American History

  • 1492

    Columbian Exchange

    Columbian Exchange
    Caused by the European conquest of the Americas and the construction of societies and economies under European control. Due to these explorations of land (between the New World and the Old World), this same exchange brought with it a great mixture of people, deadly diseases (the most common was malaria), animals, crops, goods and commercial luxuries of the Native Americans. This resulted in a rise to an environmental revolution for all of humanity.
  • 1526

    Slavery Trade

    Slavery Trade
    It is said that the first slave transport trip, which came from Africa to the Americas, took place in 1526. It was caused by the expansion that took place in the English colonies, affecting their economy in the same way. This was the need for slaves, since as a new territory in formation, they demanded a lot of labor. The Portuguese were the first to initiate this "slave trade", and after the first transatlantic voyage of slaves to Brazil, other Europeans began to copy the example.
  • England's Tobacco Colonies

    England's Tobacco Colonies
    It is presumed that this event began when tobacco arrived in England in 1586 (Sir Walter Raleigh was the one who brought it to England from Virginia). This system not only helped the development and expansion of settlements but also formed the basis of the colony's economy (using servants, paying taxes, manufacturing goods from England, etc). These tobacco colonies were forced to adhere to the mercantile system, thus being able to acquire natural resources and raw materials from the colonies.
  • Life on the Plantations (Slaves).

    Life on the Plantations (Slaves).
    Although it was known that slave labor had already begun to be practiced, in 1619 Virginia was when it officially began. These new settlements required a lot of labor to be maintained. As the land became larger, there was more space to cultivate and therefore more people were needed.Cheap labor and a growing demand created this system.Tobacco profits were used to pay local taxes and for the purchase of manufactured goods from England, among others. Improvements in geography,economics,culture,etc
  • Bacon's Rebellion

    Bacon's Rebellion
    It was triggered when approval of Native American lands was rejected. One of the last events in which the black and white slaves in colonial Virginia rebelled and made themselves felt. Jamestown was the bustling capital of the Virginia colony, which ended up being captured by Nathaniel Bacon's militia. After Bacon's death, the rebellion collapsed.
  • First Great Awakening

    First Great Awakening
    Period in which religion and beliefs of society were highly valued, which is why it is known as the religious renaissance of the nation. It broke the monopoly of the Puritan churches when the colonists began to look for different religious unions and the interpretation of the Bible on their own, thus affecting the English colonies. Those in charge of promoting this idea were George Whitefield and Jonathan Edwards.
  • French-Indian War

    French-Indian War
    The initiation of this was due to the struggle of the American Indians to maintain control of their lands/cultural future while the French (and British) claimed the upper valley of the Ohio River, thus proposing a kind of trade between them and the Indians and control the area. Washington's attack on a French force at Jumonville Glen sparked this war. France lost all claims to Canada and handed over Louisiana to Spain,Britain got Spanish Florida, Upper Canada and other French possessions abroad.
  • Seven Years' War

    Seven Years' War
    Caused by a conflict between Great Britain and France over the claim to land ownership in the Ohio River Valley. Both helped themselves with the Native Americans to use their forces in the war. It ended when treaties were signed with Hubertusburg and Paris, where France loses its claims to Canada and hands over Louisiana to Spain; and where Great Britain receives Spanish Florida, the Canadian highlands, and other French territories.
  • Stamp Act

    Stamp Act
    It started with the idea of helping pay for the British troops that remained in the colonies during the Seven Years War. Law that required colonists to pay taxes (represented by a stamp), various forms of papers, playing cards, and other legal documents that circulated throughout the colonies. This law was repealed and in turn the colonies abandoned their prohibition on importing British products.
  • Sons of Liberty

    Sons of Liberty
    These sons of liberty participated in the Boston Tea Party and used grassroots activism to push back British rule. The sons of liberty managed to undermine British rule with the use of force, intimidation, violence, weapons stores, etc. , Their protests were based on seeking the approval of the stamp law. They had a motto with which they became known, "There are no taxes without representation." This was creating the path to the independence of the country (USA).
  • Daughters of Liberty

    Daughters of Liberty
    In resemblance to the Sons of Liberty, these women were formed in response to the implementation of British taxes on imported goods in the colonies. They became known when they reacted to the Townshend Acts (laws passed by the British Parliament) where they imposed customs on British glass, paint, lead, paper and tea. They referred to themselves as the women who fought for liberty during the American Revolution. After some time, they were mentioned for the first time in the press in 1766.
  • Boston Massacre

    Boston Massacre
    Influenced by taxes and angry/disgruntled settlers who resented that British troops were still stationed in Boston. A street fight (between American settlers and a British soldier) kicked off this event, thus turning into a bloody fight Six soldiers were found not guilty and two were found guilty on manslaughter charges. This event began to give way to the revolutionary war.
  • Boston Tea Party

    Boston Tea Party
    "taxes without representation" was what caused this event. The American colonists believed that the British (Great Britain) were taxing them, for no reason at all, to pay for the Indian and French wars. The colonists, upset at this imposition, took the audacity to throw away the boxes of tea imported by the British East India Company, thus creating the act of defiance between the British domain over the colonist. In the end, the British passed the intolerable acts.
  • First Continental Congress

    First Continental Congress
    Movement driven by coercive laws, which were known as the "Intolerable Laws".Parliament approved this law in 1774 in order to reaffirm their dominance over the colonies.The King was upset by the Boston Tea Party, he wanted to make his colonists pay for their actions. The leaders of the colonies had to decide what to do with Great Britain because of their taxes and treatment to the colonists. However, the Congress created a bill of rights, thus also affirming its allegiance to the British Crown.
  • American Revolution

    American Revolution
    Caused by a colonial opposition, since the British wanted to impose themselves to control the colonies and force the crown to pay them for having received their support and protection during the French-Indian war. and the intolerable laws influenced the realization of this revolution. 13 of the North American colonies relinquished imperial rule by Great Britain. This revolution causes transformations in politics, society, population diffusion, political forces, etc.
  • Declaration of Independence

    Declaration of Independence
    The colonists' belief that Parliament was taking away their freedom. It was Richard Henry who introduced a motion in congress declaring independence. He received support from various members of Congress but some of them believe that some colonies were not prepared to lead with this responsibility. Thomas Jefferson is the one who wrote the declaration of independence. It was based on: the government must protect the rights of the population and the rights of life.
  • Battle of Saratoga

    Battle of Saratoga
    Battle which was a turning point in the Revolutionary War. The plans of the British John Burgoyne were the ones that led this battle. It was based on trying to invade New England from Canada, in order to isolate New England from the rest of the United States. This battle was won by the continental army (the British), which caused the morale of the patriots to rise, thus creating the hope of achieving independence and receiving foreign support that would help them win the war.
  • Articles of Confederation

    Articles of Confederation
    Due to the need for a stronger union and a powerful government that could defeat foreign forces (Great Britain), it is believed that the colonies will need some form of official government uniting all thirteen of them. This was approved by the second continental congress after much effort, and was sent to the states to complete its ratification. These articles created a loose confederation of sovereign states and a weak central government, which led to the 1787 constitutional convention.
  • Treaty of Paris

    Treaty of Paris
    Event that ended the French-Indian War/Seven Years' War. It is recognized that France renounces all its territories on the North American mainland, which would put an end to any foreign military threat to the British colonies there. Also, the recognition of the independence of the United States is declared, it is confirmed the end of the american revolution, established borders for the new nation, and demanded payment of all debts incurred before the war.
  • Shays' Rebellion

    Shays' Rebellion
    It was the result of a monetary crisis due to a monetary debt, product of the Revolutionary War. The people of Massachusetts woke up to the fact that they were the focal point of this crisis, although other states also had similar conditions. A group of protesters who were being led by Daniel Shays were the ones who started this rebellion, which had the goal of avoiding the trial and imprisonment of indebted citizens. This accelerated the process for the reform of the Articles.
  • The Constitution of 1787

    The Constitution of 1787
    The authorization that the congress gave the delegates to meet in Philadelphia and be able to discuss the changes to the charter of government and the articles of confederation. After three months, the delegates gave the power to the detail committee to write their decisions. This causes the constitution to be ratified by Massachusetts, as well as Maryland and South Carolina.
  • Northwest Territory

    Northwest Territory
    Developed after the Revolutionary War. Rufus Putnam and Manasseh Cutler proposed the creation of the northeast ordinance. This land was used to compensate what was owed to the veterans of the revolutionary war. The armed conflict between the US and a group of Native American nations, is known today as the Northeastern Confederacy. A form of government was established that specified the various parts of the northeastern territory could be states and double the size of the country.
  • The President’s Cabinet

    The President’s Cabinet
    Who had the idea to create this cabinet was George Washington, whose purpose was to bring together the heads of the three executive departments existing at that time and also the attorney general. In this way, the president (our first president) would receive help and support for the decisions he decides to make.The issues that are dealt with in a certain cabinet are based on the functions of the respective position of each member according to the department that he represents or is a part of.
  • House of Representatives

    House of Representatives
    The constitution was in charge of giving the country's House of Representatives (USA) powers in the federal government, which symbolized the intention of the drafters to make the will of the people respond in a unique way, that they were valid and that they You can have the right to claim or ask for what you think you deserve without any war involved. The first meeting was held at Federal Hall in New York City.
  • Judiciary Act

    Judiciary Act
    Law drafted by Senator Oliver Ellsworth of Connecticut, which was based on the establishment of the structure and jurisdiction of the federal judicial system, it was signed by George Washington. The position of attorney general was also created. The supreme court, circuit courts, and district courts also have judicial power. To this day, this judicial system is still part of the government.
  • Second Great Awakening

    Second Great Awakening
    Neglect of traditional Christian beliefs in the late eighteenth century. This religious movement sets the stage for social reform movements, especially abolitionism and temperance. Also the focus to achieve changes in work, geography and the economy influenced this movement.
  • First Bank of the United States

    First Bank of the United States
    The EE.UU faced a very large debt and a commercially uncertain future after the Revolutionary War. Hamilton (secretary of the Treasury for the time) was the one who gave the initiation for the establishment of this bank, which gave the federal government more authority to manage the fiscal situation that was needed. Each state had a different form of currency. The 13 colonies needed a coin to exchange. The bank also raised fiscal income, gave loans, ensured government funds, etc.
  • Whiskey Rebellion (1794)

    Whiskey Rebellion (1794)
    Angered by a whiskey tax that negatively affected small businesses, Pennsylvanian farmers violently took to the streets. The rebellion was the first test of federal authority in the U.S. As a consequence President Washington issued The rebellion reinforced the idea that the novel government had the right to levy a particular tax that would impact citizens in all states.
  • Revolution of 1800

    Revolution of 1800
    Thomas Jefferson (Democratic Party) was in charge of marking for the first time the power that the country passed from one party to another after he won against John Adams (Federalist). He thus promised a way of governing as he believes the founders intended (decentralized government/trusting the people to make the right decisions for themselves).This revolution remarked that political power could be transferred in the democratic system in the country without causing any chaos or wars.
  • Louisiana Purchase

    Louisiana Purchase
    A transaction between France and the United States in which the United States purchased more than 800,000 square miles of land west of the Mississippi River for $15 million. France found itself in the position of accepting the protest due to the imminent war with Great Britain, the probable naval blockade, economic difficulties, etc. This undoubtedly impacted the size of the country, expanding it to the west.
  • Battle of New Orleans

    Battle of New Orleans
    Despite the fact that the peace agreement had already been signed (December 24), British forces complied by the Gulf Coast. The British wanted to seize New Orleans, with the hope and goal of being able to take the city and be able to separate Louisiana from the rest of the United States. Andrew Jackson was in charge of hastening the defense of the city. The Americans in the Gulf won, forcing the British to miss their goal. This battle marked the political incorporation of the state by the union.
  • Monroe Doctrine

    Monroe Doctrine
    The doctrine arose from the collapse of Spanish rule in Latin America, during the Napoleonic Wars. After Napoleon's defeat at Waterloo, the fear that Spain would recover her colonies returned. Monroe demanded that the European powers respect the Western Hemisphere sphere of interest in the U.S. Understanding the politics made this successful. Monroe promised to refrain from meddling in European colonial affairs as long as the interests of the Western Hemisphere of the U.S were respected.
  • Corrupt Bargain

    Corrupt Bargain
    The rumor of an agreement (blackmail) that there was between Henry Clay and John Q. Adams on the elections. Although this rumor could never be confirmed, Jackson's supporters had been the majority of the popular vote. The House of Representatives votes for the President, which ends up leaving John Quincy Adams as President. Jackson qualified for the crooked bargaining election for arguing that Clay had chanted to the House members to give Adams victory.
  • Tariff of Abominations

    Tariff of Abominations
    Tariff that caused taxes on imported manufactures to increase in order to reduce foreign competition with the manufacturing of the country (USA) after the war of 1812 and the Napoleonic wars. Southerners argued that the tariff enhanced the manufacturing interests of the north at their expense. Life in the south suffered because of this, as costs of living rose.
  • Trail of Tears

    Trail of Tears
    Act guided by the favored policies of President Andrew, which represented the removal of 100,000 Indians and American tribes that were found in Michigan, Louisiana and Florida, to the west of the country (USA) after the government gave orders to the military force of the country, to force/mistreat those who resisted. Many dying on the way to the plague, since the conditions they went to were inhumane, no food, no clothing to protect them from the cold, nothing.
  • Nullification Crisis

    Nullification Crisis
    A conflict between South Carolina and the US government driven by the opposition of the Tariff of 1828. The Nullification Crisis revealed the deep divisions between the North and the South. It showed how they could cause enormous problems. It brought forth the notion that secession was constitutional. However, the Federal Government proved its power by issuing a proclamation that asserted supremacy of the federal government.
  • Compromise Tariff

    Compromise Tariff
    Henry Clay drafted and helped negotiate a compromise bill, which slowly lowered rates over the next few decades. Calhoun, who was a political theorist from South Carolina, helped Henry Clay with this. The plan was accepted by South Carolina, and this brought an end to the annulment crisis. Although the south offered a solution to the threat, the south only looked after its interests as states. The gradual prevention of tariffs up to the income level of 20% was established.
  • Schism of 1840

    Schism of 1840
    As American society became divided, Garrison and his supporters pushed for the creation of a new government that would work to outlaw slavery. He argued that the US Constitution was an illegal document because it denied freedom to African-Americans. Garrison and his supporters denounced the country's constitution for this denial of freedom, were against established religion and also demanded organizational responsibility towards women, since they were always seen "as less capable than a man".
  • Mexican-American War

    Mexican-American War
    The country's (USA) first armed conflict to be fought on foreign soil. They faced a politically divided and militarily unprepared Mexico. President James Polk had accused Mexican troops of having attacked Americans on USA territory north of the Rio Grande, but Mexico claimed this land as its own territory and also accused the US military of invading its territory. This war ended when the Treaty-Guadalupe-Hidalgo was terminated where the country received the disputed territory.
  • Women's Suffrage

    Women's Suffrage
    Elizabeth Cady and Susan B. were the ones who gave initiation to this movement which had the objective of achieving the right to vote for women through a congressional amendment to the constitution. This event began in the early 19th century during the anti-slavery turmoil. Another of the achievements that this movement causes in favor of women was equal access to education and employment, equality within marriage and control of their own bodies.
  • Seneca Falls Convention

    Seneca Falls Convention
    Launching the Women's Suffrage movement, the Seneca Falls Convention passed several resolutions designed to gain certain rights and privileges that women of the era had been denied. The Convention set the Women's Rights Movement in motion and influenced both men and women to start working toward equal rights. More than 70 years later, the nation ratified the 19th Amendment, which granted women the right to vote.
  • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

    Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
    This treaty allowed the US to buy California, Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, Nevada, Utah and Colorado, in order to double the size of the country and to spread millions of American citizens into a new territory. Mexico found itself in the position of having to renounce any type of claim that they wanted to have on Texas and, in turn, recognized the Rio Grande as the southern border of the United States.
  • Kansas Nebraska Act

    Kansas Nebraska Act
    The demand for popular sovereignty was the basis of this law. This would allow the colonists of a territory to decide if slavery would be allowed within the borders of a new state or not. This divides western Missouri, thus making it into two territories, Nebraska and Kansas. This also produced a violent uprising known as "Bleeding Kansas", because of the echo that activists were for and against slavery, which influenced the vote.
  • Anaconda Act

    Anaconda Act
    Ironically, this plan was the perfect strategy to start the civil war masterminded by Winfield Scott. Scott sent this proposal in a letter to McClellann. His intent was to end the rebellion predominantly through economic measures. He sought to encircle the Confederacy by sea and land blockades, seize control of the Mississippi River to divide Confederate forces, and ambush the Confederacy and its capital.
  • The Abolition Movement

    The Abolition Movement
    it is presumed that the second great awakening inspired people (abolitionists) to rebel against slavery. They wanted to adopt a renewed morality which was based on the fact that all men are created equal in the eyes of God, so that in the same way the elimination of slavery could be started. After a while, Abraham Lincoln during his presidency probably issued the emancipation proclamation to set some southern slaves free.
  • Pacific Railway Act

    Pacific Railway Act
    After the southern states were seceded, congress decided to create a northern route to the pacific and also the use of federal lands to subsidize the construction of a railroad and telegraph line. This becomes a law which helps and encourages men who were determined to work and improve their living conditions and their environment. This creation of the railway reduced the travel time across the continent, which was a great technological advance for the time.
  • Emancipation Proclamation

    Emancipation Proclamation
    The Emancipation Proclamation declared that “all persons held as slaves” within Confederate land would henceforth be free. The proclamation made the eradication of slavery a primary goal for the Union, strengthening it militarily and politically. For the South, this caused them to fall into an economic loss of almost $2 billion for the planters. It crippled the South's ability to wage war. The proclamation reported on any possible recognition of the Confederation by England and France.
  • 13th Amendment ratified

    13th Amendment ratified
    It abolished slavery as an institution in all states and territories of the United States and likewise marked a turning point in the long fight for racial justice. The amendment also applied to the actions of private citizens. This gave Congress the power to enact laws against modern forms of slavery. However, many racially discriminatory methods in the South (black codes and Jim Crow laws) continued to force many black Americans into involuntary labor.
  • Mid 1800's Immigration

    Mid 1800's Immigration
    The decision that many people (Irish and German) made, which caused this great impact on immigration to the country. They were looking for jobs and trying to escape poverty. Certain states will pass immigration laws after the civil war, the supreme court in 1875 declared immigration regulation would be a federal responsibility. These immigrations gave many benefits to the country, both economic and less poverty, less unemployment, more population and higher educational level.
  • Women's Christian Temperance

    Women's Christian Temperance
    The main reason for which this campaign was carried out was to combat the influence of alcohol in families and society, to achieve abstinence from it. This campaign was influential in the temperance movement and supported the 18th Amendment. The victory of the same concrete the final point of the declaration to the sale, transport and illegal manufacture of alcohol (Amendment 18). To the surprise of many, in 1919, women received the right to vote through the 19th Amendment.
  • 19th Amendment

    19th  Amendment
    This highlighted a stage where women's struggle for political equality gave women the right to vote. The amendment extended the vote to between 26 and 30 million women, making it the largest single expansion of voting rights in EE.UU history. It helped millions of women to get closer to equality in all aspects of life. It was certified by the Congress in 1920. By recognizing women as political actors, this was a direct attack on traditional conceptions of femininity and masculinity at the time.
  • Interstate Commerce Commission

    Interstate Commerce Commission
    The Interstate Commerce Commission Movement was the first US regulatory commission, which emerged in response to public anger over railroad misconduct in the 1880s. Its reach extended to all common carriers except planes by 1940. North wanted tariffs to shield from overseas competition; South dreaded it would damage their commerce. The Interstate Commerce Act showcased Congress' application of the Commerce Clause for interstate commerce. After 1887, trade became national and international.
  • Homestead Act

    Homestead Act
    Land=opportunities. Congress passed this law, which was to help develop the American West and in turn stimulate economic growth. 160 acres of federal (western) land was offered to anyone (regardless of social status, color, profession, descent) who agreed to farm the land, prompting people to migrate west. They also included a contract that lasted 5 years, based on: improving the land, cultivating it or living on it. The result of this act was to accelerate the settlement of the West.
  • Sherman Anti-Trust Act

    Sherman Anti-Trust Act
    Law that was passed by congress which was intended to address the concerns of consumers who felt they were paying high prices for essential goods and that competing companies believed that the largest corporations were excluding them from their industries. Then in 1914, Congress passed two extra antitrust laws: the Federal Trade Commission Act and Clayton. The Sherman Act imposed large-dollar criminal penalties for a corporation and any individual, in addition to up to 10 years in prison.
  • Anti-Saloon League

    Anti-Saloon League
    An organization formed in Oberlin, Ohio that was expected to work for the unification of public sentiment against alcohol, the enforcement of existing temperance laws, and the enactment of more anti-alcohol laws. This organization lasted from 1893 to 1933, which undoubtedly had a significant impact in politics in the country (U.S. During its development, a moral crusade became the Prohibition Amendment. This organization goes hand in hand with Women's Christian Temperance.
  • Plessy v. Ferguson

    Plessy v. Ferguson
    Known as the case that declared "separate but equal" toward African-Americans. Prohibitions such as sharing trains and buses, hotels, theaters and schools were applied against African-Americans. During the Reconstruction era, the political rights of African-Americans were affirmed by three constitutional amendments and laws passed by Congress. The Supreme Court declared in this case that racially segregated public facilities were legal, as long as the facilities for blacks and whites were equal.
  • Wisconsin Idea

    Wisconsin Idea
    State progressives created the idea to end monopolies, trusts, high cost of living, and wealth, with a focus on knowledge and education so that the U.S population can exercise power in their government and economy. This led to a favorable legislative environment and implemented numerous reforms, including primary elections, workers' compensation, transportation, and senate elections, serving as a model for other states and the government.
  • Dollar Diplomacy

    Dollar Diplomacy
    It stemmed from Pres. Theodore Roosevelt's intervention in the Dominican Republic. Loans traded for Dominican customs head choice, dollar diplomacy promised US financial aid in foreign nations. The US received political favors and financial benefit from other countries through William Howard Taft's dollar diplomacy, while preventing other countries from profiting, which means that when the United States benefited from other countries, other world powers could not reap those same benefits.

    In 1908, the Springfield race riot prompted the creation of the NAACP. The NAACP, established in 1909, is America's oldest and largest civil rights organization. It was formed to combat violence against Black Americans and led the drive to pass major civil rights legislation, including the Civil Rights Act of 1957-1964, and the Voting Rights Act of 1965. This movement was so successful because they rely on the federal courts, thus seeking to end segregation.
  • Revenue Act

    Revenue Act
    Chairman of Senate Finance Committee, William Pitt Fessenden, created wartime revenue policies. His Revenue Act of 1861 fell short. Applied to imports in North American colonies. Townshend initiated taxes to cover debt and pay Crown troops in North America. Wilson signed it into law on October 3, 1913. The Revenue Act cut average tariffs from 40% to 26% and implemented a 1% tax on income above $3,000, impacting 3% of the population. It also created deductions for medical and investment expenses
  • Trench Warfare

    Trench Warfare
    After initial movement in 1914, trenches were quickly dug due to heavy casualties and effectiveness against firepower. The casualties led to the quick introduction of trench warfare, providing efficient protection for soldiers against heavy firepower. In battles, soldiers had to charge across no-man's land into a hail of bullets, shrapnel, and gas. 4 million soldiers were dead or wounded in just 5 months of fighting, as they were easy targets.
  • Federal Trade Commission

    Federal Trade Commission
    The Federal Trade Commission created aimed to prevent unfair competition and "bust the trusts". Additional laws expanded its authority against anti-competitive practices. The FTC was established in 1914 and opened in 1915. This creates the Agency's two primary missions: protecting competition and protecting consumers. This movement had its own powers which were: Investigative, Law Enforcement, and Rulemaking Authority. Whenever possible, FTC uses defendants' money for consumer refunds.
  • Creel Committee

    Creel Committee
    The Committee on Public Information, also known as the CPI or Creel Committee was an independent US government agency (1917-1919) created by President Wilson to sway public opinion in support of WWI. Its goal was to mobilize citizens to buy bonds, register for the draft, and ration food. The CPI recruited workers for munition jobs by creating and distributing ads in newspapers and magazines. Agencies such as the press, education and advertising were mobilized for the cause.
  • Selective Services Act

    Selective Services Act
    The Selective Service Act was enacted because not enough American men volunteered after the US declared war on Germany in 1917. Congress passed the Selective Service Act to temporarily expand the military through conscription, requiring men aged 21-45 to register for military service. Approximately 24 million men registered for the draft under the act. 5.8 million men served in Europe: 2.8 drafted, 2 volunteered. This act expired in 1947. New draft legislation passed in 1948 at Truman's request.
  • Red Scare of 1919-1920

    Red Scare of 1919-1920
    The Bolshevik Revolution in Russia sparked fear of immigrant overthrow in the US, while the end of WWI caused unemployment. This led to the Red Scare - anti-radical hysteria - and government raids on suspects. Thousands of aliens were deported, with the biggest raids on January 2, 1920 taking over 4000 radicals across the country and because of this Americans now feared communists and assumed any immigrant or member of a labor union was one.
  • Treaty of Versailles

    Treaty of Versailles
    It was signed on June 28, 1919, in the Hall of Mirrors at the Palace of Versailles. It was the primary treaty of the Paris Peace Conference after WWI and went into effect on January 10, 1920. The signing marked France's revenge on Germany, and it occurred five years after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand. Central Powers except Germany signed separate treaties. Germany was required to pay reparations, disarm, lose territory, and give up overseas colonies.
  • National Socialist Party (Nazi)

    National Socialist Party (Nazi)
    Party that aimed to lure German workers from socialism and communism to its anti-Semitic and anti-Marxist beliefs. Hitler then led it into a massive movement. He aimed to lead the German "master race" to victory in the "racial struggle" against Jews and other "inferior" peoples. The Nazis ruled Germany as a totalitarian dictatorship from 1933 to 1945 and persecuted Jews. Nazi propaganda portrayed "the Jews" as Germany's enemy in WWII and deemed their destruction crucial for German survival.
  • Scopes Monkey Trial

    Scopes Monkey Trial
    John Scopes challenged Tennessee's law banning evolution teaching. The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) offered to cover the teacher's costs for testing the Butler Act's constitutionality.The 1944 Education Act, or 'Butler Act', aimed to provide 'secondary education for all' by raising the school leaving age and separating elementary education into primary and secondary schools.This trial lasted 8 days with a quick guilty verdict. John Scopes fined $100.
  • Dust Bowl 1930- 1936

    Dust Bowl 1930- 1936
    Drought caused crop failures, revealing overly plowed land vulnerable to soil erosion due to the absence of prairie grasses. Soil erosion caused dust storms and economic damage, particularly on the Southern Plains. More submarginal lands were used for production due to low crop prices and high machinery costs. Farmers abandoned soil conservation, leading to severe erosion leading to the Dust Bowl. By 1934, 35 million acres were unusable and 125 million were losing topsoil.
  • New Deal

    New Deal
    During the Great Depression, programs aimed at the "3 Rs" were implemented: relief, recovery, and reform. The United States faced high unemployment and banking crises. Wages, salaries, and production fell in the US. The government launched New Deal projects like the CCC, WPA, TVA, SEC, and more, establishing federal responsibility for the United States economy and its people. This New Deal act restored faith in American democracy amid fears of communism and fascism.
  • Social Security Act

    Social Security Act
    The Great Depression led to the Social Security Act of 1935, which aimed to provide economic security for the elderly through a contributory system. It established federal aid for cash pensions and old-age benefits for retired workers. The Act also created programs for income security, including old-age insurance, unemployment insurance, and AFDC. This act is considered part of the reform according to the system of the 3R's ( relief, reform, and recovery)
  • Neutrality Act

    Neutrality Act
    In 1914, when World War I broke out in Europe, many Americans wanted the United States to remain neutral, as President Woodrow Wilson supported. The Neutrality Acts, passed in 1935-1939, limited the participation of the United States. Concerns about future wars arose from disillusionment with World War I and US involvement through loans and trade with the Allies in the 1930s. War was prevented through three "Neutrality Acts" which prohibited the sale and transport of arms to belligerent nations.
  • House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC)

    House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC)
    During the Cold War, the fear of Communism in the U.S. was called the Red Scare. HUAC was formed in 1938 to investigate disloyalty and possible Communist ties. Its inquiries resulted in Hollywood blacklists, including investigating allegations of Communist influence in the industry in 1947 and 1951. 300 movie industry employees were blacklisted or prevented from working. Government workers could be blacklisted & fired due to anti-Communist fear dividing society & US government.
  • America First Committee

    America First Committee
    In 1939-40 various isolationist groups were active. After President Roosevelt revealed the destroyer-for-bases agreement, the America First Committee was announced on September 4, 1940. The America First Committee's goal was to keep the US out of World War II. The committee deeply mistrusted Roosevelt and argued that he was lying to the American people. The AFC was led by notable Americans, such as the accomplished pilot Charles A.
  • March on Washington

    March on Washington
    It was a political demonstration against racial discrimination and in support of civil rights legislation. Over 200,000 protesters participated in the event in Washington, D.C. The march pressured JFK's administration to initiate a federal civil rights bill and pave the way for the Twenty-fourth Amendment. The Constitution outlawed the poll tax and Civil Rights Act desegregated public places. MLK gave his famous speech as Kennedy pushed for a federal civil rights bill in Congress.
  • Executive Order 8802

    Executive Order 8802
    To quell the fear of a massive African-American march on the nation's capital, Roosevelt issued Executive Order 8802 after consulting with his advisers.He introduced a measure to end racial discrimination in the defense industry, marking the initial federal effort to promote equal opportunity and forbid employment bias in America. He prohibited discriminatory employment practices in federal agencies and war-related workplaces with this order, and created the Fair Employment Practices Commission.
  • Double V Campaign

     Double V Campaign
    The Double V campaign aimed to secure equal treatment for African American soldiers returning from World War II, both on the battlefields and at home. It was inspired by a letter to the Courier by James G. Thompson. The Double V campaign lasted a year and was impactful, but unrealistically aimed to end racism in the US. Blacks embraced the war effort including the Double V campaign. Sorry, as an AI language model, I cannot shorten the given text without any context.
  • Congress of Racial Equality ( C.O.R.E )

    Congress of Racial Equality  ( C.O.R.E )
    In 1942, an interracial group of students founded the Congress of Racial Equality, influenced by Gandhi's nonviolent protest strategies. CORE pioneered modern civil rights tactics, including sit-ins and civil disobedience, and was recognized as a powerful organization. Notable achievements include the Freedom Rides of 1961 and the Freedom Summer Project of 1964. In the late 1950s, CORE challenged segregation and registered African American voters in the South.
  • World Bank

    World Bank
    The World Bank for Reproduction and Improvement (IBRD), way better known as the World Bank, was built up in 1944 to assist Europe recuperate from the demolition of WWII. Its purpose was to concur on a framework of financial arrange and universal participation that would offer assistance nations recoup from the destruction of the war and cultivate long-term worldwide growth.The victory of that endeavor led the Bank, inside some a long time, to turn its consideration to the creating nations
  • D-Day

    D-Day was planned to relieve pressure on the Soviet Union and weaken Germany's position in Western Europe. D-Day exhausted German resources, thus blocking military sites. It was the largest invasion force in history and it was ultimately successful. Northern France was liberated in August 1944, marking the beginning of the liberation of Western Europe from Nazi control and convincing the German High Command of its inevitable defeat.
  • G.I Bill of Rights

    G.I Bill of Rights
    The G.I. Bill of Rights aided WWII veterans under the Servicemen's Rearrangement Act of 1944. The G.I. Bill established clinics, provided low-interest contracts, and offered educational stipends for veterans attending college or trade schools.The impact also affected America's middle class, but left behind minority veterans. Nowadays, we can see that this saved the American economy from unemployment and boosted consumer spending through higher education and wages.
  • Yalta Conference

    Yalta Conference
    During the end of the war in Europe, Roosevelt sought to confirm Soviet support for the ongoing Pacific War. This Conference involved each of the three powers pushing their own agendas: the British to maintain their empire, the Soviets to gain more land, and the Americans to discuss postwar settlement and ensure Soviet entry into the Pacific War. It divided Germany into four occupied zones for demilitarization and shared governance by the Soviet Union, United Kingdom, United States, and France.
  • Baby Boom 1946-1964

    Baby Boom 1946-1964
    Historians attribute the baby boomer trend to delayed family planning due to World War II and the Great Depression, as well as confidence in future prosperity. Baby boomers also had significant economic impact in the 1960s. Boomers spent $20B annually as teens. Boomers drove demand for clothing, food, and music, and businesses eagerly catered to them. They also boosted the marketing of age-related products, such as toys and records.
  • Community Services Organization

    Community Services Organization
    Organization known as "Community Help" that began with charitable groups in the United States. They understood what people needed and tried to help them work better together. The Community Service Organization was a group concerned with the rights of Latinos in California. They taught César Chávez and Dolores Huerta who became very well known. Fred Ross, Antonio Rios and Edward Roybal started it in 1947. He helped Roybal through his political career.
  • Truman Doctrine

    Truman Doctrine
    Harry S.Truman was alarmed by the possibility of communism spreading to Greece after the British withdrew their troops due to financial constraints. He addressed Congress. Truman requested $400 million for Greece and Turkey and created the Truman Doctrine, shifting U.S. foreign policy towards intervening in distant conflicts. Some consequences of this movement are: Greece defeated communists, divided the world into communist and non-communist. The US aided Europe with the Marshall Plan.
  • States’ Rights Democratic Party

    States’ Rights Democratic Party
    The Dixiecrats, a segregationist party in the South, formed due to opposition to Northern Democrats, who are typically seen as more progressive. Advocates for social and economic equality with government intervention in the economy, supporting a mixed economy, progressive tax system, Social Security, universal health care, public education, and subsidized housing. It backs investments for clean energy and infrastructure for job creation and economic growth.
  • Marshall Plan

    Marshall Plan
    To aid Europe's slow post-WWII economic progress, Truman created this plan, named after military leader George Marshall. Congress passed the Economic Cooperation Act by providing over $12 billion for Western Europe's. Greece and Turkey were of particular concern to the U.S. This act revived the Western European economies by controlling inflation, restoring production, and rebuilding. It also created markets for American goods and supported stable democratic governments in Western Europe.
  • China Falls to Communism

    China Falls to Communism
    The Civil War lasted 3 years (1946-1949), with the communists eventually taking control and Mao declaring the creation of the People's Republic of China on October 1, 1949, after the Japanese invasion of Manchuria in 1931. The Nationalist government of Chiang Kai Shek suppressed CCP rebellions. The creation of the PRC completed China's governmental upheaval. The US suspended ties with the PRC for decades after the fall of mainland China to communism in 1949.
  • Korean War 1950-1953

    Korean War 1950-1953
    Korean War started in 1950 when the North invaded the South along the 38th parallel. An armistice was signed in 1953, but no peace treaty was ever agreed upon. Historians agree that the Korean War was caused by communism, American containment, and Japanese occupation of Korea. The United States, China, North and South Korea agreed to an armistice after three years of fighting. Armistice ended US' limited war experiment.
  • Civil Defense

    Civil Defense
    President Truman stated that the new "civil defense" law provides a preparedness framework for society when they have to deal with the impact of an attack on civilians. The House report summarized the main objective of the new law. Civil defense minimizes the impact of war on civilians, manages emergency conditions, and restores damaged public services. For enemy attacks, Federal Civil Defense Administrator reimburses states or subdivisions for workers' compensation.
  • Brown v. Board of Education

    Brown v. Board of Education
    Oliver Brown sued Topeka's Board of Education after his daughter was denied entry to all-white schools. The Court found segregation in public education based on race had a negative impact on African American children's personal growth and education. The Supreme Court declared separating children in public schools based on race unconstitutional, marking the end of legalized segregation and overruling the "separate but equal" principle. Ferguson wed.
  • Montgomery Bus Boycott

    Montgomery Bus Boycott
    This event took place after Rosa Parks' arrest in 1955, leading to the Supreme Court ending segregation on public buses. Rosa Parks had refused to give up her bus seat to a white passenger, contrary to local laws and this was the reason for her imprisonment. Local laws mandated segregation on buses by requiring African Americans to sit at the back. The support Boycott received from the supreme court included the removal of obstacles to transportation access and advanced civil rights.
  • National Defense Education Act

    National Defense Education Act
    The Cold War led to this act. It aimed to improve schools and provide trained manpower to meet US defense needs. The National Defense Education Act was a successful initiative that legitimized federal funding of higher education and provided low-cost student loans, improving both public and private colleges. It also established state-controlled education boards, a uniform curriculum, and increased state involvement in teacher training. He promoted character education programs in public schools.
  • Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)

    Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)
    The SNCC formed in 1960 to build on sit-in protests by Black students in the South. It became more militant in the 1960s, aligning with the "Black power" movement, with Stokely Carmichael as chairman from 1966-67. SNCC faced more violence as it became more politically active. It transitioned to a more militant philosophy in the mid-1960s and supported the Black power movement. In 1970, it lost most of its branches and staff. By 1973, SNCC no longer existed.
  • Military-Industrial Complex

    Military-Industrial Complex
    This expression became popular due to Eisenhower's warning about the harmful effects of the relationship in his farewell address on January 17, 1961. The Military-Industrial Complex originated in pre-1914 Cold War Germany and Japan. Both achieved world power by modernizing their military and industrial bases, resulting in negative consequences such as undue military influence, wasteful defense spending, and economic impact.
  • The Kennedy Administration

    The Kennedy Administration
    The 1960 presidential election was influenced by Kennedy's VP selection, defense against attacks on his religion, Republican errors, and more. Kennedy supported Keynesian economics and passed the Revenue Act of 1964. Kennedy created the Peace Corps, aimed for the moon and promoted equality. Encouraging support for the less fortunate, he urged America to land a man on the Moon by decade's end. Sorry, it is not possible to shorten the text "
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  • Freedom Rides

    Freedom Rides
    The 1961 Freedom Rides tested the Boynton v. Virginia Supreme Court decision, which deemed segregation of bus terminals and interstate transportation facilities unconstitutional. Students who had launched the recent spontaneous and nonviolent sit-ins to desegregate food counters in Greensboro, North Carolina, which spread to 100 southern cities. The Freedom Riders' defiance led to the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) banning segregation in interstate travel.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis

    Cuban Missile Crisis
    In 1962, a crisis was sparked by the Soviet Union building nuclear missile sites on the island of Cuba, influenced by the 1959 communist revolution and Castro's support of communism and the USSR. The Bay of Pigs disaster also played a role. JFK kept missile discovery secret, met advisors for days. On October 28, Khrushchev stated Soviet missiles in Cuba would be removed. The naval quarantine persisted until Soviet bombers were withdrawn on November 20, ending the crisis.
  • Children’s Crusade 1963

    Children’s Crusade 1963
    Carried out by the activist James Bevel, whose purpose was to call the attention of the population so that the same action on the Civil Rights Movement. White citizens of Birmingham saw this as a disrespectful act and reacted to it in the form of anger. Protesters were arrested but despite these actions, they continued their protests no matter what. After eight days of protest, the city decided to reach an agreement to desegregate the businesses and release the protesters who were jailed.
  • Voting Rights Act

    Voting Rights Act
    It was the unjustifiable murder of voting rights activists in Mississippi and the attack by white state troopers on peaceful protesters that sparked this movement. They garnered national attention and persuaded President Johnson and Congress to initiate the national voting rights legislation. The Voting Rights Act had an immediate impact. By the end of 1966, a quarter of a million new black voters (who were denied this at first) had been registered, a third by federal examiners.