Women's Rights Movement in motion and influenced both men and women to start working toward equal rights. More than 70 years later, the nation ratified the 19th Amendment, which granted women the right to vote.
  • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

    Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
    This treaty allowed the US to buy California, Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, Nevada, Utah and Colorado, in order to double the size of the country and to spread millions of American citizens into a new territory. Mexico found itself in the position of having to renounce any type of claim that they wanted to have on Texas and, in turn, recognized the Rio Grande as the southern border of the United States.
  • Kansas Nebraska Act

    Kansas Nebraska Act
    The demand for popular sovereignty was the basis of this law. This would allow the colonists of a territory to decide if slavery would be allowed within the borders of a new state or not. This divides western Missouri, thus making it into two territories, Nebraska and Kansas. This also produced a violent uprising known as "Bleeding Kansas", because of the echo that activists were for and against slavery, which influenced the vote.
  • Anaconda Act

    Anaconda Act
    Ironically, this plan was the perfect strategy to start the civil war masterminded by Winfield Scott. Scott sent this proposal in a letter to McClellann. His intent was to end the rebellion predominantly through economic measures. He sought to encircle the Confederacy by sea and land blockades, seize control of the Mississippi River to divide Confederate forces, and ambush the Confederacy and its capital.
  • The Abolition Movement

    The Abolition Movement
    it is presumed that the second great awakening inspired people (abolitionists) to rebel against slavery. They wanted to adopt a renewed morality which was based on the fact that all men are created equal in the eyes of God, so that in the same way the elimination of slavery could be started. After a while, Abraham Lincoln during his presidency probably issued the emancipation proclamation to set some southern slaves free.
  • Pacific Railway Act

    Pacific Railway Act
    After the southern states were seceded, congress decided to create a northern route to the pacific and also the use of federal lands to subsidize the construction of a railroad and telegraph line. This becomes a law which helps and encourages men who were determined to work and improve their living conditions and their environment. This creation of the railway reduced the travel time across the continent, which was a great technological advance for the time.
  • Emancipation Proclamation

    Emancipation Proclamation
    The Emancipation Proclamation declared that “all persons held as slaves” within Confederate land would henceforth be free. The proclamation made the eradication of slavery a primary goal for the Union, strengthening it militarily and politically. For the South, this caused them to fall into an economic loss of almost $2 billion for the planters. It crippled the South's ability to wage war. The proclamation reported on any possible recognition of the Confederation by England and France.
  • 13th Amendment ratified

    13th Amendment ratified
    It abolished slavery as an institution in all states and territories of the United States and likewise marked a turning point in the long fight for racial justice. The amendment also applied to the actions of private citizens. This gave Congress the power to enact laws against modern forms of slavery. However, many racially discriminatory methods in the South (black codes and Jim Crow laws) continued to force many black Americans into involuntary labor.
  • Mid 1800's Immigration

    Mid 1800's Immigration
    The decision that many people (Irish and German) made, which caused this great impact on immigration to the country. They were looking for jobs and trying to escape poverty. Certain states will pass immigration laws after the civil war, the supreme court in 1875 declared immigration regulation would be a federal responsibility. These immigrations gave many benefits to the country, both economic and less poverty, less unemployment, more population and higher educational level.
  • 19th Amendment

    19th  Amendment
    This highlighted a stage where women's struggle for political equality gave women the right to vote. The amendment extended the vote to between 26 and 30 million women, making it the largest single expansion of voting rights in EE.UU history. It helped millions of women to get closer to equality in all aspects of life. It was certified by the Congress in 1920. By recognizing women as political actors, this was a direct attack on traditional conceptions of femininity and masculinity at the time.
  • Homestead Act

    Homestead Act
    Land=opportunities. Congress passed this law, which was to help develop the American West and in turn stimulate economic growth. 160 acres of federal (western) land was offered to anyone (regardless of social status, color, profession, descent) who agreed to farm the land, prompting people to migrate west. They also included a contract that lasted 5 years, based on: improving the land, cultivating it or living on it. The result of this act was to accelerate the settlement of the West.