Civil Rights 1860 - 1980

  • Lincoln signs the Emancipation Proclamation

    Lincoln signs the Emancipation Proclamation
    President Lincoln signs the EmancipationProclamation, freeing over 3,000,000 slaves is the USA.
  • Freedmen's Bureau Act

    Government body set up to support freed slaves.
  • 13th amendment becomes law.

    13th amendment becomes law.
    The 13th amendment officially abolished slavery across America.
  • KKK were founded.

  • Civil Rights Act

    Was introduced to create the equatily of African-Americans with other American citizens. However, it didn't work as well as the 14th amendment that followed because there was no guaranteed way that it would be enforced.
  • 14th amendment was passed as law.

    14th amendment was passed as law.
    This amendment gave citizenship to those "born or naturalized in the USA". It also gave equal protection under the law to all citizens.
  • First Enforcement Act

    This was first introduced in 1870 to help protect Black voters from groups like the KKK.
  • 15th amendment becomes law.

    15th amendment becomes law.
    Gave all citizens the right to vote, regardless of their race etc..
  • First enforcement act

    This was introduced to protect black voters.
  • Second enforcement act

    This meant that elections taking place in the southern states would be supervised by federal agents/agencies.
  • Third enforcment act

    Federal troops were given the authority to arrest KKK or (suspected) members - This doesn't last long as it breaks consitutional law.
  • Civil Rights Act

    It was designed to end discrimination and segregation.
  • Supreme courts gets rid of the Civil Right Act (1875)

    Supreme courts gets rid of the Civil Right Act (1875)
    (Sometime during this year, can't find exact date)
    After cases fought out in the supreme court is was decided that the Civil Right Act (1875) didn't apply as the 14th amendment only applied to governments and not individuals.
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    Jim Crow Laws

    These were laws, mainly passed in the southern states, that were used to segregate African-Americans from White Americans. For example a lot of states introduced seperate schools, and prevented Black people from attending the same theatre as White people etc...
  • Plessy v Ferguson - Supreme Court.

    Plessy v Ferguson - Supreme Court.
    Homer Plessy, who was mixed race, challenged the Louisiana railroad company for creating segregated railroad cars.
    The court decided that these seperated cars for whites and black were legitimate, as they were 'seperate but equal'
  • Williams v Mississippi - Supreme Court

    Williams v Mississippi - Supreme Court
    During this case the new voting restrictions that had been introduced by Mississippi in 1890 the court decided to keep and uphold these new restrictions. This then prompted other states like Louisiana to introduce the 'grandfather clause'. This stated that a person could only vote is his grandfather had the vote. This meant that most of the African-American population were excluded from having the vote.
  • The NAACP is founded.

    The NAACP is founded.
    The NAACP was founded in the first half of 1909. It stands for National Association for the Advancement of Coloured People,
  • KKK refounded at Stone Mountain, Georgia.

    Willam Simmons refounded the KKK.
  • UNIA founded by Marcus Garvey.

    UNIA founded by Marcus Garvey.
    Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) was founded.
  • KKK march on Washington D.C and other cities.

    This was the KKK's first national demonstration. During this the infamous burning crosses reappeared terrorising people. Beatings, mutalations and murders also increased. As well as this they had a large amount of widespread support from states like Oklahoma and Oregon.
  • James Farmer sets up the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE)

  • 'Smith vs Allright'

    'Smith vs Allright'
    outlawed the white primary in Texas. This lead to the number if black people who were registered as voters to rise from 2% to 12%. A white primary was were only white people had been allowed preliminary vote to choose canditates for election.
  • Truman introduces Executive Order 9981

    This outlaws segregation within the US military forces.
  • First year without a Lynching since 1881

  • Brown v Board of Education

    Brown v Board of Education
    Linda Brown had to walk 20 bloacks to shcool, even though there was a perfectly good school down the road. Her father, oliver Brown, took the board of education to court. "Public education segregation denies blacks equal rights under the law". So Topeka board of education had to end sergregation in it's schools.
  • Rosa Parks arrested for refusing to give up her bus seat to a while man.

  • Period: to

    Montgomery Bus Boycott

    This last 381 days and is sparked off by the arrest of Rosa Parks. Significant as it saw the rise of Martin Luther King and ended segregation on buses as it was deemed 'unconstitutional'
  • NAACP banned in Alabama.

  • Civil Rights Act.

    This wanted somewhere in the justice department to investigate the abuse of civil rights, i.e. Poll taxes.
  • Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) founded.

    Organistation that fully supported Civil Rights. Headed by Martin Luther King.
  • Eisenhower deploys Federal troops to protect black students in Little Rock, Arkansas

    Eisenhower deploys Federal troops to protect black students in Little Rock, Arkansas
    After segregation in schools ends in 1954, 9 black students enrol into Little Rock High School, Little Rock, Arkansas. To stop this the Arkansas Governor sends in the Arkansas National Guard to prevent the students from entering the school. So, Eisenhower sends in Federal troops to counteract the National Guard and allow the 'Little Rock Nine' to attend school
  • 'Boynton vs Virgina'

    'Boynton vs Virgina'
    This disallowed Southern states to segregate inter-state travel on buses.
  • Civil Rights Act.

    allow judges to make appointment of those that would help blacks get on the voting register. brought in Federal criminal penalties for bombings and mob action.
  • Student sit-ins in Greensboro, North Carolina.

    4 black college students enter Wooloworths and sit down at the 'all white' lunch counter. When they asked to be served they were refused and asked to leave. They were inspired by the Martin Luther King's 'non-violent' support. This then sparked a wave of student sit-in protests at lunch counters. By Feb 7th 1960 there had been 54 sit ins in 15 cities in 9 states across the South.
  • Kennedy sends in troops to aid James Meredith.

    James Meredith was the first black student to attend the University of Mississippi. When he arrives to enrol into the univeristy riots break out, so to aid James Meredith and allow him to attend university, Kennedy send in Federal troops to control the situation.
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    Events of Birmingham, Alabama.

    Segregation happened in Brimingham on a large scale. It was only a small town with 350,000 people, 140,000 of those were black. King and the SCLC arrived in Birmingham demanding desegregation. First the sit-in protestors were arrested, then the marches, which lead to marches being banned on the 10 April. King then defied this ban and is arrested but is released.. Dogs and Firehoses are set on the demonstators in retaliation. Eventually degregration was agreed to be gradually introduced.
  • Civil Rights Act.

    Deemed that discrimination based on race, sex etc would been illegal.
  • 24th amendment.

    abolishes poll taxes on votes.
  • Malcolm X assassinated.

    Shot several times at the Audubon Ballroom, New York.
  • Dr. Martin Luther King jr. assassination.

    Shot in the neck while stood on his hotel balcony in Memphis, Tennesse. James Eark Ray is found guilty and is sentenced to 99 years in prision.
  • Black History month founded.