Chinese Revolution History-1898 to 1949

  • 100 Days of Reform

    100 Days of Reform
    With the aid of progressive advisor Kang Youwei, Emperor Guangxu initiated various reforms to modernise China. After only 103 days, Empress Dowager Cixi and her conservative allies ended the reforms, exiling/executing the reformers and placing Guangxu under house arrest.
  • The Boxer Uprising

    The Boxer Uprising
    The Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists, known as the “Boxers”, launch a rebellion against the foreigners inside China. The Boxers moved throughout China, attacking all associated with Western culture. Initially paralysed by indecision, Cixi soon sided with the Boxers. The foreign forces prevailed in the end, defeating both the Boxers and the Imperial soldiers, forcing the humiliated Cixi and Guangxu to sign the Boxer Protocol and flee from Beijing to the Shaanxi Province.
  • Beginng of New Government Reforms

    Beginng of New Government Reforms
    Cixi and her administration, in the wake of their recent defeat in the Boxer Rebellion, initiate a number of reforms. These were overall quite similar to those included in the 100 Days of Reform, and is often referred to as the “New Government” period. These reforms continued to approximately 2009.
  • Death of Cixi and Gunagxu

    Death of Cixi and Gunagxu
    Emperor Guangxu suspiciously passes away due to arsenic poisoning, leaving some to assume that Cixi was responsible. The following day, as a result of being unwell from dysentery, Empress Dowager Cixi passes away. Her three year old grand-nephew Pu Yi takes the throne, with his father Prince Chun acting as regent.
  • The Double Tenth Revolution

    The Double Tenth Revolution
    The united forces of the New Army and the Tongmenghui begin an armed uprising against the Qing Dynasty. Famous general Yuan Shikai betrays the Qing and unites with Sun Yat-sen to defeat the regime. They overthrow the Qing but allow them to remain within Beijing.
  • Establishment of a Provisional Republican Government

    Establishment of a Provisional Republican Government
    Sun Yat-sen is inaugurated as the provisional president of Republican China, with Li Yuanhong taking the role of vice president.
  • Yuan Shikai Becomes President of Republican China

    Yuan Shikai Becomes President of Republican China
    Sun Yat-sen steps down as president of China on the 14th of February 1912, allowing Yuan Shikai to take his place on the condition that he secures the abdication of the Qing Emperor.
  • Foundation of the Guomindang

    Foundation of the Guomindang
    Sun Yat-sen and Song Jiaoren found the GMD; the ruling political party of China.
  • Beginning of the New Culture Movement

    Beginning of the New Culture Movement
    The intellectual populace of China begin a “flow of intellectual energy”; a series of changing educational ideas and mindsets collectively known as the New Culture Movement. It lasts approximately four years.
  • The Twenty-One Demands

    The Twenty-One Demands
    Japan presents twenty-one demands to Yuan Shikai, a series of requests that grant Japan extensive rights to certain parts of China, in response to Yuan Shikai’s various debts to Japan. Yuan rejects only some of the demands, accepting the economic conditions. The Chinese populace is generally outraged as a result, establishing a “Day of Shame” for the7th of May.
  • Yuan Shikai Declares Himself as Emperor

    Yuan Shikai Declares Himself as Emperor
    After declaring himself Emperor, mass outrage towards Yuan Shikai follows. Internationally he is essentially not recognised as Emperor, and even his closest generals and allies agree that he is overstepping his bounds. Yuan Shikai renounces his claims on the 22nd of March the same year.
  • Death of Yuan Shikai

    Death of Yuan Shikai
    Yuan Shikai falls increasingly ill and succumbs to kidney failure. His death sparks the “Warlord Period” where China becomes effectively divided between both the centralised authority and the various warlords.
  • Formation of the Chinese Communist Party

    Formation of the Chinese Communist Party
    Dutchman Hendricus Sneevliet helps organise some of the Marxists of China, helping form China’s first Communist Party. Chen Duxiu is elected as secretary-general to lead the party.
  • The Sun-Joffe Declaration and the United Front

    The Sun-Joffe Declaration and the United Front
    Sun Yat-sen and Adolf Joffe organise an alliance between the communists of Russia and the communists of China. The various forces united in order to re-stablish control of China.
  • The Northern Expedition Begins

    The Northern Expedition Begins
    Led by General Chiang Kai-shek, The Northern Expedition was a campaign to unify all of China under the Guomindang. They effectively targeted the communists, Beijing government and the warlords.
  • Nanchang Uprising

    Nanchang Uprising
    The Communist forces briefly capture the city of Nanchang with an army of approximately thirty-thousand soldiers. They held it for merely four days before being forced to retreat.
  • The Shanghai Massacre

    The Shanghai Massacre
    Chiang Kai-shek’s administration led a massacre on between 5000 and 10,000 communists and unionists. This was viewed as a greatly authoritarian move on Chiang’s part, and greatly wounded the communist party.
  • Autumn Harvest Uprising

    Autumn Harvest Uprising
    Mao’s Communist forces in Hunan attempted to seize the capital of Changsha, but failed brutally after seizing only a few towns. Mao was captured, but managed to escape.
  • End of the Northern Expedition

    End of the Northern Expedition
    The GMD eventually capture most of China under their control, establishing the Nanjing government under the fascist Chiang Kai-shek.
  • The Manchurian Incident

    The Manchurian Incident
    With the intention of invading into Manchuria, Japan staged a bombing in order for an excuse for war and occupation. Japan proceeded to encroach on Chinese territory.
  • The Long March Begins

    The Long March Begins
    Due to Chiang attacking the Jiangxi Soviet, Mao leads the remaining communist forces on a massive yearlong retreat in an attempt to relocate the party.
  • The Battle of Luding Bridge

    The Battle of Luding Bridge
    A large battle between the Communists and the Nationalists occurred at Luding Bridge as the Communists attempted to elude the greater nationalist forces. The Communists emerged victorious despite some casualties, ensuring their survival.
  • End of the Long March

    End of the Long March
    7000-8000 of the initial 100,000 communists end up surviving the Long March, setting up a soviet base at the town of Yan’an. More and more communist arrive at Yan’an and it effectively becomes the Communist capital under the leadership of Mao.
  • The Second United Front

    The Second United Front
    The Communists and Nationalist united in order to repel the Japanese invaders. Yan’an is treated as an autonomous region of the Republic.
  • The Second Sino-Japanese War Begins

    The Second Sino-Japanese War Begins
    Japanese and Chinese troops clash at the Marco Polo Bridge for reasons unknown. Japan uses this skirmish as an excuse to launch a full scale invasion of China.
  • The Nanjing Incident

    The Nanjing Incident
    Over a six week period after capturing Nanjing, Japanese forces rape, murder and pillage their way through the city, killing over 300,000 people. This event is widely considered to be one of the most brutal incidents in the war.
  • Japan Surrenders

    Japan Surrenders
    As a result of the nuclear bombs dropped upon them by the USA, Japan surrenders its involvement in its wars. As a result, the GMD and Communists began their full-scale fighting again.
  • Chinese Civil War Begins

    Chinese Civil War Begins
    The GMD and Communists begin fighting for control of China, despite some attempts to broker a peace treaty. Internationally, the GMD is generally more recognised as the true Chinese rulers.
  • Chiang resigns as president and Flees

    Chiang resigns as president and Flees
    After losing to the point where the Communists no longer required guerrilla warfare and had taken several cities, Chiang flees China and heads to Taiwan. He leaves Li Zongren in charge, but Li ultimately fails at negotiating with the Communists.
  • Declaration of the PRC

    Declaration of the PRC
    Mao addresses a massive crowd in Tiananmen Square in Beijing, declaring the foundation of the People’s Republic of China.