Civil Rights Movement

By 062603
  • White Primary is abolished in GA

    White Primary is abolished in GA
    1. White Primary was to keep the blacks from being able to vote after the Civil War. The blacks could still vote in general election. There was a loophole, the primary, in the US Constitution there was nothing about the primary elections. The blacks could not vote in primary elections, but the Georgia primary elections were the general elections.
  • White Primary continued...

    . Georgia was a one party state which meant a single political party runs the government, and other parties are allowed to run other candidates for the election. Later in the year, a court case was brought up between King and Chapman. The US Court said that white primary systems were unconstitutional, and blacks now voted in primary’s.
  • White Primary abloished in GA links

  • 1. Integration of armed forces

    1. Integration of armed forces
    In February 1948, President Truman told Congress to start the recommendations. Southern Senators threatened a filibuster; Truman decided to go ahead on with the Civil Rights using the executive powers. Truman selected the first African American judge to Federal Branch. Then Truman told three African Americans to a high ranking position. On July 26th, 1948 he issued an executive order to stop segregation in the armed forces.
  • 2. Integration of Armed Forces continued...

    There was an order that was number 9981that said "there shall be equality of treatment and opportunity for all persons in the armed forces without regard to race, color, religion, or national origin." The rules were looked over. When the Korean War ended the military was now integrated.
  • integration of armed forces links

  • 1. Brown VS. Board of Education

    1. Brown VS. Board of Education
    Brown vs. Board of education started when African American parents tried to enroll their students in an all white school. They could not get into the school because of their race. The parents filed a law suit, and the first parent that did this was Oliver Brown. That is why it is called “Brown vs. Board of education.”
  • 2. Brown VS. Board of Education

    Parents did not like this for many reasons such as, for every $150.00 spent on white kids only $50.00 was spent on African Americans, African Americans had little to no supplies, overcrowded classrooms for the African Americans, and the textbooks were out of date. Once Oliver was denied access to the school, he went to the NAACP to try to get his daughter in the all white school.
  • 4. Brown VS. Board of Education

    The lawyers from the education noticed that people didn’t mind if blacks went to all black schools. On May 17, 1954 Oliver Brown’s daughter was found a favor and other African Americans. The Supreme Court ruled it wasn’t fare that blacks and whites go to different schools.
  • Brown VS. Board of Education links

  • 3. Brown VS. Board of Education

    Then the NAACP hired lawyers to fight for the African American. When they went into the state court they referred this case as Plessy vs. Ferguson which allowed separate but equal school systems for black and white children. They lost the case in court. The lawyers found out about this case on December 9, 1952.
  • 2. Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott

    On December 1st she took a seat on a bus, and a white male needed a seat. When he asked her to move, she did not. She stayed seated and would not give this man a seat. They called the police, and she was arrested. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. was a pastor for a church and he thought they needed to boycott the bus company.
  • 3. Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott

    Many other African Americans came and on the morning on December 5, little to no African Americans did not ride the bus. The White males started to fight back by arresting the African Americans. On November 13, 1956, the Court ruled that it was illegal to separate the races on the bus in Alabama.
  • Rosa Parks and the Montgomery bus boycott links

  • 1. Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott

    1. Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott
    Rosa Parks is a black African American who stood up for what she believed in. On December 1st, 1955, Rosa Parks was arrested. She was arrested in Montgomery, Alabama for sitting down and not standing up on a bus because she was African American. There was a rule know as the “established rule,” that African Americans could only sit in the back of the bus or stand. If all the seats were taken and white males or females needed a seat the African Americans would have to give up their seat.
  • 1. Change to Georgia's state flag

    1. Change to Georgia's state flag
    A change to the flag happened in 1956, but there was an urgency to have the old Confederate flag in 1955. John Sammons Bell, Jefferson Lee Davis an Willis Harden introduced the bill. Some US citizens said it was to honor the centennial from the Civil War. The other people said that it had symbolized Georgia’s resistance to integration.
  • 2. Change to GA state flag

    Then the resistance to the new flag began in 1960’s. When it changed it became an issue because of the governor’s race in 1998. It changed again in 2001, and then changed again in 2004. The 2004 flag is the current flag.
  • Change to GA state flag links

  • 1. Crisis at Central High School and the “Little rock nine”

    1. Crisis at Central High School and the “Little rock nine”
    Thelma Mothershed, Elizabeth Eckford, Melba Pattillo, Jefferson Thomas, Ernest Green, Minniejean Brown, Carlotta Walls, Terrence Roberts, and Gloria Ray were know as the little rock nine. They were about to enter an all white high school. The mayor Orval Faubus didn’t want any blacks to enter Central High school, and he said that in a televised statement. He told the Arkansas National Guard to surround the school, so no blacks could get in.
  • 3. Crisis at Central High School and the “Little rock nine”

    Students still spit at them, and said racial comments. Orval prevented schools from integration. There was an injunction about integration until 1961. The Court ruled integration was upheld in 1958, but Orval shut down little rock’s public schools, and blacks had to wait. The Central High School opened and two of them graduated from there.
  • Crisis at Central High SChool and the "little rock nine" links

  • 2. Crisis at Central High School and the “Little rock nine”

    No blacks got in the first day. Daisy Bates told the little rock nine to walk in on the second day of school. On September 20, Judge Ronald N. Davies told NAACP 2 lawyers an injunction that told Orval, he could not use the National Guard, so the blacks could get in. President Eisenhower granted each person of the little rock nine a guard, so nothing would happen to them at school.
  • 2. Hebrew benevolent congregation in Atlanta bombed

    All nightclubs refusing to fire their Negro employees will also be blown up. We are going to blow up all Communist organizations. Negroes and Jews are hereby declared aliens." Rabbi Jacob Rothschild was a Rabbi for the Temple. He supported integration and the Civil Rights Movement. There were a total of five white males committed the bombing.
  • Hebrew benevolent congregation in Atlanta bombed links

  • 1. Hebrew benevolent congregation in Atlanta bombed

    1. Hebrew benevolent congregation in Atlanta bombed
    The Hebrew Benevolent Congregation Temple was a Jewish Temple. It is known as "the Temple." It was bombed in the early morning on October 12, 1958. There was a total of 50 dynamite sticks that destroyed the sides of the walls. The UPI got a call from General Gordon that said "We bombed a temple in Atlanta. This is the last empty building in Atlanta we will bomb.
  • 2. Sibley Commission

    The Georgians would rather have the schools close than have them integrated. The Commissions recommended that the schools would be able to decide if they would follow federal law and integrate. In most cases private schools opened for white kids to avoid integration.
  • Sibley Commission links

  • 1. Sibley Commission

    1. Sibley Commission
    The Sibley Commission was between integration and federal law. Most of the schools in the state did not want to integrate and they refused to integrate. In 1955, the Georgia Assembly voted to stop the state funding that go to schools if they didn’t integrate. It was established because it studied the issue of school integration. The man who was the leader is named John Sibley. They interviewed random Georgians to see how they felt about the issue of integration.
  • 2. Integration of UGA

    On January 11, a mob of whites surrounded Hunter’s Dormitory and caused major damage. The state officials stopped the mob and repealed the laws about state support to schools if they become integrated.
  • Integration of UGA links

  • 1. Integration of UGA

    1. Integration of UGA
    On January 6, 1961 a judge ordered Hamilton Holmes and Charlayne Hunter which were two blacks to the University of Georgia. Segregation has been going on for about 160 years at the University of Georgia. The Legislature ordered a cut-off of funds if the school allowed a black student. Rumors started and people began to think that the University of Georgia was going to close.
  • 1. Freedom Rides

    1. Freedom Rides
    On May 4, 1961, was the first ride for the Freedom Riders. A CORE director leaded the riders. There were six whites and seven blacks. They started in Washington, D.C and went to Louisiana, South Carolina, and Alabama. They rode on buses and went down south. In New Orleans, Louisiana and they made the helped the Brown VS Board of Education. Brown VS Board of Education outlawed segregation in schools, so blacks and whites became integrated.
  • 2. Freedom Rides

    They also helped Boynton v. Virginia case. The Boynton v. Virginia case outlawed segregation in restaurants and all different types of rooms. The Freedom Riders would test people and things that enforced the different types of segregation. Police would arrest the riders when they provoked actions about segregation. White riots and mobs would attack the riders.
  • 3. Freedom Rides

    The Freedom Riders would make sit-ins against segregation and many boycotts happened. In the Boynton case supported interstate thee right of travelers to local segregation ordinance. Police arrested the Freedom Riders. The Ku Klux Klan would even attack the riders.
  • Freedom Rides links

  • 1. Albany Movement

    1. Albany Movement
    In 1955 the Supreme Court decides to make segregation in interstate buses and train stations illegal. On November 17, 1961, at Albany, GA people that work with NAACP and SNCC wanted to test the ruling, and they sat in the “white only” section on a bus of Albany, GA. Many were arrested; the man who led the Albany Movement was Dr. William Anderson. Freedom Riders arrived in Albany, and they decided to sit in the “white only” section and they were all arrested and went to jail.
  • 2. Albany Movement

    This protest went on for months at a time, and at one time during the protest, the police arrested 500 people and they were jailed or out on bond. One of the people arrested was Martin Luther King. There was no immediate desegregation on buses or business. A biracial committee formed to help the African Americans in Albany.
  • Albany Movement links

  • 1. Birmingham, Al protest

    1. Birmingham, Al protest
    The Southern Christian Leadership Conference wanted to be treated equal in Birmingham, Alabama. In Birmingham the people were atrocious when it comes to integration. Martin Luther King was jailed for the 13th time in Birmingham. While the King was in the jail he wrote a famous letter know as "Letter from a Birmingham Jail." The letter let the King and Reverend Ralph David Abernathy get out of jail. On May 2, 1963 over 1000 African Americans marched in singing “we shall overcome.”
  • 2. Birmingham, Al protests

    They were sprayed with high powered water hoses and attacked by German Shepherds. A total 956 kids were arrested. When people saw the terrifying images they were shocked. People started do begin more marches and the march kept going. When a meeting took place between blacks and whites segregation was stopped in Birmingham.
  • Birmingham, Al protests links

  • 1. March on Washington DC

    1. March on Washington DC
    There were a total of more than 250,000 whites and blacks in the march. It was a non-violent protest. On August 28, the march began, and no one was hurt. There were many speeches one was by Martin Luther King, his “I Have a Dream” speech. The march ended ahead of schedule, The leaders met with President Kennedy. The march was a great success, and is known as a high tide of all the Civil Rights Movement. It was for the theme "jobs, and freedom."
  • March on Washington DC links

  • 1. 16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham bombed

    1. 16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham bombed
    The 16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham was a place where many African Americans met about the Civil Rights movement like Martin Luther King, Ralph David Abernathy and Fred Shutterworth. People began to become anxious because the CORE and SCLC were trying to get African Americans the right to vote.
  • 2. 16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham bombed

    On September 15, 1963 a member of the KKK named Robert Chambliss placed a bomb under the church. At 10:22 am the 122 sticks of dynamite exploded killing 4 girls. About 22 other people were severely injured. The governor of Alabama was responsible for the killing. Robert was arrested.
  • 16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham bombed links

  • 1. John F. Kennedy assassinated

    1. John F. Kennedy assassinated
    On November 22, 1963 John F. Kennedy was assassinated. He was assassinated in Dealey Plaza, Dallas, Texas. He was trying to get Texas because he was a democrat. While he was Texas, he was in a car with the hood off, and was shot twice in the neck and head. The governor John Connally was also shot in the back. Kennedy was rushed to the hospital, but died at 1:00 pm.
  • 2. John F. Kennedy assassinated

    The shots were fired from the sixth floor of Texas School Book Depository. When they searched the building they found nothing until they knew someone left the building around 1:15 pm. Lee Harvey Oswald was the killer. Then two days later Oswald was killed by Jack Ruby.
  • John F. Kennedy assassination links

  • 1. Civil Rights Act 1964 passed

    1. Civil Rights Act 1964 passed
    This act integrated most things. On July 2, is when it was passed. Segregation and terrible treatment of black voters was ended. Schools, working facilities, and public places had no more segregation because it became banned. Blacks and whites were now basically equal and there was no more segregation allowed.The laws started out weak and started becoming stronger of the years. President Lyndon B. Johnson signed the Civil rights Act.
  • Civil Rights Act 1964 passed links

  • 2. Voting Rights Act of 1965 passed

    There has not been a white racist in the south. It echoed the 15th amendment which prohibits "voting qualification or prerequisite to voting, or standard, practice, or procedure ... to deny or abridge the right of any citizen of the United States to vote on account of race or color." President Lyndon B. Johnson signed the act.
  • Voting Rights Act of 1965 passed links

  • 1. Voting Rights Act of 1965 passed

    1. Voting Rights Act of 1965 passed
    President Lyndon B. Johnson tried to get Congress to pass the Voting Rights Act. This act removed any state that had restrictions on who could vote in elections whether you are black or white. Johnson’s exact words were “Every American citizen must have an equal right to vote. Yet the harsh fact is that in many places in this country men and women are kept from voting simply because they are Negroes." The Voting Right Act was passed. He also said that “signing away the south for 50 years”.
  • 1. Summerhill Race Riot (Atlanta)

    1. Summerhill Race Riot (Atlanta)
    On September 6, 1966, there was a riot that lasted 4 days. The SNCC and the leader of the SNCC Stokely Carmichael were accused of beating a police brutality. There was a total of one death and twenty injuries in the riot and it was supposed to be a non-violent riot. It showed how blacks are still frustrated and the struggles they were still facing. Mayor Ivan Allen, Jr. went to the riot and pleaded with the rioters and tried to get police to put the order of the area back.
  • Summerhill Race Riot (Atlanta) links

  • MLK assassination

    On April 4, 1968, Martin Luther King, Jr. was shot in the face at the balcony of the Lorraine Motel balcony. He was in Memphis, Tennessee at the time, and was helping a strike for African Americans sanitation workers. Police found a rifle by a door in the Canipes Amusement Co. They found finger prints on the rifle and found out the killer was James Earl Ray. He was found guilty and was sentenced to 99 years in prison. Many cities erupted into riots because of his death.
  • MLK assassination

  • all GA schools integrated

    all GA schools integrated
    Before all Georgia schools were integrated, there were some schools that had been integrated. There were many protests that lead to deaths, and many of them were won. The integration began in 1961, and schools were becoming integrated. A lot of black students were harassed and racial comments were told to the African Americans. There were black and white teachers now in the schools.
  • all GA schools integrated links