China and its Colonial Period (early 19th century - 1950s)

By amariri
  • Period: to

    China and its Colonial Period

  • The Opium War

    The Opium War
    On March 10, 1839, Lin Tse-hsü proclaimed that the opium trade would no longer be tolerated in Canton, and he began arresting known opium dealers in the local schools and naval barracks. Those found guilty of purchasing, possessing or selling opium were sentenced to public execution by strangulation. “Let no one think,” Lin proclaimed, “that this is only a temporary effort on behalf of the Emperor. We will persist until the job is finished.”
  • China's Fallen Reputation

    China’s position in the world and self-image is reversed in a mere 100 year period (c.a. 1840-1940) from leading civilization to subjected and torn country.
  • The Taiping Rebellion

    The Taiping Rebellion
    Taiping Rebellion, (1850–64), radical political and religious upheaval that was probably the most important event in China in the 19th century. It ravaged 17 provinces, took an estimated 20,000,000 lives, and irrevocably altered the Qing dynasty (1644–1911/12).
  • China's Downfall

    China's Downfall
    By the late 1800s, China is said to be “carved up like a melon” by foreign powers competing for “spheres of influence” on Chinese soil.
  • American Delegation Arrives in Japan

    American Delegation Arrives in Japan
    On July 8, 1853, American Commodore Matthew Perry led his four ships into the harbor at Tokyo Bay, seeking to re-establish for the first time in over 200 years regular trade and discourse between Japan and the western world.
  • Era of Self Strengthening

    Era of Self Strengthening
    From the 1860-1894 onward, the Chinese attempt reform efforts to meet the military and political challenge of the West. China searches for ways to adapt Western learning and technology while preserving Chinese values and Chinese learning. Reformers and conservatives struggle to find the right formula to make China strong enough to protect itself against foreign pressure, but they are unsuccessful in the late 1800s.
  • Sino-Japanese War

    Sino-Japanese War
    China finds its traditional power relationship with Japan reversed in the late 19th century, especially after its defeat by Japan in the Sino-Japanese war in 1894-95 over influence in Korea. The Japanese, after witnessing the treatment of China by the West and its own experience of near-colonialism in 1853, successfully establish Japan as a competitor with Western powers for colonial rights in Asia and special privileges in China.
  • The Boxer Rebellion

    The Boxer Rebellion
    The Boxer Rebellion, Boxer Uprising or Yihetuan Movement was a violent anti-foreign and anti-Christian movement which took place in China between 1899 and 1901. It was initiated by the Righteous Harmony Society (Yihetuan) and was motivated by proto-nationalist sentiments and opposition to foreign imperialism and Christianity. The Great Powers intervened and defeated Chinese forces, in a humiliation for China.
  • Russo-Japanese War

    Russo-Japanese War
    The Russo-Japanese War developed out of the rivalry between Russia and Japan for dominance in Korea and Manchuria. In 1898 Russia had pressured China into granting it a lease for the strategically important port of Port Arthur (now Lü-shun), at the tip of the Liaotung Peninsula, in southern Manchuria.
  • Reublican Revolution

    Reublican Revolution
    In the Nineteenth Century, the Qing Empire faced a number of challenges to its rule, including a number of foreign incursions into Chinese territory. The two Opium Wars against Western powers led by Great Britain resulted in the loss of Hong Kong, forced opening of “treaty ports” for international trade, and large foreign “concessions” in major cities privileged with extraterritorial rule.
  • Establishment of Republic of China

    Establishment of Republic of China
    Establishment of Republic of China. Yuan Shikai becomes first President.
  • National People's Party

    National People's Party
    Sun Yat-sen establishes the "National People's Party". Nationalists win first (and only) fully democratic national election in China -- Yuan Shikai dissolves new parliament.
  • Rise of Japanese Power

    Rise of Japanese Power
    Reduced influence of Europe in East Asia. Rise of Japanese power in China. Also the start of WW1
  • Twenty-One Demands

    Twenty-One Demands
    Japan issues the "Twenty-One Demands"
  • Yuan Shikai's Death

    Yuan Shikai's Death
    Yuan Shikai dies
  • Communist Revolution in Russia

    Communist Revolution in Russia
    In 1917, two revolutions completely changed the fabric of Russia. First, the February Russian Revolution toppled the Russian monarchy and established a Provisional Government. Then in October, a second Russian Revolution placed the Bolsheviks as the leaders of Russia, resulting in the creation of the world's first communist country.
  • Warlord Decade

    Warlord Decade
    From 1917-1927, National government in Beijing in hands of loyalists of northers "Warlord" strongmen. Warlord Decade. Rapid dissemination of Western political, social, and artistic ideas in urban center. Lu Xun composes "Kong Yiji" and other fiction of social criticism.
  • Terms of the Versailles Peace Treaty

    Terms of the Versailles Peace Treaty
    The Treaty of Versailles was the peace settlement signed after World War One had ended in 1918 and in the shadow of the Russian Revolution and other events in Russia. The treaty was signed at the vast Versailles Palace near Paris - hence its title - between Germany and the Allies. The three most important politicians there were David Lloyd George, Georges Clemenceau and Woodrow Wilson.
  • The May 4th Movement

    The May 4th Movement
    The May Fourth Movement was part cultural revolution, part social movement. On the cultural side, the students had been inspired in the preceding two decades by Western thought, creating a feeling of frustration and dissatisfaction with Chinese tradition. In the intellectual ferment that resulted from this, answers were sought for the questions why and how China had lagged behind the West.
  • Founding of the Chinese Communist Party

    Founding of the Chinese Communist Party
    The Communist Chinese Party (CCP) was founded in 1921 by Mao Zedong, who adapted the principles of Karl Marx and the experience in Russia to conditions particular to China. Mao had come of age during the “first revolution” in China in 1912, an era in which the Nationalist (KMT) party unseated the 3,000 year rule of the Qing Dynasty and formed the Republic of China under the leadership of Sun Yat-sen. Mao quickly became disillusioned with the weakness and corruption of the KMT as well as the pe
  • Second/Nationalist Revolution

    Second/Nationalist Revolution
    Northern Expedition-Purge of CCP by KMT. Culmination of "Second Revolution" (or "Nationalist Revolution"). Chiang Kai-shekconsolidates power within KMT
  • Mukden Incident

    Mukden Incident
    Japanese army stages phony "Mukden Incident" as pretext to invade all Manchuria and establish puppet state of Manchukuo (1932)
  • Xi'an Incident

    Xi'an Incident
    Xi'an Incident [Sian Incident]-- Chiang Kai-shek kidnapped by Zhang Xueliang. Chiang's release initiates KMT-CCP United Front against Japan (to 1942)
  • The War of Resistance Against Japan

    The War of Resistance Against Japan
    1937-1945. The War of Resistance Against Japan (World War II in East Asia) begins with Marco Polo Bridge Incident (7/7/37). KMT government retreats to Chongqing in southwest. Flight of refugees to Chongqing & Yan'an Joseph Stilwell commands American forces in China aiding KMT. "Dixie Mission" of US forces in Yan'an (1944-45)