Era 12: Civil Rights

  • Period: to

    Dwight D Eisenhower (Ike) Presidency

  • Brown V. Topeka (KS) Board of Ed

    Seperate Cannot ever be equal, (reverses plessy V Ferguson, 1896)
    Must desegregate public schools
    Super revolutionary at time but is critisized today because it didn't include suburbs and led to white flight and suburbs having way more funding and better scores "We're still segregated" (ie South High << Bexley High)
  • Emmett Till Case

    2 guys lynch emmett till for whistling at a white woman
    they were aquitted (let off the hook) for this crime
  • Rosa Park Incident in Montgomery, AL

    -Jailed for refusing to give up her seat
    -Leads to 1 year long bus boycott (lead by MLK Jr.)
    -Leads to court orded Bus deaegregation Dec 21st 1956
  • Little Rock Nine

    9 black kids get attacked when trying to go to the new court ordered desegregated school. Ike (Pres Dwight D Eisenhower) sends federal troops
  • Woolworth Diner Sit ins

    4 black teens sit at whites only counter.
    Leads to rapid spread of sit ins across Southern cities
    SNCC (Student nonviolent coordinting committee) emerges out of this
  • Woolworth's Sit ins.

    -4 black teens sit on the whites only counter at woolworth's Diner
    -Inspires 100+ other sit ins in Southern Cities
    -Leads to creation of SNCC Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
  • MLK is arrested in sit in

    JFK (presidential candidate) risks southern democrat votes by pressing for MLK Jr. to be released
    Blacks turn up like crazy to vote for JFK a few weeks later and he wins by super slim margin (Vs. Nixon)
  • Period: to

    JFK Presidency

  • Period: to

    JFK Presidency

  • Freedom Riders "Mother's day attack in Anniston AL)

    organized by CRE
    travel through south to challenge segregation (interracial group)
    Met by angry violent whites. (Mostly KKK)
    This attack was 1st to make headlines world wide, bus was burned.
    Robert Kennedy was almost beaten to death
    Didn't make much leeway until fed. gvt forced Desegregation
  • MLK Speech in Albany, GA

  • The Other America By Michael Harrington

    We read this packet in Class
    public support for Johnson's anti-poverty program was solidified when Michael Harrington published his book The Other America. Harrington reported that 20 percent of America's population—and nearly 40 percent of the black population—lived in poverty. Many Americans, who lived in relative prosperity, were startled by Harrington's findings.
  • James Meridith becomes 1st black student at U of Misssissipppi

    Leads to white riot on Sept 30 (resulted in 2 dead & 160 injured)
  • George wallace is elected Governor of AL by landslide

    His Platform? "Segregation Forever"
    pushes for police attacks to nonviolent protests
    In June swears to "stand in schoolhouse door" to prevent black students from entering University of AL
    Ran for pres in 1968 (democrat, 3rd party segregation ticket)
  • Martin Luther King Jr. writes Letter from a birmingham jail

    Arguement for using nonviolent approaches to change
    Another packet we read in class
  • Medgar Evers Death

    -Leader of NAACP
    -Hours after JFK gives speech to have people examine their conscious & support civil rights
    -Killed by White supremacist Byron De La Beckwith (Never proven but more than likely KKK)
    -Escapes conviction until 1994 (he served 5 years in prison for violating civil rights act--FIVE)
  • I have a Dream Speech

    -250,000+ people assembled in Washington mall
    -Regarded as one of best speeches in US history
  • Bombing of Church, kills 4 black girls

    -FBI names suspects but FBI director (J. Edgar Hudson? J. Edgar Hoover?) refuses to prosecute
    -One of them gets prosecuted in 1977, the other two don't face justice until 2000
  • Period: to

    Lyndon B Johnson Presidency

  • 24th Ammendment/Voting poll Act

    Congress ratified the Twenty-Fourth Amendment, which abolished any form of payment, usually called a poll tax, as a prerequisite for voting in federal elections.
  • Civil Rights Act of 1964

    To enforce the Civil Rights Bill of 1964, the federal government formed the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC). The commission banned all discrimination based on race, religion, gender, and national origin in an act that became known as Title VII. Following passage of the Civil Rights Bill and the establishment of the EEOC, most businesses in the south immediately desegregated.
  • Freedom Summer

    -White college students (From North?) come around south and register a boatload of black people to vote
    -Southern people are angry and violent, per usual. Kill 3 civil rights works (mississippi burning--that one movie is about this)
    -Race riots errupted in Harlem & other northern cities
  • Period: to

    Selma march

    march from selma to birmingham, totally nonviolent led MLK
    cops attack them with whips, clubs, dogs, tear gas, the whole schpeil
  • Period: to

    Watts Riots

    -black slum in LA, Cali
    -30+ dead, 1000+ wounded
  • James Meredith Gets Shot

    -March against fear for voting registration (the irony kills me)
    -March from TN to MS
    -Shot by white guy (Aubrey Norvell? Something feminine)
    -Meredith survives
  • MLK is assaulted in chicago

    Shows racism is big in North too even though the focus is in the South
  • Martin Luther King Jr. is assassinated

    At strike in Memphis to support sanitation workers
    led to riots in 100+ cities across US
  • Black Power in 1968 (mexico city)

    -Fist of solidarity
    -John Carlos & Tommy Smith
    Jacket open, chain, black glove--tons of symbols
    I vaguely remember a video of it somewhere on the blog