Enlightenment and Nationalist Revolutions

  • Montesquieu publishes On the Spirits of Laws

    Montesquieu was an influential French writer. He believed in political liberty and the separation of powers. He thought that the best government was one where power was a check to power,
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    Enlightenment and Nationalist Revolutions

  • America declares independence

    The United States of America were originally thirteen colonies under British rule. After the French and Indian War, the British had a large debt. To get more money, they heavily taxed the colonies. The colonies then rebelled and declared independence.
  • French Revolution

    The ordinary citizens of France, or the 3rd estate, were unhappy that the first 2 estates had more rights and priviliges than them. They did not like the way that the king was running the country either. The members of the 3rd estated rebelled and abolished all the power of the king.
  • Napoleon overthrows the Directory through a coup d’etat

    Napoleon Bonaparte was a successful French general when he seized political power from the French Directory in 1799. A group of 3 consuls was established, with Napoleon as the first consul who had the powers of a dictator. The way that Napoleon took control of France is known as a coup d'etat.
  • Napoleon crowns himself emporer

    Napoleon decided to make France an empire in 1804. He disbanded the 3 consuls and crowned himself emperor. Napoleon took the crown from the pope and placed it on his own head, showing that he was more powerful than the church. He then begins to conquer nearby contries, and the French empire grows to its largest size to date.
  • Haiti wins freedom from France

    During the French Revolution, the slaves in Haiti rebelled. Their leader, Toussaint L'Ouverture, helped them gain their independence.
  • Padre Hidalgo calls for Mexican Independence

    Miguel Hidalgo, a Mexican priest in the town of Dolores, rang the church bells and told the people to rebell against the Spanish. This is known as the grito de dolores (the cry of Dolores). He then marched to Mexico city with 80,000 people who wanted the Spanish to leave. However, they were defeated by the skilled Spanish army. Future revolutionaries would fufill Hidalgo's cry for independence.
  • Napoleon is defeated at the Battle of Waterloo

    After Napoleon returned from Elba, his enemies prepared for battle in Waterloo. The combined forces of the British and the Prussians defeated the French army. Napoleon was exiled to the island of St. Helena, from where he would never return.