Civil rights

Civil Rights Movement

By 062096
  • White Primaries in Georgia 3

    Eventualy this was brought to the attention of the supreme court in the King vs. Chapman case, the ruling was that white primaries were unconstitutional due to their discrimanatory nature, In conclusion white primaries were abloshied in Georgia on 1946. (for info) ( for pic)
  • White Primaries are Abolsihed in Gerogia 1

    White Primaries are Abolsihed in Gerogia 1
    After the civil war white southerners tried their best to prevent the newly freed, black, slaves from voting in any way possible, Many forms of this prevention came in Jim Crow laws. These were laws that are created to obviously sperate the races to put one race at a disadvantage. These laws including the Grandfather clause,literacy test, and the poll tax. The poll tax taxed the newly freed slaves that were poor, before they could vote. In addidtion to these laws the White Primaries began.
  • White Primaries in Georgia 2

    During this time period the Democrat party dominated the south and held nearly all the political power. White Primaries were essentially a loop hole found in the constitution that allowed colored voters not to vote. The loop hole was that the constitution gave blacks the right to vote, it said nothing about primary elections. So after the primary elections were through the blacks could vote, however, there was basically only one canidate to vote for.
  • Integration of the armed forces

    Integration of the armed forces
    In 1948 President Truman gave the order to the secretary of defence to end segregation in the armed forces. Throughout the next year discrimination took a miracluous decline in the armed forces allowing the army, navy, airforce, etc. to work as effectivley as possible.
  • Brown vs Board of Education 1

    Brown vs Board of Education 1
    In 1954 a case named, Brown vs Board of Education, went to the supreme court. This case was that it should be illegal so separate the races and segregate or even discriminate against them in school. That white and colored children should be able to attended the same school with equal opportunities. This case was filed against the Board of Education of Topeka Kansas. The result was that it was made illegal to have separate schools to separate the races.
  • Brown vs Board of Education 2

    This decision overturned the Plessey vs Ferguson case, this case said it was legal to spate the races as long as equal facilities were provided. (info and picture)
  • Rosa Parks and the Mongomery Bus Boycott 1

    Rosa Parks and the Mongomery Bus Boycott 1
    Rosa Parks became a famous American icon for her courage to stand up against the flow of things, for what she believed in. Her famous moment came when she was sitting on the bus and a white passenger ordered her to remove herself from her seat and stand for the white passenger to sit. She didn’t break out in rage or anger, she simply declined the order and calmly remained seated. The police were notified and Rosa Parks was arrested for not giving up her seat to a white passenger.
  • Rosa Parks and the Mongomery Bus Boycott 3

    The police reacted by arresting blacks for just about any possible way. They arrested blacks for simply walking too slow, or loitering while waiting to be picked up by a friend. Some cases even report blacks were arrested for being harassed by whites. They were arrested because they were causing unnecessary violence by taking abuse for the white tormenters. One day Dr. King’s house was attacked with his wife and children in it, however, they were thankfully left unharmed.
  • Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott 2

    This arrest gained interest from many people , one of which being the famous Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Dr. King began organizing a non-violent protest against the bus company that Rosa Parks was arrested on. So during one December day the plan came into action. Nearly every African American walked, rode bikes, or drove cars on this day. There were so few African Americans riding the buses it was blatantly obvious they were protesting.
  • Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott 4

    Protests like these lasted in Montgomery until the Supreme Court ruled it illegal to segregate the races on the bus. (for info and picture)
  • Change to Georgia's State Flag 1

    Change to Georgia's State Flag 1
    In 1956 the State of Georgia had a highly controversial change of their flag. The new flag held some of the qualities of the previous flag; however, in addition to these qualities the confederate flag was added. Some people thought this resembled southern heritage, or possibly as a celebration for the centennial of the civil war. Others thought this was strictly symbolism for racism, and retaliation as the ruling of the Brown vs Board of Education case.
  • Change to Georgia's State Flag 2

    Georgia was strongly against this decision and did not want to integrate their school and mix the races rather than segregate them. There was probably more factual data behind the racism component of these beliefs. In fact the legislation held an entire session devoted to discuss Governor Marvin Griffin’s idea of “massive resistance.” This was to strongly resist the decision of the court and try not to integrate any of Georgia’s schools.
  • Change to Georgia's State Flag 3

    These controversies continued for a few decades with no major retaliations of any kind until in 2001 the state changed its flag to try and please both sides of the controversy. However this flag was no huge success either and was changed in 2004 to the flag we have today. (for info and picture)
  • Little Rock Nine web and picture link

  • Crisis at Central Highschool and the "Little Rock Nine" 1

    Crisis at Central Highschool and the "Little Rock Nine" 1
    On this date African American students attempted to attend an all white highschool. The governer of Arkansas, Orval Faubus, denied them entry. The National Guard stopped them when they attempted to enter. Also white students, as well as non-students, verbally assaulted the students and thretened to lynch them. This became kown as The Crisis at Central Highschool. They students were determined to perservere though.
  • Crisis at Central Highschool and "The Little Rock Nine" 2

    After the "Brown vs Board of Education Case" it was no longer legal to segregate races within the school system, so nine black students were registered and accepted into the school system. The students of the Little Rock Nine were: Elizabeth Eckford, Ernest Green, Terrence Roberts, Jefferson Thomas, Carlotta Walls LaNier, Minnijean Brown, Gloria Ray Karlmark, Melba Pattillo Beals, and Thelma Mothershed. The students were assisted by the governer and national guard and attended school that day.
  • Hebrew Benevolent Congregation in ATL bombed web links

    The Temple was bombed beacuase the Rabi was a friend of Dr.King and a civil rights activist. (for info and picture)
  • Hebrew Benevolent Congregation in ATL bombed

    Hebrew Benevolent Congregation in ATL bombed
    This event took place on 1958, 50 sticks of Dynamite were implanted in the Jewish Temple in Atlanta, Georgia. While there was a massive explosion not a single person was injured. The media did its best to help raise awareness of this event and the temple received donations and was repair in no time. While this even didn't have a particularly violent nature it rattled memory's for the Jewish community such as the lynching of Leo Frank and the Holocaust.
  • Sibley Commission 1

    Sibley Commission 1
    In 1960 the Sibley commission as created by John Sibley. Its sole purpose was to examine the issue of school integration. One of their sources of information to study came from interviews. After their interview concluded they found that an astonishingly high number of Georgians would like the schools to completely be closed rather than be integrated. The general assembly actually voted to have funding cut off to any public school that integrated.
  • Sibley Commission 2

    . This was all an issue the government did not want to get involved in so they put the privilege, of deciding whether or not a certain school should be integrated, on the school systems. As a result of this many private schools opened because they did not have to abide by the same rules as public schools since the school was not funded by the government. (for info and picture)
  • Freedom Rides 3

    In November of that year the Interstate Commerce Commission made rules that prohibited segregated interstate transportation. rides.htm (information and picture)
  • Albany Movement 1

    Albany Movement 1
    In 1961 a group of 3 SNCC workers, which stands for Student Nonviolent Coordinating Community, convinced members of the community of Albany, Georgia to test out the laws in place about segregation. Protests held marches and were arrested in mass quantities. Eventually freedom riders showed up and took their posts on the buses and were also arrested.
  • Freedom Rides 2

    These rides were gaining publicity fast and news was spreading of how the black were being illegally tormented. Other groups began organizing their own freedom rides. Possibly the most famous ride was the bus that traveled from Birmingham to Montgomery. When the riders arrived in Montgomery nearly 1,000 white protesting beat and verbally abused them. This event gained massive attention throughout the nation.
  • Integration of The University of Georgia 1

    Integration of The University of Georgia 1
    In 1961 Hamilton Holmes and Charlayne Hunter, two black, model students, had been denied entry to UGA several times because the University claimed it did not have enough dormitories to house the students, even though they clearly did. So after denied admission several times the students sued the school. The University testified that these were not the kind of students that the university was looking for, even though they were clearly brilliant and had crystal clear records.
  • Integration of The University of Georgia 2

    Judge William Bootle ruled that Holmes and Hunter must be admitted into the school. This caused mass rumors that the school may possibly close and other insane ideas. However the school remained open and the Hunter and Holmes settled into their dormitories. Massive crowds of students, citizens, and even members of the Ku-Klux-Klan gathered throughout the university and around the dorms of the newly admitted black students.
  • Integration of The University of Georgia 3

    They shouted insults, shattered windows, and even started a couple a small fires. This crowd was eventually broken up by tear gas and fire hoses. After this the students still faced discrimination in their daily lives at school but not anywhere near the amount that was exerted upon them that day. After this more backs and other races joined the University and the University of Georgia became integrated.
  • Albany Movement 2

    Blacks continued to be arrested and arrested in massive crowds, it is recorded nearly 1,000 blacks were arrested in Albany alone between the years of 1961- 1962 due to this movement. Among these arrests the Martin Luther King Jr. After being bailed out of jail several times Dr. king accepted defeat, he could not accomplish the goal of desegregating the community of Albany because the case movement didn’t gain enough publicity and support.
  • Albany Movement 3

    The most positive effect that emerged from this movement is considered by many, how Dr Kings’ defeat would later help him to succeed in the Birmingham protests. Also racial tension was eased in the community of Albany and some blacks were even voted into the local government offices. (info and picture)
  • Integration of UGA web links

  • Freedom Rides 1

    Freedom Rides 1
    In 1961 a group called CORE organized “Freedom Rides”, these rides were to see if the police would actually enforce the ruling of the “Boynton v. Virginia” case which made it illegal to segregate the races on interstate travel, such as by bus or train. So as these bold riders sat in the front rows of interstate bus rides they were sometimes ignored. However a more common outcome was the blacks would be brutally beaten and segregated against.
  • Birmingham, AL Protests 2

    Rioting got so out of hand the city went into a state of crisis, so many balcks were jailed it took nearly 4 hours to serve breakfast. Nearly all bussinesses weren't operating and the people had began to act hostile towards anyone who spoke to them. Birmingham became, most likley, the most racially segregated city in the nation. Eventually the bussiness owners and citizens of the city agreed to most the protesters demands and desegregation slowly crept in on the city.
  • Birmingham, AL protests web link

  • Birmingham, AL protests 1

    Birmingham, AL protests 1
    On 1963 black highschool and college students protested the unequal treatment of blacks in Birmingham, with the help and Dr.King and his supporters. Non-violent protests such as freedom rides and sit ins were held. After balck youths started being arrested in mass crowds and otheres were sprayed with firehoses these protests starting gaining nation wide media coverage. Also Dr.King was jailed during this campaign. During that time he wrote his famous "letter from Birmingham Jail."
  • The March on Washington 1

    The March on Washington 1
    On 1963 JFK proposed a civil rights bill and in order to show support for the bill every major civil rights activist group joined together for massive rallies in Washington. Leaders delivered speeches and preformed songs, nearly 250,000 people attended the march. This event also attracted numerous news stations and other media’s attention. It clearly accomplished the purpose to show the support if the bill and was a huge success.
  • The March on Washington 2

    Also as a closing to the event Dr. King gave perhaps the most famous speech of the civil rights movement, “I Have a Dream.” (information) (picture)
  • 16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham bombed 2

    This was because a few days earlier he had been quoting in saying Alabama need a few "first class funerals" to stop the desegregation of Alabama. However, witnesses later came fourth and said it was Robet Chambliss who placed the box containing 122 sticks of dynomite under the church. (information and picture)
  • 16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham bombed 1

    16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham bombed 1
    In 1963 while the 16th street Baptist church was in session a man placed a box under the steps of the church and quickly drove off, around an hour later the box exploded killing 4 young lady’s, Denise McNair, Cynthia Wesley, Carole Robertson, and Addie Mae Collins. Nearly 25 others were also harmed from the explosion. As an initial reaction everyone blamed the governor of Alabama, George Wallace, for the bombing.
  • John F. Kennedy assassinated 2

    This was bacause we were currently in the cold war with Russia. After the initial shock and confusion passed Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson took Kennedy's place in office and the world went back to its normal self, just slightly dazed. (information and picture)
  • John F. Kennedy assassinated 1

    John F. Kennedy assassinated 1
    On 1963 in Dallas, Texas the nation was shocked when president John F. Kennedy was shot and killed while coasting in a Limo greeting the public with his wife and the governer of Texas. There are many theory's as to what acyually happened but the initial statement was that Lee Harvy Oswald had shot and killed the Preident by himslef. Harvey was than shot and killed by Jack Ruby before Oswald had a trial held. After this other theories spawned that maybe Russia had played a role in the Shooting.
  • Civil Rights Act 1964 passed

    Civil Rights Act 1964 passed
    This act was passed by President Lyndon B. Johnson and was origionally proposed by President Kennedfy, it made discrimination towards blacks and woman illegal. It ended segregation when voting, at work, as well as at schools. Blacks and oman gained more respect and athourity after this act was passed. There was major resistance form the south though and this chnged the hands of political thinking in the south form the Democratic Party to the Republican Party.
  • Civil rights act passed web links

  • Voting Rights Act of 1965 passed

    Voting Rights Act of 1965 passed
    The 89th United states congress put into effect the Voting Rights act on August 6, 1965. This Act outlawed unconstitutional voting practices against blacks. These practices included many Jim Crow laws like the Grandfather clause, the poll tax, and the literacy test. (information and picture)
  • Summerhill Race Riot (Atlanta)

    Summerhill Race Riot (Atlanta)
    In 1966 Summerhill, Atlanta was the home of a four day span of riots. This was due to the leader of SNCC, Stokley Carmicheal, claiming there to have been Police Brutally towards blacks. This was a little alarming in Atlanta because there had been substancial political black influence and power in Atlanta for a whie. After many throwings of stones there was 1 death and 20 injuries. (information) (pic)
  • MLK assassinated 2

    This launched a world wide manhunt for Ray and he was arrested at London Heathrow Airport. Dr. King's day of birth, April Fourth, has since become a national holiday.,_Jr (information and picture)
  • MLK assassinated 1

    MLK assassinated 1
    On this date 39 year old Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. was shot in, the bullet entered through his jaw and neck and he fell to the floor. He was rushed to the hospitle and was pronounced dead about an hour later. After the Authorities held an investigation it was concluded that James Earl Ray had checked into a motel across from the Lorraine Motel, whcih was where Dr.King was staying, and had shot him.
  • all GA schools integrated

    all GA schools integrated
    After many riots, sit ins, and bus rides the nation was coming to a time of racial ease, segregation was slowly stopping. In fact Georgia finally let the races mix within the school system. It became clear that in order for the nation to move foward and prospere segregation must end. So on 1971 all georgia public schools becamde integrated and colored and white children mixed in harmony.