Civil rights

Civil Rights Movement

  • Period: to

    Civil Rights Movement

  • White Primary Abolished in GA

    White Primary Abolished in GA
    The white primary was established to keep African Americans from voting after the civil war. African Americans were allowed to vote in the general elections, but not the primary elections. Due to this, blacks had no influence on who became the candidate. King v. Chapman: July 4, 1944- An African American named Primus King went to go vote in the primary election. He was escorted out of the building by a police officer. Primus King went to an attorney’s office, after being removed from the
  • White Primary Abolished in Ga

    White Primary Abolished in Ga
    building. He filled a lawsuit against the Democratic Party for not allowing him to vote. Oct. 12 1945, the judge claimed that not allowing blacks to vote in primary elections was unconstitutional. The Democratic Party would not give up. They requested that this case go to the Supreme Court. The Supreme Court would not take this case and in March 1945, Georgian blacks could vote because the legal barriers were removed in 1946. http://tinyurl.com/73v36fr ; http://tinyurl.com/89k76b5
  • Integration of the Armed Forces

    Integration of the Armed Forces
    President Truman had been working on the civil rights movement. He created many new things with his power as president. On July 26, 1948 he created the Executive Order 9981. This order abolished segregation in the army and went on to integrate all the other military groups. The army disagreed with this ruling, but by the end of the Korean War most of the military had been integrated. http://tinyurl.com/6ytyy4x ; http://tinyurl.com/7pbhatv
  • Brown vs. Board of Education

    Brown vs. Board of Education
    The Brown vs. Board of Education was between Oliver Brown and the Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas. The results were given by the Chief Justice Warren. He declared that segregation of schools was unconstitutional. This created an uproar. One year later, Chief Justice Warren read the court’s unanimous decision once again. This was called Brown II and told the states to start desegregation quickly. http://tinyurl.com/2bodhlg ; http://tinyurl.com/84jnd9m
  • Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott

    Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott
    Rosa Parks was a civil rights leader. She was and African American who lived in Montgomery, Alabama. During this time, if there were no empty seats, but a black person was sitting, the black person had to get up for the white person. On December 1, 1955, Rosa Parks was riding the bus home and would not give her seat up for a white person. Rosa Parks was arrested. She tried to challenge the segregation laws while in court. Even though she tried and failed, she was not the only person to try
  • Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott

    Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott
    something like this. Her actions did start the Montgomery Bus Boycott. People did not ride the buses for more than a year. They only rode the bus again when the Supreme Court said that there should not be any segregation anywhere. http://tinyurl.com/6r2o7fh ; http://tinyurl.com/7ljkocr
  • Change to the State Flag

    Change to the State Flag
    In 1955, 3 Georgians wanted to have the Georgia state flag changed. They wanted to include the Confederate flag from the Civil War. The flag in the 1920’s started out as a three large stripes, one white two red. The flag changed numerous times and at one point had the Confederate flag on the right-hand side. This flag was an issue from the beginning. They changed it two more times until the current flag. http://tinyurl.com/6nukwb8 ; http://tinyurl.com/6mzj7n3
  • Crisis at Central High School and the "Little Rock Nine"

    Crisis at Central High School and the "Little Rock Nine"
    After the Brown vs. Board of Education event, Arkansas was one of two southern states who said they would start to desegregate their schools. Several o Arkansas’s schools had been desegregated. The school board of Little Rock planned to desegregate their high school then move on to the middle and elementary schools. In September of 1957, nine black students were accepted to go to Central High School. A couple of days before school was to start, the governor called the National Guard to surround
  • Crisis at Central High School and "Little Rock Nine"

    Crisis at Central High School and "Little Rock Nine"
    the school. President Eisenhower thought the troops were to allow a safe arrival for the African Americans enrolled in that school. Little did he know, that the troops were there to keep the black students out of the school. After the governor found out that Eisenhower wanted to keep the troops at the school, he sent them away. When school started, the nine students snuck into school. The other students became mad, and they had a full riot on their hands. The governor did not do anything to
  • Crisis at Central High School and "Little Rock NIne"

    Crisis at Central High School and "Little Rock NIne"
    stop the fight and the president had to create Executive Order 10730. This put the Arkansas National Guard under government control and sent 1,000 troops to help create order in Arkansas again. http://tinyurl.com/7w97qyg ; http://tinyurl.com/8a788j6
  • Hebrew Benevolent Congregation Bombing in Atlanta

    Hebrew Benevolent Congregation Bombing in Atlanta
    Atlanta has always had Jews living in the city, but not many. There was about 1,000 Jews who went to the Hebrew Benevolent Congregation, also known as the Temple. Jews had been discriminated against and had not been allowed access into social events due to anti-Semitism. On October 12, 1958, there was 50 sticks of dynamite placed in the doorway of the Temple. The worship place was not damaged but other areas of the building were severely damaged. No one was injured or killed, but people were
  • Hebrew Benevolent Congregation Bombing in Atlanta

    Hebrew Benevolent Congregation Bombing in Atlanta
    shaken up. The police and other agents investigated and arrested and put in jail five men. http://tinyurl.com/7s54l2v ; http://tinyurl.com/7d8gpbz
  • Sibley Commission

    Sibley Commission
    Most schools in the state of Georgia had refused to integrate their schools. In 1955, the general assembly threatened to stop paying public schools if they integrated. The Sibley Commission was created to work on the problem of school integration. It was formed by a man named John Sibley. He was an attorney and banker. This commission interviewed to citizens of Georgia to hear their thoughts of integration. When conducting these surveys, they found that most Georgians would rather the state
  • Sibley Commission

    Sibley Commission
    close the schools than have them integrated. The Sibley Commission thought that each individual school should be allowed to decide whether or not they wanted to follow the federal law and integrate. That is why during this time period many private schools opened to avoid integration. http://tinyurl.com/7rakff4 ; http://tinyurl.com/8737q4b
  • Albany Movement

    Albany Movement
    In 1955, the US Supreme Court ruled that having segregated buses and trains stations was illegal. In 1961, the National Association for the Advancements of Colored People (NCAAP) and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) decided to try this new law and sat in the “whites-only” section of the bus station in Albany, GA. They were arrested and this helped move along the Albany Movement. This movement was led by Dr. William Anderson. In December, Freedom Riders, who were people who
  • Albany Movement

    Albany Movement
    rode the bus or trains and challenged the law, sat in the “whites-only” section and were arrested. This did not stop them. They continued doing this for months, and at one time 500 people were either in jail or had been released on bond. There desegregation immediately, but people formed a committee to help with the concerns of the African Americans. http://tinyurl.com/7r3o6jc ; http://tinyurl.com/6lvlqqv
  • Integration of UGA

    Integration of UGA
    Two African Americans arrived at UGA, with a police escort. These two people were named Charlayne Hunter and Hamilton Holmes. The alumni from the University of Georgia and Georgia politicians all begged for UGA to close rather than allow two black students to attend. He governor said he would not stop desegregation. Hamilton Holmes was and alumni of UGA and later in life became an orthopedic surgeon. Charalyne Hunter, a UGA and Grady School of Journalism alumni, became a television and newspaper
  • Integration of UGA

    Integration of UGA
    reporter. The governor’s reaction the desegregation of UGA made the desegregation of the rest of the state less chaotic than in other southern states. http://tinyurl.com/7zdrq7x ; http://tinyurl.com/7nd2yvl
  • Freedom Rides

    Freedom Rides
    The Freedom Rides were another way to try and get public places and transportation desegregated. The very first Freedom Ride took place on May 4, 1961. There was seven African Americans and 6 white people got on two buses and rode down south from Washington D.C. They were trying to see if the ruling in the Boynton v. Virginia was actually being practiced. During the first couple of days, the riders were only experiencing mild rudeness on the buses. During the second week their treatment was
  • Freedom Rides

    Freedom Rides
    worse. They got beaten very badly. In Alabama, one of the buses was burned and people were beaten by groups of whites. The U.S. Justice Department had to escort the riders out of Alabama. The leaders of the rides thought it would be a bad if they quit. The group traveled to Montgomery, but when they got there they were attacked by 1000+ white people. This violent outburst pressured President Kennedy to end all the violence. They continued all the way to Mississippi, and were arrested. This
  • Freedom Rides

    Freedom Rides
    sparked more publicity and then more people became Freedom Riders. Protest spread at the transportation places in the South. In November, rules were issued saying all transportation facilities are desegregated. http://tinyurl.com/7rbmz3 ; http://tinyurl.com/82mf8ay
  • Birmingham, Alabama Protests

    Birmingham, Alabama Protests
    In Alabama, the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) tried to bring attention to the unfair treatment of African Americans. These protests took place during the spring of 1963. Young blacks and white authorities had numerous confrontations. During this time period, Birmingham, Alabama, was a very segregated city. African Americans had to face legal and economic issues. They were also faced with the issue of violence. The citizens fighting back were trying to bring attention to their
  • Birmingham, Alabama Protests

    Birmingham, Alabama Protests
    problems. The protesters started by trying to boycott business to get them to give more jobs. This didn’t work so the leaders of the SCLC organized sit-ins to get themselves arrested. The protest ran out of adults, so they began to “train” students to participate. The police began to try to discourage the protesters by releasing police dogs on them and spraying them with a fire truck hose. The media brought a lot of attention to the segregation in the South. http://tinyurl.com/yard4j3 (both)
  • March on Wachington DC

    March on Wachington DC
    On August 28, there was more than 250,000 people who went to the capital to complete the “March on Washington and for Jobs and Freedom”. This march was the biggest showing of civil rights. The march began at the Washington Monument with celebrities and musicians. Then they walked past the National Mall to the Lincoln Memorial. At the memorial many civil rights and religious leaders made speeches. This march included the NAACP, SNCC, and others. http://tinyurl.com/3fy7b2j ; http://tinyurl.com/84j
  • 16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham Bombed

    16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham Bombed
    The 16th Street Church was in Birmingham, Alabama. This church was used for meetings to discuss racism. The leader of the SCLC and Martin Luther King, Jr. came and spoke to the church often. On September 15, 1963, three members of the Ku Klux Klan put 19 sticks of dynamite outside of the church by the basement. The dynamite exploded at 10:22. It injured 22 people and killed four little girls. 8,000+ people came to 3 out of the four girls’ funerals. After the bombing, the church received more
  • 16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham Bombed

    16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham Bombed
    than $300,000 in gifts. With the generous gift, the church began to make needed repairs. On June 7, 1964, the church opened again. http://tinyurl.com/2m55fo ; http://tinyurl.com/fhjw9
  • John F. Kennedy Assassinated

    John F. Kennedy Assassinated
    On November 22, 1963, President John F. Kennedy and his wife, Jackie, were in Dallas, Texas, for a meeting with the Texas Democratic Party. The president, his wife, the Democratic Governor of Texas, and his wife were all traveling in an open limousine to their lunch. Vice President Lyndon Johnson, his wife, and the Texas Democratic Senator followed in a car behind them. The line of cars included: the police, secret service vehicles, the president’s car, the vice president’s car, and media
  • John F. Kennedy Assassinated

    John F. Kennedy Assassinated
    vehicles. The line of cars was about to turn in front of the Texas School Book Depository Building when there were three shots fired. The president was fatally shot and the governor injured. The assassin was named Lee Harvey Oswald. He was captured in a movie theatre. Two days after he assassinated Kennedy, he was assassinated when being taken from police headquarters to the Dallas County Jail. http://tinyurl.com/7ddtztl ; http://tinyurl.com/723kr7x
  • Civil Rights Act 1964 Passed

    Civil Rights Act 1964 Passed
    On June 6, President Kennedy told the nation to equalize the treatment of everyone. After Kennedy gave his speech, Congress considered creating a legislation for civil rights to discuss voting rights, desegregation, nondiscrimination, and more. Even though JFK died, his speech turned into the Civil Rights Act of 1964. President Johnson proposed this plan to the House and then signed it two hours after it was approved on June, 2 1964. http://tinyurl.com/6vk4lk2 ; http://tinyurl.com/7dpmuan
  • Voting Rights Act of 1965 Passed

    Voting Rights Act of 1965 Passed
    The Voting Rights Act of 1965 was created to help people follow the 15th Amendment. Before the Voting Rights Act of 1965 was passed, attention was brought to voting issues because of violence. People were murdering other who were working for voting rights and troopers attacked peaceful petitioners. This gave President Johnson and Congress the push they needed to pass a national voting rights bill on August 5, 1965. http://tinyurl.com/6s2ow42 ; http://tinyurl.com/8ybhf77
  • Summerhill Race Riot in Atlanta

    Summerhill Race Riot in Atlanta
    In 1966, outside of Atlanta a riot took place. This riot was caused by a police officer shooting a black man he thought was a car thief. This riot lasted for four days. The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) and their leader were thought to have started this riot. This riot ended with one death and 20 injuries. The mayor at the time was Ivan Allen, Jr. He went to the sight of this riot to try and calm the crowd down with other black leaders. http://tinyurl.com/6uf4hrv
  • Martin Luther King, Jr. Assassinated

    Martin Luther King, Jr. Assassinated
    Martin Luther King Jr. was an African American civil rights leader. He was in Memphis, Tennessee, when he was assassinated. He was about to lead a march. The march he was leading was for sanitation workers who were protesting low wages and bad working conditions. He bent down and in that moment he was shot in the neck.
  • Martin Luther King, Jr. Assassinated

    Martin Luther King, Jr. Assassinated
    He was shot on the hotel balcony that he was standing on. He was taken to the hospital where he died. They found a man who was his supposed killer and gave him a sentence of 99 years in prison. http://tinyurl.com/7rfaj7d ; http://tinyurl.com/bwjhow9
  • All Georgia Schools Integrated

    All Georgia Schools Integrated
    Once the Civil Rights Act passed, the state government said they would not pay for the schools unless they desegregated their schools. Some schools still continued to segregate, though. Since some schools would not integrate, the US Department of Justice sued Georgia’s education board. They said the board should not pay schools unless they followed the court desegregation plan. Everyone desegregated their schools by 1971.http://tinyurl.com/88nxfzq ; http://tinyurl.com/7mnrgzh