APUSH Unit 7
The Homestead Act-Offered 160 acres of free land to settlers willing to pay a small fee and improve the land.
-Around 500,000 settlers headed west.
-Settlers often gave up due to drought or extreme weather.
Sand Creek Massacre-Col. J.M. Chivington's troops circled then killed 400 Indians who thought they'd been given immunity.
-Two years later, the Indians struck revenge in the Fetterman Massacre.
-These two encounters set up the terrible indian relations with the US.
National Labor Union-Lasted 6 years and had 600,000 members.
-Their goals were arbitration of worker complaints and an 8-hour work day.
-Ruined by the 1873 depression.
Treaty of Fort Laramie-Made between the federal government and the Sioux.
-The governmet gave up on the Bozeman Trail and a Sioux reservation was established.
Election of 1868-Republicans nominated Gen. Ulysses S. Grant. He had no political experience, but they hoped his war-hero status would help him win.
-Democrats were extremely disorganized, and agreed on very little. They nominated Horatio Seymour.
-Grant won by a slim margin by "waving the bloody shirt," simply reminding everyone of his military record.
-The tight win signaled two tings for future elections: 1-tighty run and hard fighting political parties, 2-narrow election margins of victory
Election of 1872-The Liberal Republican Party was formed. They nominaed Horace Greeley editor of the New York Tribune.
-Eager to gain office, the Democrats supported Greeley.
-Nasty campaign. the parties resorted to name-calling.
-Grant won the election, 286 to 66.
-Though they lost the elecion, Liberal Republicans scared the Republican Congress into passing some reforms.
Panic of 1873-started by over-spending with borrowed money, this time in railroads and factories. Growth was too fast and over-extended what the market could sustain.
-The causes of the panic were the same old ones that’d caused recessions every 20 years that century: (1) over-speculation (or over-spending) and (2) too-easy credit given by the banks.
-Initially, the panic was sparked when banks and businesses began to go bankrupt. The situation quickly snowballed from there.
Battle of Little Bighorn-"Custer's Last Stand"
-Sioux unwilling to go to the reservation, led by Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull
-Custer led about 400 men against around 10,000 indians
-200+ of Custer's men (including Custer himself) were killed.
-Sealed the Indian-white relationship as little better than warfare.
Election of 1876-Republicans nominated Rutherford B. Hayes, known as "the grat unknown"
-Democrats nominated Samuel Tilden, whose claim to fame was that he nailed Boss Tweed
-Tilden got 184 electoral votes out of the 185 needed to win.
-Both parties sent rep. into the 20 questionable states, and both claimed victories there.
-The election was at a stale-mate.
*See The Compromise of 1877 for results.
The Compromise of 1877-With a president needed, Congress passed the Electoral Count Act that set up a commission to resolve the crisis.
-The Republicans had the upper hand and were heading toward victory among the disputed states. Democrats were outraged and began to filibuster to tie up the process.
-Finally, a deal was made in the Compromise of 1877.
-The north got Rutherford B. Hayes elected as president.
-The south got a pledge that Hayes would remove military occupation in the south.
-This ended Reconstruction.
Election of 1880-Republicans nominated James A. Garfield, Garfield was a previously unnown candidate, but he came from Ohio.
-Democrats nominated Gen. Winfield Scott, the Civil War hero.
-Garfield won the election.
Knights of Labor-Sought workers cooperatives, better working conditions, and the 8-hour work day.
-Led by Terence V. Powderly, had 250,000 members.
-Achieved 8-hour work days in some areas.
-Membership declined after the "Haymarket Square Incident"
Garfield is Assasinated-Shot by Charles J. Guiteau.
-Vice-President Chester Arthur became President.
Chinese Exclusion Act-Chinese immigrants were angering the Irish by taking their jobs,
-Congress passed the act forbidding the Chinese from immigrating to the US.
-This was the first immigration restriction passed by America.
Election of 1884-Republicans nominated James G. Blaine.
-Reform-minded Republicans didn't lie Blaine so they moved to the Democrats side.("mugwumps")
-Democrats nominated Grover Cleveland.
-Despite "mudslinging" drama, Cleveland won the election,
American Federation of Labor-Started by Samuel Gompers.
-He sought what unions always seek: better wages, shorter hours, better working conditions.
-Gained 500,000 members.
Dawes Severalty Act-Goal was to erase tribes and to lead indians more toward "becoming white"
-Stated that indians could become US citizens after 25 years if they behaved correctly.
-The Carlisle Indian School aided in this process.
-Was highly successful and in effect until the Indian Reorganization Act was passed in 1934.
Sherman Anti-Trust Act-Was enacted in an attempt to outlaw monopolies.
-Law forbade combinations such as: 1- "pools" or cartels, 2-interlocing directorates, and 3- holding companies
-Was ineffective because proving combiations exist was difficut, and lacked enforcement.
Depression of 1893-First recession/depression of the Indusrial Age.
-Cleveland now had a budget deficit to deal with, and the nations gold supply was dangerously low.
-Congress repealed the Sherman Silver Purchase Act, and President Cleveland borrowed $65 million in gold from J.P. Morgan and friends.
Plessy v. Ferguson-Legalized Jim Crow laws.
-Stated that "sepaate but equal" facilities were legal.
Election of 1896-Republicans nominated William McKinley, was a "safe" choice
-Democrats nominated William Jennings Bryan, super speaer "boy orator of the Platte"
-McKinley won easily.
-This election decided: a) gold was decided as America's economic basis, b) was a victory for business, conservatives, and middle class values, and c) it started 16 years of Republican presidents.
Gold Standard Act-Stated that peopple could trade paper money for gold.
-Brought economic calm and stability.
Passage of the 18th Amendment-Banned alcohol in the US.
-Was short lived and was repealed by the 21st amendment.