European History Semester Final

  • 476

    The Fall of The Roman Empire

    The Fall of The Roman Empire
    Up until the fall of the Roman emperor Romulus Augustulus, the Roman Empire was the strongest nation of its time. The empire became too big and it was too hard to enforce Roman rule across the whole empire. The death of the empire plunged the world into darkness and chaos until the middle ages emerged.
  • 800


    After the fall of the Roman Empire, Europe was very divided. Then, Charlemagne came along and united most of western and central Europe. He formed the Holy Roman Empire and quickly developed his empire.
  • 1054

    The Great Schism

    The Great Schism
    Before the Great Schism, the Church was just 1 branch. After the Great Schism, the Church split into 2 branches, the Roman Catholic Church, and the Eastern Orthodox Church. The main disagreement that caused this split was whether or not the use of bread for the sacrament was allowed.
  • 1095

    The Holy Crusades

    The Holy Crusades
    Desperate to reclaim the Holy Land, Popes throughout the middle ages, starting in 1095, were sending troops to attack the Muslims. Different Popes had different success rates but in the end, the Muslims still had control over Jerusalem. Although thousands were slaughtered, the crusades also allowed the spread of ideas and things from the middle east to Europe or vice versa.
  • Jun 15, 1215

    The Magna Carta

    The Magna Carta
    During the medieval period, many kings had unchecked power. The nobles and common people were over it and forced King John to sign the Magna Carta. The Magna Carta was the first document in history to say that the King and the government was not above the law.
  • 1330

    Francesco Petrarch

    Francesco Petrarch
    Francesco Petrarch named the period in which he was living in the middle ages. He hated his life and he thought it was too boring. Petrarch's ideas and writings would eventually lead to the Renaissance.
  • 1347

    The Black Death

    The Black Death
    The European continent was plunged into chaos when the bubonic plague, coming from boats that traded with Asia, was transmitted to Europeans. The land was ravaged as 75-200 million Europeans died from the disease. People fled towns and their infected families to live rural lifestyles. Medicine was not advanced enough to fight the plague and plague doctors bled their patients to no avail.
  • 1350

    The Renaissance Begins

    The Renaissance Begins
    The Renaissance was a rebirth of classical ideas and philosophies. Many famous painters and thinkers would come out of this time period and make many lasting impressions on the world. The Renaissance would change the world forever.
  • 1434

    Cosimo's Rise to Power

    Cosimo's Rise to Power
    Cosimo de Medici rose to political power in 1434 and started the strongest dynasty during the Renaissance. Their wealth was built upon banking in Florence, Italy. Cosimo would go on to rule Florence as an unofficial monarch for the rest of his life.
  • 1436

    The Printing Press

    The Printing Press
    In 1436, the most important invention of the Renaissance was invented. The printing press, invented by German goldsmith Johannes Gutenberg, was important to many because it allowed the mass spread of ideas and thoughts. Books and scriptures were printed in mass, especially the Gutenberg Bible, and sent to other towns or countries where the common people would read them. Then, the ideas continued to spread like wildfire.
  • Oct 19, 1469

    The Marriage of Ferdinand and Isabella

    The Marriage of Ferdinand and Isabella
    Spain had never been united before the marriage of Ferdinand and Isabella. After the marriage, Spain became united for the very first time. They allowed Spain to develop into a very strong European power. They funded Christopher Columbus' voyage and started the Spanish Inquisition.
  • Aug 3, 1492

    Columbus Sets Sail

    Columbus Sets Sail
    On August 3, 1492, Christopher Columbus set sail on the most important expedition in the history of the world. His motive was to find a trade route to the orient, but in the end, he found something far more valuable. Columbus landed in the Bahamas and brought back countless new items and animals to his patrons, Isabelle and Ferdinand. Later, more expeditions would be sent to America where many European colonies would eventually form colonies.
  • 1503

    The Mona Lisa

    The Mona Lisa
    Arguably the most famous painting of all time, the Mona Lisa is painted during the Renaissance. From the different painting techniques used to the mysterious expression on her face, people from all over the world go to the Louvre to view the Mona Lisa. The piece took Da Vinci about 4 years to paint.
  • 1517

    The Protestant Reformation Begins

    The Protestant Reformation Begins
    Fed up with the Catholic Church, Martin Luther begins to speak out and challenge the ideas of the Church. The Church was selling indulgences to those who had sinned to raise money for projects. Martin believed that the selling of indulgences was wrong and one could reach salvation by faith alone.
  • 1521

    The Diet of Worms

    The Diet of Worms
    After speaking out against the Church, the Pope had finally had enough of Martin Luther and excommunicated him. Then he was summoned to Worms, Germany to discuss his ideas. Luther was asked to recant his teachings, but when brought in front of the Diet, he refused. After Luther left Germany, Emperor Charles V passed the Edict of Worms stating that Luther's teachings would be banned and that he was an enemy of the state.
  • 1524

    Peasants War

    Peasants War
    Inspired by the Reformation, peasants in Germany began to take a stand for themselves. They began to organize themselves into militias and attacked the nobles. The peasants lost the war because the aristocracy would not stand for it and banded together to put down the peasants.
  • Jan 15, 1535

    The Church of England

    The Church of England
    Due to the Pope not allowing his marriage to Catherine of Aragon to be annulled, King Henry VIII took a radical stand against the Church and made his own church. Henry was not satisfied with Catherine because she could not produce an heir for him, and he thought it was a punishment from God for marrying his brother's wife. He named it the Church of England and named himself head of the Church. He annulled his own marriage and married Anne Boleyn.
  • Feb 15, 1564

    Galileo Galilei

    Galileo Galilei
    Galileo Galilei was born on February 15, 1564, and died on January 8, 1642. He was an astronomer and inventor and did magnificent things. He invented the telescope and discovered that the universe was heliocentric. Although he made many advancements in astronomy, the Catholic Church deemed him as heretical and he had to revise his findings. He recanted and the Church told him that he was not allowed to pass on his findings to others.
  • The Edict of Nantes

    The Edict of Nantes
    After years of religious disputes between the Huguenots and the Catholics, King Henry IV decided that it needed to end. He signed the Edict of Nantes which gave the Huguenots a lot of religious freedom. This was a big step for religious freedom because it showed that the Catholics could lose and would have to make sacrifices.
  • The Atlantic Slave Trade

    The Atlantic Slave Trade
    After feudalism was over, there was a heavy demand for workers in both Europe and the Americas. This was solved by the slave trade, in which sailors would travel to Africa to take the prisoners from African warlords in exchange for goods. These prisoners were then taken and sold in Europe or the Americas. The slaves had very poor living conditions while on the boat, being stuffed head to toe and crammed into tight, little spaces to make the most profit.
  • The Dutch East India Company

    The Dutch East India Company
    After years of staying on continental Europe, European powers decided that they needed to branch out. The Dutch were particularly good at trading and they formed the Dutch East India company. They focused on bringing spices and goods from Asia to Europe.
  • 30 Years War

    30 Years War
    The most important reason for war in history is religion. The 30 Years War was a war founded on the basis of religious dominance. It was fought between Catholics and Protestants all over Europe. Millions of people died, simply fighting for what they believed in.
  • The Scientific Method

    The Scientific Method
    During the Scientific Revolution, there needed to be a process or procedure that all experiments followed. Francis Bacon discovered the scientific method, a simple procedure that dictated how a scientist should conduct their experiments. Not only do scientists use the scientific method, teachers encourage little kids to use it too to prove their findings.
  • The Petition of Right

    The Petition of Right
    Unhappy with the kings power, parliament drafted a new constitution to keep the king in line. This was called the Petition of Right. It stated that the king could not raise taxes without the consent of Parliament and that Parliament must meet at least once every 3 years.
  • Versailles

    The Sun King, Louis XIV, believed that he was the most important person in history. With his newfound power, he decided to construct an elegant palace just for him and his nobles. Versailles was a grand palace fit for the Sun King and the whole French government. There were about 2300 rooms for all of his friends and nobles.
  • Gravity is Discovered

    Gravity is Discovered
    During the Scientific Revolution, hundreds of new scientific breakthroughs were made. One of the biggest findings came from Sir Isaac Newton. He came up with the gravitational theory by allowing an apple to fall on his head.
  • Peter the Great Becomes the Tsar

    Peter the Great Becomes the Tsar
    While most of Europe become modernized and advanced, Russia was lacking. The Russians struggled to keep up with the rest of Europe as they followed old Russian values. Peter the Great quickly changed this and visited Europe and spread Europe's ideas to Russia. Russia quickly developed into a strong European force, led by Peter the Great.
  • John Locke

    John Locke
    According to John Locke, governments get their power from the people in their community. In turn, the government needs to look out for its people. The government also needs to use its power for the preservation of property.
  • The Construction of St Petersburg

    The Construction of St Petersburg
    Obsessed with the idea of becoming a European superpower, Peter the Great needed a vast and beautiful city to rule from. He decided to start the construction of St Petersburg. He had no regard for the lives that would be lost constructing this city and decided to push through no matter how poor the conditions. 25000 Russians died for the construction of St Petersburg.
  • The Industrial Revolution

    History has been categorized into different periods that all had one or multiple uniting factors. Arguably the most important period of all time, the Industrial Revolution featured hundreds of new ideas that allowed the world to modernize and advance like never before. The steam engine, steamship, cotton gin, spinning jenny, and the railroad were some of the most important inventions. It went from 1760 to 1840.
  • The Marriage of Louis and Marie

    The Marriage of Louis and Marie
    After being introduced to Louis, the foreigner from Austria, Marie Antoinette and Louis would marry each other to strengthen the French monarchy. The French people were very divided about Marie, simply because she was foreign. They did not know whether to support or reject her. This marriage would later go on to ruin the French monarchy forever.
  • The Steamship

    The Steamship
    During the industrial revolution, hundreds of influential ideas were executed. One of the most important things to come out of the industrial revolution was the steamship. The steamship was revolutionary because it allowed people to travel upstream with ease and speed. The transportation of goods was made easy by these ships.
  • Let Them Eat Cake!

    Let Them Eat Cake!
    One of Marie Antoinette's advisors told her that her subjects were starving and that they had no food to feed themselves. Marie Antoinette, being out of touch with the peasants, said "Let Them Eat Cake!" Although this story is told all the time, it has never been proven true.
  • The Tennis Court Oath

    The Tennis Court Oath
    When the Estates-General was called, the votes were by body, not by head. The third estate, constantly having their vote rendered useless, were not happy. When their meeting room was locked for renovations, they met on a tennis court and decided to take an oath that stated that they were not going to separate and to reassemble whenever necessary until there was a more fair way to represent their estate. This oath would sew the seed of revolution and create the National Assembly.
  • Storming the Bastille

    Storming the Bastille
    Fed up with the monarchy, the third estate decided to storm the Bastille. Their goal was not to free any prisoners but to acquire the guns and ammunition stored in the fortress. This was the spark that lit the fuse of the French revolution. The storming of the Bastille showed that the monarchy could be beaten and that they were not untouchable.
  • The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of Citizen

    The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of Citizen
    Unhappy with the Estates General, the 3rd estate drafted their own constitution. The constitution was written to give all men of France equal rights. Many women were unhappy and later, Mary Wollstonecraft and Olympe de Gouges would express their feelings through writing.
  • The Women's March

    The Women's March
    Unhappy with the prices of grain and bread, the women of Paris decided to march on Versailles. As the march went on, thousands of women joined. This event was very important for the French revolution because it was early in the revolution and people were already making a stand against the monarchy.
  • The Haitian Revolution

    The Haitian Revolution
    France's revolution not only spread throughout Europe, but to the European colonies all over the world. Inspired by the French revolution, Jean Jacques Dessalines led a revolt in the French colony, Haiti. The Haitians won and declared themselves independent in 1804.
  • The Guillotine

    The Guillotine
    The symbol of the French revolution was revealed to the world in 1792. The guillotine was invented by Antoine Louis. The guillotine was needed because a machine was needed to provide a quick and painless death.
  • The Execution of King Louis XVI

    The Execution of King Louis XVI
    After the Committee of Public Safety took over, there were cries for the king to be executed. After having already tried to run away from Paris, the people were very unhappy with the monarchy. Robespierre finally decided to execute the king and ended the French monarchy for good.
  • The Committee of Public Safety

    The Committee of Public Safety
    France was in chaos after the king had been taken from the throne. One man quickly took advantage of this and formed his own government. Maximilien Robespierre took over France with the Committee of Public Safety. This completely abolished the monarchy and with it, the safety that the king provided for his people.
  • The Death of Robespierre

    The Death of Robespierre
    As the leader of the CPS, Maximilien Robespierre never expected his death to come from the guillotine. Unfortunately for Robespierre, many moderates feared for their lives, and they worked together to arrest Robespierre. Then, they executed him using what he used to executed thousands of innocent French citizens.
  • The Invasion of Egypt

    The Invasion of Egypt
    Napoleon gained enough influence to start a military campaign to invade Egypt and Syria. Napoleon was able to conquer Cairo and Alexandria before being beaten by the British and Egyptians. The French lost because their navy was out shadowed by the English navy.
  • Napoleon Becomes First Consul

    Napoleon Becomes First Consul
    After rising through the ranks of the military, Napoleon took over the French government. He was named first consul and quickly implemented his own policies. Later, he would be named first consul for life.
  • The Concordat of 1801

    The Concordat of 1801
    The Concordat of 1801 was a way for Napoleon to repair ties to the Church. The concordat was signed by Napoleon and Pope Pius VII because the Church was still one of the strongest powers in Europe at the time. If the clergy swore to uphold the French government, the French government would pay all the salaries of the clergy.
  • Napoleon Crowns Himself

    Napoleon Crowns Himself
    After being named first consul for life, Napoleon quickly extended his power by being crowned emperor. During the ceremony, he crowned himself rather than waiting for the Pope. Napoleon was supported by the French people which was why his rise to emperor was unchecked.
  • The Continental System

    The Continental System
    England gained a lot if it's money from importing and exporting. Napoleon wanted to stop England from making any money so he set up a system in which he would block the merchant trading ships. He tried to spread his navy out and stop all trade to Britain, but his navy was not strong enough. England was able to beat it and it was proven ineffectual.
  • Napoleon Invades Russia

    Napoleon Invades Russia
    Napoleon was brilliant when it came to military wars and strategies. Unfortunately, he was overconfident in his army and decided to invade Russia. Using scorched earth tactics, the Russian army was constantly fleeing, burning down all the buildings in the surrounding area. The French army had nothing to live off of and eventually when he returned to France, Napoleon had lost 500000 of his troops.
  • The End of Napoleon. Or is it?

    The End of Napoleon. Or is it?
    After losing half a million of his soldiers in Russia, Napoleon's army was never the same. Other European countries were unhappy with Napoleon and they formed a coalition to beat him. After he abdicated his throne, he was exiled to the island of Elba. Many thought that the Napoleonic period, but he would return only a year later.
  • The 100 Days

    The 100 Days
    After being exiled to Elba, Napoleon was not satisfied with living out the rest of his days forgotten and rotting on an island by himself. Napoleon returned to Paris where he gathered an army of loyal supporters. Louis XVIII fled to Belgium and Napoleon quickly took over. Napoleon took on the Dutch, British, German, Belgian, and Prussian troops at the Battle of Waterloo.
  • Napoleon's End

    Napoleon's End
    After his return to Paris and his loss at Waterloo, Napoleon's army was finally forced to surrender. Napoleon was exiled to St. Helena where he would live out his final days. The death of Napoleon was also the death of one the strongest, most cunning, and brilliant military leaders to ever exist.
  • The Railroad

    The Railroad
    The invention of the railroad allowed the transportation of goods and people all the world. It was possible to transport goods from western Europe to eastern Europe or vice versa. The movement of goods allowed more development because countries could import the materials that they needed.
  • The Revolts of 1848

    The Revolts of 1848
    The revolts of 1848 were a series of revolutions that stemmed from Sicily, later spreading to France, Germany, Italy, and the Austrian Empire. The roots of the revolution grew from a dissatisfaction of the monarchies. The lower classes believed their leaders to be weak and incompetent. Eventually, every single outburst failed as the revolutionaries did not have a strong enough force.
  • On the Origin of Species

    On the Origin of Species
    Charles Darwin published one of, if not the most, important scientific book ever. In On the Origin of Species, Darwin writes that populations evolve over the course of generations through natural selection. This was important as it directly challenged the Bible, which was not his intent.
  • The Emancipation of the Serfs

    The Emancipation of the Serfs
    After having lost the Crimean war, Tsar Alexander II made the monumental decision to emancipate the serfs of Russia. They had fought for Russia, hoping they would be freed at the conclusion of the war. He was also thinking in the best interests for himself, as he thought that it would be better for him to free the serfs than for the serfs to rise up for themselves.
  • The Trans-Siberian Railroad

    The Trans-Siberian Railroad
    Russia was a vast wasteland of nothing. The land was rugged and the temperature was cold and snowy. There was no way to cross the country until the Trans-Siberian Railroad was constructed. The railroad stretched 5768 miles and allowed Russians from all over to travel wherever they needed to go.
  • The Russo Japanese War

    The Russo Japanese War
    As common in history, the Russo Japanese war was fought over claims of a foreign land, with no input from the people already living there. The Russians wanted Manchuria so that they would have a port which would provide access to the Pacific Ocean. Japan, as an island, struggled with natural resources that Manchuria could provide. Eventually, the Japans won convincingly as the Russians could not support their troops fast enough.
  • The Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand

    The Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand
    After years of tensions rising between Russia and the Serbs against the Germany and the Austrians, the assassination of archduke Franz Ferdinand was the tipping point. Serbian nationalists assassinated the archduke while visiting Sarajevo. Russia mobilized its army and Germany, seeing this as an act of war, prepared their own army. This was the start of the first world war.
  • The First Battle of Marne

    The First Battle of Marne
    The Germans were rampaging through France, almost untouched, and they had nearly made it to Paris. The Entente needed to push back, and they succeeded at it in the First Battle of Marne. This victory pushed the Germans back 40 to 50 miles and renewed the French spirits as they had saved their capital.
  • The Sinking of the Lusitania

    The Sinking of the Lusitania
    Up until this point of the war, the Americans had remained relatively quiet, as they had not sent troops to join the French and British. Although they sent supplies, Wilson believed that European affairs should not concern the US. After the Lusitania was sunk, a ship carrying American passengers and supplies, many Americans felt a sense of nationalism and calls to join the war started in the US.
  • The Battle of the Somme

    The Battle of the Somme
    The Battle of the Somme was one of the most violent battles of the war. British generals sent wave after wave of soldiers to their death, looking for a breakthrough. By the end of the battle, 5 miles of territory had been gained. The casualties totaled up to over 1 million soldiers.
  • The Zimmermann Telegram

    The Zimmermann Telegram
    The Germans were scared of US intervention in the war, so they looked for a way to distract the Americans. The telegram was sent from Germany to Mexico, in the hopes that Mexico would join the war against the US. The Germans promised to help regain some of the land that the US had taken. Unfortunately for Germany, the telegram was intercepted and deciphered by the Americans. This would be one of the main reasons the US would join the war against the Germans.
  • The Bolshevik Revolution

    The Bolshevik Revolution
    Unhappy with the tsarist regime, the people of Russia finally decided to revolt. Led by the socialist, or Bolshevik, party, they forced Tsar Nicholas II to abdicate. Lenin took over the government and quickly formed his own tyrannical rule over the Russian people.
  • The US Joins the World War 1

    The US Joins the World War 1
    After 3 years of war between the Entente and the Central Powers, the US joined the war on the side of the Entente. The Zimmermann telegram, sinking of the Lusitania, and the return to unrestricted submarine warfare all culminated to President Woodrow Wilson's decision to join World War 1. This would be detrimental to Germany as the US brought fresh troops and supplies.
  • The 14 Points

    The 14 Points
    As World War 1 was coming to an end, the winning side needed to figure out what would happen after the war. Wilson proposed the 14 Points, which was an outline of how the world would return to normal after the war. Many European countries disagreed with his points because he did not punish Germany enough. Some countries felt that Germany needed to pay reparations for starting the war.
  • The Treaty of Versailles

    The Treaty of Versailles
    At the end of the war, the Allies met at Versailles to determine the final terms for the war. Unlike the 14 Points, the Treaty of Versailles aimed to point fingers at Germany as to the cause of the war. Germany had to demilitarize, accept the guilt and pay for reparations of World War 1, and lose 10% of its territory.
  • The Rise of Mussolini

    The Rise of Mussolini
    Mussolini and a coalition of fascist leaders forced the king to yield power to them. He was appointed prime minister and would later become a dictator. He began to implement fascist policies and gathered a following.
  • The Great Depression

    The Great Depression
    The US economy was already in succession when the New York stock market crashed. The consequences that came from investors pulling money out of investments were mass unemployment and banking panics. Coming out of a war, the demand for industrial production went down so that many factories were shut down or repurposed. A lot of poverty came with the decrease in available jobs.
  • Hitler as Chancellor

    Hitler as Chancellor
    Throughout the Great Depression, fascism found support among the middle class. The Weimar Republic failed because they failed to produce jobs for the people. The Nazi party began to win many votes and became popular. Paul von Hindenburg appointed Hitler as chancellor and this was the start of the end of peace for Germany and the world.
  • The Enabling Act

    The Enabling Act
    The Enabling Act allowed Hitler and the Reich government to pas laws without the consent of parliament. Germany was turned into a dictatorship without the title of a dictatorship. Hitler began to release laws targeting Jews, disabled people, and those that he thought did not fit into a perfect society in his eyes.
  • German Conscription

    German Conscription
    Hitler introduced a conscription law which effected those between the ages of 18 and 45. He was rearming Germany in violation of the Treaty of Versailles. The world powers saw this but did nothing because they feared the start of another world war. They continued to allow Hitler to do whatever he wanted because they did not think that he would start another world war.
  • Nuremberg Race Laws

    Nuremberg Race Laws
    The Nuremberg Race Laws determined who was considered a German. Jews lost their citizenship and they became subjects of the state. The marriage between Jews and non-Jewish people was also forbidden. Sexual relations between mixed race couples was also illegal. This was one of the major laws of discrimination against the Jews by the Germans.
  • The Invasion of Poland

    The Invasion of Poland
    After years of rebuilding the German army, Hitler finally decided that the time was right to invade its neighbor. He used the blitzkrieg strategy to invade Poland as fast as he could. France and Great Britain declared war against Germany as they were allied with Poland. This was the start of World War 2.
  • The Soviet Invasion of Poland

    The Soviet Invasion of Poland
    Hitler knew that his armies could not fight a war on 2 fronts, so he sought to protect his eastern front. He signed a non-aggression pact with the Soviet Union. The pact allied the 2 powers together and they essentially squeezed Poland from both sides. After Poland had been conquered, Hitler could focus his armies to the west against France and Great Britain. The Soviets signed the pact because they needed time to build up their army.
  • Auschwitz is Founded

    The Germans had formed many concentration camps as a way to oppress Jews. Auschwitz was formed in 1940, in the middle of the war. This was part of Hitler's final solution to get rid of those that he thought did not fit into a perfect Aryan society. Auschwitz was 1000 meters by 400 meters, the biggest of the concentration camps that the Germans had made.
  • Winston Churchill Becomes Prime Minister

    Winston Churchill Becomes Prime Minister
    Winston Churchill replaced Neville Chamberlain as the British prime minister. This was a drastic change in policy as Chamberlain favored appeasement while Churchill understood that war was inevitable. Chamberlain allowed Hitler to do whatever he wanted, no matter how many boundaries he broke, because he was scared of another world war. The British public soon realized that appeasement would never work and that Great Britain would have to go to war.
  • Dunkirk

    After France was invaded by Germany, a huge army of allied troops were trapped at Dunkirk. The Royal Navy used civilian boats and ships to move the troops across the Strait of Dover to England. 340,000 troops were saved from the German army, living to fight another day.
  • Britain Under Fire

    Hitler wanted to control the skies and seas in World War 2. The Luftwaffe began to bomb London over a 4 month period. The bombs never stopped, but Winston Churchill rallied his people. Churchill gave his "Finest Hour" speech to the House of Commons, stating that he would not capitulate to Hitler. He inspired them to push through the hardship and they never gave up. Hitler realized that his attempts at destroying London were futile and he stopped the bombings.
  • Operation Barbarossa

    Hitler and his Axis allies invaded the Soviet Union. Hitler wanted to take over the cities of Moscow, Leningrad, and Kiev. Japan attacked Siberia so that the Soviets would split their army. Operation Barbarossa failed because Leningrad lasted a siege of 872 days. They were completely cut off from the rest of their allies, but they were resilient and survived. The Germans became too spread apart and they eventually had to retreat/
  • The Star of David

    The Star of David
    Arguably the most famous symbol of the discrimination against Jews, the Star of David was forced upon the Jews by the Nazis. Jews had to wear the star as a sign of identification. They were meant to humiliate Jews and make them out to be easy targets. Jews over the age of 6 had to wear the star at all times.
  • Pearl Harbor

    Japan and the Axis thought that the US would eventually join the war on the Allies side. Japan was confident that they could force the US to sign a settlement before they joined the war so Japanese planes bombed and attacked Pearl Harbor. The fleet stationed there was devastated and the American public opinion turned in favor of joining the war. The attack on Pearl Harbor would prove to be the biggest mistake the Axis could make as the US joining the war gave the Allies a huge advantage.
  • D-Day

    Russia was facing most of the German army and they needed relief. The purpose of D-Day was to reclaim France and open a western front to divert Hitler's troops. Dwight Eisenhower was appointed commander of the operation. He faked the Germans out by running a deception campaign. Then, he stormed the beaches and was victorious with about 4000 casualties. In about 2 months, he was able to retake all of northwestern France.
  • Anne Frank is Discovered

    Anne Frank is Discovered
    Anne Frank was a Jew hiding in Amsterdam. She survived 2 years hiding in an annex. Jewish sympathizers helped her family and her survive throughout the war. She was eventually discovered and her family was sent to a concentration camp. While she was hiding, she wrote in her diary the fears and terrors that she felt throughout the 2 years. The diary was later discovered and provided a first hand account of the feelings that many Jews felt while they were running from the Nazis.
  • The Liberation of Auschwitz

    As the Germans were retreating and losing the war, the Soviets took over Poland and liberated the Jews at Auschwitz. The Red Army saved the Jews, although 1.1 - 1.5 million prisoners had already been killed, either by gas chambers or firing squads. The prisoners felt a wave of relief as they saw the Germans leave and the Soviets enter the camps and free them.
  • Hitler Commits Suicide

    As Allied forces could be heard overhead, Hitler committed suicide in his bunker. He, along with his wife, Eva Braun, poisoned themselves and their dogs with cyanide. Then, he shot himself and he was cremated. This marked the end of Hitler's 1000-year-long reich and symbolized Germany's defeat.
  • Victory in Europe Day

    As the Germans had surrendered unconditionally the day before, people in America, Great Britain, and other Nazi ruled states celebrated by putting out flags and banners. This was the end of World War 2 in Europe. People were relieved that the war had come to a close and life would hopefully return back to normal soon.
  • Hiroshima

    The US collaborated with Great Britain and Canada on the Manhattan Project, which produced the world's first nuclear weapons. The Allies needed to defeat Japan but President Harry Truman was warned that a ground invasion would result in huge American casualties. 80000 people were killed immediately and many more would be killed due to the radiation.
  • Nagasaki

    The bomb named "Fat Boy" was used on Nagasaki. The bomb used uranium-235, and it was more devastating than the Little Boy. The 2 nuclear bombs were used in rapid succession to scare the Japanese and give the effect that they had multiple atomic weapons. 40,000 people died as soon as the bomb exploded, and hundreds of thousands of people would later die from burns and radiation poisoning.
  • Japan's Surrender

    Months after Germany had surrendered, Japan lost its Allies and support. Their navy and air force had already been destroyed. Their cities had been devastated by bombing runs and nuclear weapons. The Japanese surrender was imminent. On September 2, General MacArthur accepted the Japanese surrender, thus marking the end of World War 2 across the whole world.
  • Truman Doctrine

    President Harry Truman needed to find a way to stop the spread of communism. He started the process of containment by initiating a new plan to help European countries. He asked congress for $400 million to aid Turkey and Greece. It incentivized countries to stay away from the USSR and align more with western Europe and the US.
  • Marshall Plan

    Another way to stop the spread of communism was the Marshall Plan. This plan gave over $13 billion to help democratic countries in Europe. It was spent on rebuilding war torn countries and revitalizing their economies. The war torn nations were more likely to support democracy because the US had acted before the Soviets could.
  • Berlin Airlift

    After Germany had surrendered in World War 2, Germany had been split up by France, Great Britain, America, and the Soviet Union. Berlin was also split up, but it was in Soviet territory. The United States and Great Britain needed to send supplies to their parts of Berlin so they airlifted food and fuel. The Soviets could do nothing about it so the American and English citizens were able to receive their supplies.
  • NATO

    Communism was very prevalent after World War 2, and democracies needed a way to fight it. The North Atlantic Treaty Organization was formed in order to protect democracy. It was a pact between 10 western European nations, the US, and Canada. It stated that each country would come to the aid of others against communists.
  • Mao Zedong Takes Over China

    After World War 2, the Chinese Communist Party and the Nationalist Party had at each other's throats. The US supported the nationalist party and the USSR supported the communists. The communists received more funding and had strong roots within China, so they were very strong. In 1949, Mao Zedong proclaimed the founding of the People's Republic of China, making a communist government. 600,000 nationalist soldiers and 2 million nationalist sympathizers fled to Taiwan.
  • Korean War

    At the end of World War 2, Korea had been divided at the 38th parallel. The south was controlled by the US and the north was controlled by the soviets. Eventually, the North Koreans invaded South Korea with the support of the soviets. The South Koreans, aided by the US were able to push the communists all the way to China's border. The US pushed no farther as China threatened to send troops to aid the communists. After years of negotiations, the US, North Korea, and China signed an armistice.
  • Warsaw Pact

    As communists rose in power in Eurasia, so did resistance. Democratic countries needed to stop the spread of communism so they formed NATO. In response to this, the USSR and other communist countries formed the Warsaw Pact. The pact strengthened the Soviet Union as they had reliable allies if they were ever invaded. Later on, as communism was on its last legs, the Warsaw Pact was disbanded along with the Soviet Union.
  • Sputnik Into Orbit

    As a way to show superiority, the Soviet Union and the US participated in the Space Race. The USSR took the first step by sending Sputnik into orbit. It was a basketball sized object that became the first ever manmade object to orbit the Earth. This was a huge morale victory among the Soviets as it spooked the Americans. American citizens thought that the Russians would nuke them from outer space.
  • Vietnam War

    After World War 2, a French educated Emperor Bao Dai was left in control of Vietnam. The communist forces led by Ho Chi Minh saw an opportunity to take over. They declared a Democratic Republic of Vietnam. France, unhappy with this, aided Bao Dai in his conquest to regain control. The US entered the war because of the Domino Theory. As they continued to support the south, Americans began to disagree with the war. They wanted to pull out which Nixon did by signing the Paris Peace Accords.
  • The Berlin Wall

    When Germany was divided after World War 2, the soviets remained in control of East Germany. People began to flee eastern Germany, which the soviets could not allow. They built the Berlin wall to separate eastern Berlin from western Berlin. It split the communists away from the west. The Soviets held a tight grip over east Berlin until the late 1980's. Communism had fallen and there was no use in the Berlin wall anymore.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis

    America had built up an arsenal of missiles in Italy and Turkey, which threatened citizens in the Soviet Union. After the failed Bay of Pigs Invasion, Fidel Castro sought a way to gain power and protection. He reached out to soviet leaders and they agreed. They built missile bases in Cuba to counteract the missiles in Turkey and Italy. The US went into crisis as there was the constant threat of a nuclear war. Eventually, the Soviets and Americans agreed to remove their missiles.