APUSH Timeline

  • Albany Congress

    Albany Congress
    The Albany Congress was a meeting between the Iroquois and representatives from the thirteen colonies. The reason for this meeting was the French and the troubles they posed to both groups. The purpose of this meeting was to better the relationship between the colonists and Iroquois for their mutual benefit, and to form an alliance between the colonies. The latter idea was proposed by Benjamin Franklin, but it wasn't acted upon. The colonists had thought about coming together for the first time.
  • Treaty of Paris 1763

    Treaty of Paris 1763
    The Treaty of Paris 1763 ended the French and Indian War, which lasted from 1756-1763. This treaty made Britain acquire all of the French land in North America, as well as some of Spain's. They also acquired some Caribbean nations. This treaty also provided a sense of nationalism to the colonists, since they had helped the British win. The treaty was important because it vastly expanded Britain's hold on North America, and would lead to further westward expansion.
  • Proclamation of 1763

    Proclamation of 1763
    The Proclamation of 1763 prevented colonists from settling land they acquired from the French after the war. The British did this to try to prevent future problems with the natives and respect their land. Colonists were angry and upset because they fought for that land, and it was taken away from them. This showed the colonists that England was not taking their views into consideration, and it started the separation between the two groups.
  • Stamp Act of 1765

    Stamp Act of 1765
    This act taxed all paper in the colonies, leading to widespread revolt and outbursts. Benjamin Franklin's famous quote, "no taxation without representation," comes from this act. The Stamp Act led to the Stamp Act Congress, a group of delegates that challenged Parliament by saying they were intruding upon colonists' rights. The Sons of Liberty, a rebellious group of colonists that led anti-taxation movements, were also formed because of this act.
  • Boston Massacre

    Boston Massacre
    On March 5, 1770, colonists in Boston, Massachusetts were shot at by a group of British soldiers and five of them died. This attack was used as propaganda to unite the colonists against the British regime and pushed them further towards independence. Crispus Attucks, an African American who died during the attack, became known as the first black martyr.
  • Boston Tea Party

    Boston Tea Party
    The Boston Tea Party was the response by the Sons of Liberty in protest of the Tea Act of 1773. At night, they disguised themselves as Native Americans and infiltrated the Boston Harbor, and then dumped 342 crates of tea overboard, which is about $1.5 million dollars worth today. This led to the passing of the Coercive Acts, which further led to rebellion and unrest.
  • Coercive Acts

    Coercive Acts
    Also known as the Intolerable Acts, the Coercive Acts were four acts that were passed to punish the colonists for the Boston Tea Party. They closed Boston's port, stopped almost all town meetings, forced new barracks to be built for British troops, and allowed trials for crimes to be moved to a different colony (or Britain). These acts angered the colonists even more, and most of them now felt united against the British. The first Continental Congress would happen because of these acts.
  • Continental Congress

    Continental Congress
    The Continental Congress was a group of representatives from all the colonies except Georgia who met in response to the Coercive Acts. However, they all had different agendas: southerners wanted an economic boycott, northerners wanted political union and preparations for battle, and the others wanted compromise. Eventually, they settled on forming the Continental Association which oversaw the boycotting of British goods. The Continental Congress continued to serve as the colonies' lawful body.
  • Second Continental Congress

    Second Continental Congress
    The Second Continental Congress was the legislative body of the colonists throughout the war, and helped organize/lead the war effort. They established a Continental Army that would be led by George Washington, set up a paper currency, and sent the Olive Branch petition to King George III. This petition tried to persuade the king to settle things without war, but it failed. The colonies were officially at war, and this governing body had to bring everyone together if they wanted to win.
  • Lexington and Concord

    Lexington and Concord
    These two battles started the American Revolution. At Lexington, the British attempted to capture Samuel Adams and John Hancock and failed. At Concord, the British tried to capture important colonist weapons and resources but most of it had already been moved/destroyed. The famously known "shot heard 'round the world" was fired during the battles. Although the British won both times, the colonists were prepared to fight back and were determined to win the war.
  • Declaration of Independence

    Declaration of Independence
    The Declaration of Independence was an article stating the colonists' separation from Britain. It contained a list of their wrongdoings, and principles that the colonists believed in. The main author of it, Thomas Jefferson, successfully tied together the colonies' moral values and perspectives to show Britain that they were more than just colonies, they were a separate entity with their own ideals. All colonists were now involved in the war for independence.
  • Common Sense

    Common Sense
    Common Sense, written by Thomas Paine, was one of the most influential written works of the time period. It outlined everything wrong and unjust the British had done to the colonists, and advocated for American independence. Selling copies all around the colonies, this pamphlet spread like wildfire and influenced many to think about breaking away from Britain.
  • Battle of Saratoga

    Battle of Saratoga
    This battle was supposed to be a three-pronged attack on the Americans, but two of the three prongs got distracted or had to retreat. The last prong, led by General Burgoyne, was surrounded by American forces and forced to surrender. This American victory was a massive morale booster, and it allowed U.S. representatives in France to secure a military alliance with them. This battle was the turning point of the war.
  • Battle of Yorktown

    Battle of Yorktown
    In the last battle of the Revolutionary War, French and American forces surrounded General Cornwallis at Yorktown, Virginia. Cut off and outnumbered, Cornwallis was forced to surrender, handing America the victory. The British government broke, and peace negotiations eventually led to the Treaty of Paris of 1783. America had finally won its independence, and nationalism swept through the country. America was now tasked with a much larger issue: how to build a country.
  • Articles of Confederation

    Articles of Confederation
    The Articles of Confederation was America's first attempt at a governing document, and it failed. It essentially gave each state the power, and gave America a common defense, but they couldn't tax their citizens to fund anything and there was no executive and judicial body. However, they could declare war, make treaties, and borrow and print money. The Articles were a solid first attempt at building a country, but they failed to answer the needs of the citizens on a national level.
  • The Constitution

    The Constitution
    The Constitution solved all the problems that the Articles of Confederation didn't, and expanded upon others. It gave the government the power to tax, have an army and navy, make laws that applied to all the states, and regulate commerce between the states and other nations. It also established the Senate and the House of Representatives in the Great Compromise. The Federalists and Anti-Federalists fought over its ratification, but it was eventually ratified in 1788.
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    George Washington (none)

  • Bill of Rights

    Bill of Rights
    The Bill of Rights were ten amendments made to the Constitution to appease the Anti-Federalists, and to address problems that the ratification process had brought up. James Madison was the one to draft all of them, and they essentially were all about protecting individual rights such as speech and religion, and addressing the balance between federal and state power. These were important because they cleared up certain rights the people would have and gave some direction to the government.
  • Hamilton's Financial Plan

    Hamilton's Financial Plan
    Alexander Hamilton was the secretary of the treasury, and he was tasked with fixing the economy after the war. The first part of his plan was to make the country credit-worthy by having the federal government assume all state debts to fund the national debt. The second part of his plan involved establishing a national bank, which would provide stability to the economy. The final part established taxes and tariffs, and the urge to expand manufacturing. His plan worked, and the economy expanded.
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    John Adams (Federalist)

  • Election of 1800

    Election of 1800
    The Election of 1800 between John Adams and Thomas Jefferson was harsh and revolutionary. Even after Adams' problems with the XYZ affair, he and his party still managed to attack Jefferson and paint him as the bad guy. However, Jefferson narrowly won (after settling the tie with Aaron Burr) and turned the tide of the country. This election was important because it showed everyone that power could be shifted without bloodshed, even with differing political parties.
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    Thomas Jefferson (Democratic-Republican)

  • Marbury v. Madison

    Marbury v. Madison
    This court case found that the Judiciary Act of 1789 didn't align with the Constitution. William Marbury, who was one of Adams' midnight appointees, was supposed to be put on the Supreme Court but James Madison didn't want to deliver his commission. Under the Judiciary Act he should've been appointed, but a certain clause conflicted with the Constitution so the Supreme Court denied his appointment. In doing so, they established the principle of judicial review, something that is relevant today.
  • Louisiana Purchase

    Louisiana Purchase
    Jefferson was put in a dilemma with this purchase because there was nothing in the Constitution about adding new territory, which forced him to act on his own accord. However, he did what was best for the country and bought the land from Napoleon Bonaparte for only $15 million dollars ($500 million dollars today) which was very cheap for that much land. Although Jefferson only wanted New Orleans, he made a purchase that almost doubled the size of the U.S., leading to more opportunities.
  • Steamboat Invention

    Steamboat Invention
    The invention of the steamboat revolutionized the way the U.S. economy and transportation worked. It allowed farmers to trade products all the way down in New Orleans and other places, as well as gave people the opportunity to travel and move around on America's vast river system. Because the steamboat was not limited to just going downstream, it expanded transportation and economic growth significantly, and allowed people to communicate more easily.
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    James Madison (Democratic-Republican)

  • Battle of New Orleans

    Battle of New Orleans
    Although the Treaty of Ghent had already been signed, word of it had not reached the United States yet. A battle started at New Orleans, and General Jackson easily destroyed the attacking British forces. Jackson was claimed as a hero after winning the last battle of the War of 1812, a war that had started because of Britain's indirect attacks on the U.S. Andrew Jackson would later be elected as president after serving as a popular military general.
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    James Monroe (Democratic-Republican)

  • The American System

    The American System
    In the election of 1824, the American System was what Henry Clay based his candidacy on. This mercantilist system would strengthen the bank, raise tariffs, and make internal improvements across the country. However, Clay did not win but it didn't matter because it was adopted by John Quincy Adams, the winner of the election. The American System was very important because it would allow the country to be self-sufficient economically and balance the different aspects of its economy.
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    John Quincy Adams (Democratic-Republican)

  • Tariff of Abominations

    Tariff of Abominations
    This tariff raised duties on raw materials such as textiles, iron, and other resources. The south was negatively affected by this tariff, as they were forced to purchase high-priced items from the North (or the British) which cost them about $100 million a year. In general, the south strongly disliked tariffs because their economy was mainly agricultural-based, causing them to purchase everything else from other places. Eventually, this would lead to the nullification crisis in 1832.
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    Andrew Jackson (Democrat)

  • Mormonism

    Founded in 1830 by Joseph Smith, Mormonism was the most successful religious utopia. Smith claimed that God had chosen him as a prophet, and he spoke out against the individualistic society that developed. He said that family should be the main part of one's life, and encouraged moral perfection. Eventually, all of the Mormons would moved to Utah after facing heavy discrimination. This showcases how many utopias came to be all around America.
  • Indian Removal Act

    Indian Removal Act
    Native Americans had ancestral ties to the land they occupied, but were forced to move when this act was passed. To Americans, they were just in the way of expansion and they were trying to protect them. This act forced them to move west of the Mississippi, which was a struggle for all of the tribes as many resisted and unsuccessfully fought back. The Cherokees took this to the Supreme Court but lost, and were forced to move westward on what is now known as the Trail of Tears.
  • Transcendentalism

    This intellectual movement was started by the philosopher Ralph Waldo Emerson. Transcendentalism was about individuality and breaking the norms, as well as focusing on nature as it pertains to the individual. It was also about re-analyzing society and figuring out what was important to you. This was an important movement of the Second Great Awakening because it convinced people to think freely, especially in regards to religion, which dominated so many people's lives.
  • American Anti-Slavery Society (AA-SS)

    American Anti-Slavery Society (AA-SS)
    In 1833, William Lloyd Garrison and sixty others founded the American Anti-Slavery Society (AA-SS). Made up of whites and blacks, this group of people advocated for the end of slavery because it went against our natural rights as humans. This entity was the first interracial social movement in America, and they were able to help slaves through the the press, petitions, and the Underground Railroad. Abolitionism became increasingly popular as the public was exposed to it more and more.
  • Battle of the Alamo

    Battle of the Alamo
    The Battle of the Alamo happened when a group of Texan rebels defending the Alamo were defeated by Mexico's army. Americans heard about the battle and flocked to Texas to join the remaining rebels (the Alamo were used as propaganda to get Americans to join the rebel cause). Mexicans were depicted as violent and cruel, and Americans rallied together to defeat them. This would eventually lead to the Mexican-American war and the annexation of Texas.
  • Panic of 1837

    Panic of 1837
    This economic depression destroyed the U.S. economy due to the British's economic issues. When they limited their economic output, it caused cotton prices to plummet and forced some Americans to withdraw gold. This caused credit to collapse entirely, and caused prices and wages to fall tremendously. Additionally, it caused unemployment rates to increase as people weren't getting paid enough. The depression was blamed on the Democrats, destroying Van Buren's reputation.
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    Martin Van Buren (Democrat)

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    John Tyler (Whig)

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    William Henry Harrison (Whig)

  • Election of 1844

    Election of 1844
    The election between James K. Polk and Henry Clay was all about westward expansion. Polk and his supporters believed in the annexation of Texas and Manifest Destiny, as well as the Oregon Trail. Polk was able to use the idea of improving America through expansion to his advantage, enabling him to narrowly beat Clay. Texas was quickly admitted as a state, and people were excited to start moving their lives westward.
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    James K. Polk (Democrat)

  • Seneca Falls Convention

    Seneca Falls Convention
    Women's suffrage increased in popularity as more people realized the plight of women in America. Organized by Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton, the Seneca Falls Convention was the first women's rights convention held in the U.S. They drafted the Declaration of Sentiments that called for higher education, property rights, divorce availability, and voting rights for women. Even though many dismissed the convention, talk about women's rights spread throughout the country.
  • Treaty of Guadelupe Hidalgo

    Treaty of Guadelupe Hidalgo
    This treaty officially ended the Mexican-American war, and was heavily biased towards America. Mexico gave up about 50% of its land (what is now California, Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, Nevada, Utah, etc.), officially gave up Texas, and set the Rio Grande river as America's southern boundary. America only paid them $15 million dollars, which was a small amount compared to how much land they gained. This treaty made America even more of a superpower as they gained size and political prowess.
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    Zachary Taylor (Whig)

  • Foreign Miner's Tax

    Foreign Miner's Tax
    The gold rush brought in all types of people to California, such as Europeans, Asians, and Australians. Known as the Forty-Niners, these people dedicated their lives to finding gold. However, living conditions were disastrous and racism was widespread. In 1850, California adopted a Foreign Miner's Tax that essentially made it impossible for the Chinese and Latin American immigrants to mine gold because the tax was ludicrously high. Even with this tax, very few people actually found gold.
  • Compromise of 1850

    Compromise of 1850
    The Compromise of 1850 dealt with the status of slavery throughout America's various territories, among other things. California was admitted as a free state, a new boundary established between Texas and New Mexico, got rid of the slave trade in D.C., and left the issue of slavery up to the residents of New Mexico and Utah. Most importantly, it passed the Fugitive Slave Act which made it easier to capture runaway slaves. A compromise managed to hold the country together once again.
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    Millard Fillmore (Whig)

  • Maine Law

    Maine Law
    The consumption of alcohol was widespread during the 1820s and 30s as more and more people started to excessively drink alcohol. Aware of the effects it has on the body, temperance advocates set out to stop people from drinking, mainly through religious methods. When most Americans refused to stop, they realized that politics was the only way to stop them. Maine passed a law that prohibited the sale of alcoholic beverages, the first state to pass a law in support of the temperance movement.
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    Franklin Pierce (Democrat)

  • Kansas-Nebraska Act

    Kansas-Nebraska Act
    The Kansas-Nebraska Act was a controversial law that barely passed. Proposed by Stephen Douglas, this law got rid of the Missouri Compromise, split Native American territory into Kansas and Nebraska, and left the issue of slavery up to their inhabitants. This led to the issue known as Bleeding Kansas, where pro-slavery and anti-slavery forces fought back and forth, drawing the attention of the rest of the country. This showed people that slavery would not be solved without bloodshed.
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    James Buchanan (Democrat)

  • Election of 1860

    Election of 1860
    After Buchanan's failed presidency, the election of 1860 was very important to the fate of slavery and the country as a whole. Abraham Lincoln was the Republican candidate, and because the Democratic Party was split between two candidates, it gave him enough electoral votes to win. Immediately afterwards, South Carolina seceded from the Union, as did many other southern states. The war on slavery officially began once Fort Sumter was attacked, and it would decide the fate of the country.
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    Abraham Lincoln (Republican)

  • Homestead Act

    Homestead Act
    The Homestead Act of 1862 was an effort by the federal government to inhabit the land in the west. They gave 160 acres of land to anyone who would travel out west, and would live and improve upon the property. Many people took advantage of this, especially those who needed a fresh start, and it led to rapid growth in the west. As a result, the United States was able to utilize the west's natural resources, and once the transcontinental railroad was done, so would the east.
  • Emancipation Proclamation

    Emancipation Proclamation
    The Emancipation Proclamation was delivered after the "Union victory" at the Battle of Antietam. To put it simply, this proclamation freed every slave outside of Union control. However, this couldn't be enforced because Lincoln didn't have control over the Confederacy. The main purpose this proclamation served was to let everyone know that this war was more than just North vs. South. It was about slavery. Some European nations started to side with the north, harming the south's economy.
  • Gettysburg Address

    Gettysburg Address
    The Gettysburg Address was given after the Union victory at the Battle of Gettysburg. It gave meaning to the sacrifices made by the soldiers who died, and reminded everyone that "all men are created equal." It also established that a national cemetery would be built to honor those who had died. The Battle of Gettysburg, combined with the battle of Vicksburg, was a major turning point in the war as the south realized they would not be winning.
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    Andrew Johnson (Democrat)

  • Civil Rights Act of 1866

    Civil Rights Act of 1866
    The Civil Rights Act of 1866 stated that all black people were free citizens and had equal access to the courts. This was a huge step forward for our country and showed America's growth after the war. However, Andrew Jackson (the president after the assassination of Lincoln) strongly disliked it. He vetoed the act, along with the Freedmen's Bureau. Congress overrode both vetoes, but that didn't stop violence from spreading in the south.
  • Reconstruction Act of 1867

    Reconstruction Act of 1867
    Vetoed and overridden, this act divided the south into five military districts. It outlined certain rules they had to implement in order to rejoin the country, which included allowing all adult males to vote, ensuring freedom for black people, denying voting rights to ex-Confederates, and ratifying the Fourteenth Amendment. The main issue of Reconstruction directly after the war was black suffrage, and this act attempted to fix it.
  • Fourteenth Amendment

    Fourteenth Amendment
    After the troubling events with the Civil Rights Act of 1866 and the Freedmen's Bureau, the government knew they had to take action. Ratified in 1868, the Fourteenth Amendment dealt with citizenship issues. It declared that people born or naturalized in the U.S. were citizens, and that national citizenship took priority over state citizenship. Johnson started to lose power as Radical Republicans continued to pass anti-slavery laws.
  • Woman Suffrage Associations

    Woman Suffrage Associations
    After the passing of the Fifteenth Amendment, women suffragists split. The ones that believed voting rights for women would be handled after Reconstruction formed the American Women Suffrage Association, led by Lucy Stone. The ones that wanted to take matters into their own hands formed the National Woman Suffrage Association, led by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony. The latter group successfully brought women's suffrage to the forefront, leaving it up for national debate.
  • The Transcontinental Railroad

    The Transcontinental Railroad
    Finished in 1869, the transcontinental railroad connected the whole country for the first time. People could trade, communicate, and travel from the east coast to the west coast and vice versa. Built by the Central Pacific and Union Pacific lines, workers were promised land grants near the railroad in exchange for the difficult working conditions. The transcontinental railroad brought the country together economically and socially, changing how everyone lived forever.
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    Ulysses S. Grant (Republican)

  • Fifteenth Amendment

    Fifteenth Amendment
    The Fifteenth Amendment was important because it officially gave all male citizens the right to vote. States could not discriminate against people due to race/color, or if they were previously slaves. However, there was a poll tax to pay and literacy requirements, which were mainly focused towards immigrants and the poor. This amendment was especially great for African Americans, but women's suffrage was brought to the forefront as their advocates pushed for it more and more.
  • Political Crisis of 1877

    Political Crisis of 1877
    During the election of 1876 between Rutherford B. Hayes and Samuel J. Tilden, Congress faced an issue. The states of Louisiana, Florida, and South Carolina had sent in two sets of electoral votes. An electoral commission was made to solve the problem, and they awarded the electoral votes to Hayes, making him the president. Hayes removed all military forces from the south, finally ending Reconstruction. In the end, Reconstruction failed due to the crumbling political rights of black people.
  • Great Railroad Strike of 1877

    Great Railroad Strike of 1877
    As the power of the railroad grew, wage cuts and an economic depression caused thousands of workers to go on strike. They were upset with the effects of industrialization, such as the growing divide between the upper/middle class and the working class. This strike showed that the working class was forced to work low-skill, low-wage, and dangerous jobs and were at the mercy of companies/corporations, eventually leading to the Greenback-Labor Party and the Granger Laws.
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    Rutherford B. Hayes (Republican)

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    Chester A. Arthur (Republican)

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    James A. Garfield (Republican)

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    Grover Cleveland (Democratic)

  • American Federation of Labor

    American Federation of Labor
    Founded by Samuel Gompers in 1886, the American Federation of Labor (AFL) was the largest and most successful labor organization of the industrial era. This group achieved change by attempting to directly negotiate with employers for better pay and benefits. Although anti-political at first, which is what ruined previous labor groups, they eventually got into it once they gained more power/influence. This organization showed everyone there was a peaceful way for workers to "fight back."
  • Haymarket Square

    Haymarket Square
    A protest at Haymarket Square turned violent when an anarchist threw a bomb, killing multiple police officers, which caused the others to shoot back. This incident effectively ruined the Knights of Labor, an important labor organization which sought to unite workers, and other similar groups. The violence from this incident tainted the reputation of labor unions and drew an even larger divide between workers and industrial powerhouses.
  • Dawes Severalty Act

    Dawes Severalty Act
    Passed in 1887, the Dawes Severalty Act encouraged Native American families to live on their own without help from the tribe. Americans were pushing them to learn self-sufficiency within the family. This act divided up reservations into 160-acre plots for each family, and it completely destroyed the Native American tribes. Not only that, but about 66% of the land they owned would be lost via fraud, mismanagement, or whites buying their land. The "Indian problem" lived on.
  • Hull House

    Hull House
    The Hull House was one of the first social settlements, welfare centers that helped the urban poor and advocated for change. Founded by Jane Addams in 1889, the Hull House helped the poor and gave them resources to get by, such as education and a living space. Other social settlements developed and helped grow the lower class of urban cities, and taught them how to advocate for themselves. The Hull House was an important part of the progressive movement and the beginning of social work.
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    Benjamin Harrison (Republican)

  • National American Woman Suffrage Association

    National American Woman Suffrage Association
    Founded in 1890 by the unification of two separate suffrage associations, this group was the central force in pushing for the right to vote for women. Women were using their voice more and more every day as they fought for their rights, eventually growing into feminism. Feminism was the idea that women should have equality on a political, economic, and social level. Although this organization focused only on suffrage, it led to the emboldening of women as they pushed for total equality.
  • Sherman Antitrust Act

    Sherman Antitrust Act
    The Sherman Antitrust Act allowed the government to investigate trusts in order to get rid of them due to their anticompetitive natures. Essentially, the government was attempting to stop monopolies so a single company wouldn't control the entire market for a product. This act showed the government's power in regulating interstate commerce and competition, but also allowed them to investigate whatever company they deemed as "anticompetitive."
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    Grover Cleveland (Democrat)

  • Plessy v. Ferguson

    Plessy v. Ferguson
    This controversial case established the idea of "separate by equal," which would be struck down in 1954. Homer Plessy, a black man, was ordered to move to the colored car of a train because he was sitting in first class. The court ruled that this was okay because it was a "separate but equal" accomodation, however, it was clearly not equal because there wasn't a colored first-class train car. This showed that Jim Crow laws (the segregation of color in public spaces) were still in effect.
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    William McKinley (Republican)

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    Theodore Roosevelt (Republican)

  • Antiquities Act

    Antiquities Act
    The Antiquities Act was passed by Theodore Roosevelt, which gave the president the power to set aside land of environmental/cultural significance as national monuments. This act was a part of the growing call for preservation that swept the country, and something that Teddy Roosevelt was passionate about. It led to the creation of national parks and the National Park Service that took care of them. This act was important for taking care of the environment, and it still affects us today.
  • Pure Food and Drug Act

    Pure Food and Drug Act
    This act was passed in response to Upton Sinclair's "The Jungle," which described the horrible conditions of Chicago meatpacking plants. Not only did it describe the plight of the workers, but it also described the rotten meat and filthy conditions that our food was being made in. The Pure Food and Drug Act created the Food and Drug Administration, which helped ensure the safety of our food. This act was important because it created an administration that still lives on today, protecting us.
  • Model T Invention

    Model T Invention
    The Model T was invented by Henry Ford, and it completely changed the automobile industry forever. This vehicle was relatively cheap, enabling more people to purchase it, and was also mass-produced. Ford utilized the assembly line to his advantage, and paid factory workers very well at the time. As job opportunities skyrocketed, the automobile industry boomed. Most people acquired cars, increasing transportation rates and quality of life. The importance of the automobile is still seen today.
  • National Association for the Advancement of Colored People

    National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
    The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), founded in 1909, was an organization whose main goal was to advocate for the rights of African Americans through the justice system. They believed in equal voting rights, equal opportunity, and equal treatment in the courts. This group was important in rallying more black people to the cause, and over many decades, became very important in the fight for civil rights.
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    William Howard Taft (Republican)

  • Triangle Fire

    Triangle Fire
    The Triangle Fire was a fire at the Triangle Shirtwaist Company in New York City that killed about 146 people. This event caused a wave of anger and grief to sweep through the city, and citizens demanded that something needed to change. In response, the government created laws that addressed fire safety and prevention, wages, and working hours for women and children. The Triangle Fire highlighted the problems with big companies and industrialization, ushering in reform and change.
  • Federal Reserve Act

    Federal Reserve Act
    The Federal Reserve Act created the central bank system of the United States, twelve district reserve banks that are controlled by their member banks. This central bank system was created in response to the potential failure of private banks, which almost happened. This act helped set the money supply level, and also gave the Federal Reserve the power to issue currency. The Federal Reserve Act set out to stabilize the U.S. economy, quelling the economic concerns of the population.
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    Woodrow Wilson (Democrat)

  • Panama Canal

    Panama Canal
    Teddy Roosevelt was a firm believer in naval power, and wanted to link the Atlantic and Pacific oceans for trade purposes. He essentially started a revolution in Panama, and then helped stop it in exchange for a canal zone. Opened in 1914, the Panama Canal allowed the U.S. quick access to the Pacific, putting us in a position of power in the Western Hemisphere. This canal grew in importance over the next couple of decades as it was used for trade and transportation.
  • Zimmermann Telegram

    Zimmermann Telegram
    The Zimmermann Telegram was a telegram that the U.S. intercepted from Germany, which urged Mexico to join the Central Powers. They would also help Mexico recover the land they lost from us. This telegram was leaked to the American public and started an outrage, and combined with the sinking of the Lusitania, eventually pushed us to declare war. The Zimmermann Telegram got us involved in World War I which changed our country politically, economically, and socially.
  • Treaty of Versailles

    Treaty of Versailles
    The Treaty of Versailles ended World War I and assigned Germany with billions of dollars in war reparations. Woodrow Wilson proposed his Fourteen Points at Versailles, which was a list of principles that proposed a new world order and introduced the League of Nations. This treaty redrew the map of Europe, and created British/French mandates in other countries/colonies. This treaty failed because it handed unrealistic consequences to the country of Germany, nurturing hatred in that country.
  • Palmer Raids

    Palmer Raids
    The Palmer raids were raids ordered by Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer that targeted radical organizations in an attempt to drive out communism. This was directly in line with the Red Scare, a wave of anticommunist hysteria that swept the country. Thousands of citizens were arrested, some without trial, showing how deep this fear of communism really went. The Palmer raids were a small part of the Red Scare, a time period that would soon be repeated after World War II.
  • Eighteenth Amendment

    Eighteenth Amendment
    The Eighteenth Amendment banned the manufacture and sale of alcohol, ushering in the time period of Prohibition. This was enforced through the Volstead Act, banning the sale of alcohol. The temperance movement was finally successful, but it didn't end up lasting. Bootlegging, which was the illegal of smuggling during this time, took place quite frequently as underground alcohol operations grew. This amendment was not that effective, and was later repealed in 1933.
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    Warren G. Harding (Republican)

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    Calvin Coolidge (Republican)

  • National Origins Act

    National Origins Act
    The National Origins Act established a quota on immigration due to mounting fears that America was losing its identity, and that other radical ideas were starting to be pushed. The act stated that immigrants could not surpass 2% of their nationality in America, severely limiting the amount of immigrants from Europe and Asia. This showed that America was still very anti-immigration, and would affect many immigration policies to come (especially in World War II).
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    Herbert Hoover (Republican)

  • Glass-Steagall Act

    Glass-Steagall Act
    During the Hundred Days, Franklin Roosevelt passed fifteen major acts that focused on many different problems. One of them was the Glass-Steagall Act, which created the FDIC and insured deposits up to $2500. He had previously passed the Emergency Banking Act, which closed all banks for inspection. Although these are on the economic side, there are other acts, such as the Agricultural Adjustment Act, which focused on crops/farmers. FDR came in to the presidency with a plan, which he executed fast
  • Civilian Conservation Corps

    Civilian Conservation Corps
    Founded in 1933, the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) was a federal relief program that employed millions of young men for the purpose of conservation work. This included building roads and bridges, and making trails and parks. Because the CCC employed millions of people during a time where it was hard to get a job, it bolstered the economy. This, combined with what they accomplished, lifted spirits and made life easier. The CCC was an important part of getting past the depression.
  • National Socialist (Nazi) Party

    National Socialist (Nazi) Party
    Although technically founded in 1920, the Nazi Party really hit it off when Hitler became chancellor in 1933. This political party became extremely popular in Germany due to unrest, economic depression and unemployment, fear of communism, and unrealistic WWI reparation payments. When Hitler came to power as a dictator, he established this party as the only political party and took total control of Germany. The Nazi Party, under Hitler, would aim for world domination in their quest for revenge.
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    Franklin D. Roosevelt (Democrat)

  • Securities and Exchange Commission

    Securities and Exchange Commission
    The creation of the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) changed the face of the economy, and still exists today. Their purpose is to regulate the stock market and keep stockholders, investors, and companies safe. Additionally, they attempt to stop insider trading, which is detrimental to those who are not involved in the trade. The SEC, when it was founded, showed that the economy was becoming more centralized, ushering in the period of a government-influenced market.
  • Social Security Act

    Social Security Act
    As part of the labor movement from the New Deal, the Social Security Act was passed to provide relief to the older and unemployed. This provided old-age pensions for workers, paid the widowed and disabled, and helped the unemployed get compensated. FDR knew it was going to be controversial, but passed it because he truly believed it would help.The Social Security Act played a huge role in helping the welfare of America and its citizens, and providing aid to those who need it.
  • Works Progress Administration

    Works Progress Administration
    Similar to the CCC, the Works Progress Administration (WPA) employed millions of people to work on a variety of different jobs in the arts and construction. Thousands of buildings, bridges, and parks were made, as well as hundreds of airports. Poets, painters, playwrights, etc. were hired to create original pieces that represented the culture of all Americans. The WPA was one of the most important New Deal programs that allowed jobs to be created, boosting both our economy and social lives.
  • Fair Labor Standards Act

    Fair Labor Standards Act
    The Fair Labor Standards Act was important in establishing guidelines for the workplace. It finally outlawed child labor, and it established overtime pay, a minimum wage, and a forty-hour workweek. The effect this had on the economy was profound, as it gave the workers more rights and motivation. The decision to stop child labor was huge because it set the foundation for future child protection laws. The Fair Labor Standards Act was the last major achievement of the New Deal.
  • Munich Conference

    Munich Conference
    Although Hitler was gaining more land constantly, the main European powers didn't do anything about it despite the clear militarization of Germany. However, this changed at the Munich Conference, where Britain and France allowed Germany to annex the Sudetenland in exchange for stopping his pursuit for land/power. Hitler agreed but eventually broke his word, invading Czechoslovakia and marched into Poland. This set the tone for the rest of the war as Hitler became increasingly more tyrannic.
  • Atlantic Charter

    Atlantic Charter
    America's relationship with Britain has always been complex, but our relationship as allies helped them out during WWII. Through the Lend-Lease Act we gave them more weapons, and through the Atlantic Charter we established a connection based on Wilson's Fourteen Points and Roosevelt's Four Freedoms. This charter called for economic cooperation, political stability, and self-determination during WWII. The Atlantic Charter quickly became the basis of our transatlantic alliances after the war.
  • Executive Order 8802

    Executive Order 8802
    To hopefully rally everyone to the war cause, in particular the African Americans, FDR passed Executive Order 8802. This prevented discrimination in the workforce based on race, color, or origin, and established the FEPC. By being inclusive of everyone, FDR presented the nation in a positive light and made marginalized groups feel more welcome. This executive order was important to the "double V" campaign as they fought for victory at home, and also promoted inclusivity and racial freedom.
  • Pearl Harbor

    Pearl Harbor
    In a surprise raid, Japanese bombers destroyed Pearl Harbor on Dec. 7, 1941, killing about 2,400 Americans. It also destroyed many of our battleships and destroyers, as well as a lot of airplanes. The next day, Roosevelt declared war against Japan, and in the following days more official declarations of war were made. The destruction of this naval base was deadly and horrifying, and succeeded in uniting Americans as the country pushed forward into war once more.
  • Executive Order 9066

    Executive Order 9066
    Although WWII caused tension, European immigrants received almost no hate compared to the Japanese. Racist feelings towards the Japanese had been festering ever since Pearl Harbor, and it eventually turned into a political attack via Executive Order 9066. This forced hundreds of thousands of Japanese Americans into relocation camps where they were harshly treated. The use of these camps on the Japanese was a controversial action that would later set standards for how America treats its citizens
  • Manhattan Project

    Manhattan Project
    Atomic weaponry is a controversial and dangerous topic, yet it didn't stop America from implementing the Manhattan Project. in 1942, Roosevelt authorized this project in order to create the first atomic bomb, and it succeeded. Created by physicists Leo Szilard and Albert Einstein, this bomb was eventually used on the Japanese in the bombings of Nagasaki and Hiroshima. The effects of the atomic bombs were profound, and much was done to limit the use of atomic weaponry during wars from then on.
  • Congress of Racial Equality

    Congress of Racial Equality
    Founded in 1942, the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) was an important civil rights group that advocated for change through nonviolent measures. This organization influenced the creation of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), two important groups that also advocated for civil rights. These organizations represented the growing push for civil rights throughout America, and the measures they had to take to achieve it.
  • Servicemen's Readjustment Act

    Servicemen's Readjustment Act
    Popularly known as the GI Bill, this act helped veterans set themselves up for success after the war. It gave the government the power to give veterans money for education, housing, and health care. It also gave them loans to start businesses and buy homes. All of this combined proved to be very popular because it helped our country and its veterans get back to normal after a very difficult war. The Servicemen's Readjustment Act was an important bill that still affects the way we live today.
  • Bretton Woods

    Bretton Woods
    The forty-four Allied countries met up at the international conference of Bretton Woods with the goal of creating economic stability. This established the World Bank, which provided loans for war-torn Europe and colonized nations. It also established the International Monetary Fund (IMF), which stabilized currencies to create a stable market globally. The Bretton Woods conference was important for setting up the world for economic recovery after a devastating war.
  • D-Day

    On June 6, 1944, Allied forces invaded Normandy in the largest amphibious assault in world history. Under the command of General Eisenhower, soldiers stormed the beaches of Normandy in an attempt to open up another front. The success of this attack was very beneficial as it allowed Allied forces a much easier way to corner the Germans, and led to Hitler's suicide and Germany's surrender. Although Germany put up a fight, it wasn't enough to stop the Allied forces from winning the war.
  • Yalta Conference

    Yalta Conference
    The Yalta Conference took place between Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin, and it discussed what the outcomes of the war would be. They decided to split Germany into four zones with each Allied power getting a zone, and they also split Berlin. Additionally, they talked about the status of Poland, Russian entry into the war in Japan, and the United Nations. The Yalta Conference was important in setting the foundation for the post-war reparations in Europe.
  • Potsdam Conference

    Potsdam Conference
    The Potsdam Conference was between Stalin, Churchill, and Truman, focusing solely on German reparations. Truman, who replaced Roosevelt, wanted to stand up to the Soviets, but was inexperienced and failed to do so. Stalin agreed to only take reparations from the Soviet zone, but in exchange we had to recognize the new German-Polish border. The Potsdam Conference led to divisions not only in Germany, but also between us and the Soviets which would eventually boil into something more.
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    Harry S. Truman (Democrat)

  • Truman Doctrine

    Truman Doctrine
    The Truman Doctrine stated that the U.S. would support those who were being oppressed from outside sources, due to the communist civil war being fought in Greece. This allowed us to intervene in many wars involving communism throughout the Cold War, and also led to the creation of NATO, an alliance between us, Canada, and some European countries to fight the Soviets. The Truman Doctrine became the basis of our reasoning during our fight against the Soviets and communism
  • Marshall Plan

    Marshall Plan
    Due to catastrophic WWII damages, Germany's economy was suffering. Without assistance, Germany would crumble and put the world into an economic depression. As a result, George Marshall came up with a financial aid program which would set Germany back on track. This included providing food, materials, and other necessities to the Germans via direct transport or air packages. The Marshall Plan contributed billions of dollars to the German cause, which caused more tension between us and the Soviets
  • Korean War Armistice

    Korean War Armistice
    The Korean War was important not only because we were fighting against communism, but because of its implications. For starters, war was never declared, which set a precedent for future undeclared wars. Also, it expanded our containment policy globally, and would be the first of many proxy wars to come. The Korean War was another deadly battle against communism in our attempt to stop the spread of the Soviet regime all over the world.
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    Dwight D. Eisenhower (Republican)

  • Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka

    Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka
    This court case was an important part of the civil rights movement, luckily in the right direction. This case overturned the "separate but equal" precedent, which had been set in Plessy v. Ferguson. The court concluded that Linda Brown was not being treated equally in the education system, therefore the precedent was not being upheld. Although controversial in the South, Brown v. Board was vital in pushing the supporters of the civil rights movement closer towards justice and freedom.
  • National Interstate and Defense Highways Act

    National Interstate and Defense Highways Act
    The National Interstate and Defense Highways Act was passed by Eisenhower to construct a national highway system. He was able to pass it under the guise that if an atomic bomb ever struck, we could use them to get far away from the impact site. This act ended up building 42,500 miles of road, connecting the whole country and making cars even more popular and useful. Changing suburban life forever, this act was important in creating new routes for transportation, and is still growing today.
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    John F. Kennedy (Democrat)

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    Lyndon B. Johnson (Democrat)

  • Kennedy's Assassination

    Kennedy's Assassination
    On November 22, 1963, President John F. Kennedy was assassinated by Lee Harvey Oswald while he was driving through Dallas, Texas. The fourth president to be assassinated while in office, Kennedy's death sent a shockwave across the whole country. As news spread via television, a growing commodity at the time, citizens questioned why it happened but no definite answer could be found. The assassination of Kennedy was very upsetting and unfortunate because he was quite a popular president.
  • Civil Rights Act of 1964

    Civil Rights Act of 1964
    President Johnson passed the Civil Rights Act of 1964, a crucial stepping stone in the civil rights movement. This act made it illegal to discriminate in education, employment, and other public services on the basis of race, religion, sex, or origin. This eventually led to the Voting Rights Act of 1965, which made discrimination in the polls illegal. These two acts were the most important feats of the civil rights movement, changing the lives of African Americans forever.
  • Great Society

    Great Society
    The Great Society was President Johnson's plan to end poverty, support culture and opportunity, and improve medical/educational endeavors. These included both civil rights acts, the Economic Opportunity Act, and Medicare and Medicaid. Medicare was aimed to help the elderly, and Medicaid was aimed to help the poor. There were also multiple acts that addressed urban development and housing. The Great Society, although not entirely successful, helped immensely in almost all aspects of life.
  • Operation Rolling Thunder

    Operation Rolling Thunder
    During the Vietnam War, President Johnson approved Operation Rolling Thunder, which was a massive bombing campaign that bombed North Vietnam for three years. However, instead of bombing the Vietnamese into submission, it actually made them fight back stronger. This eventually caused the war to take a downward spiral, and caused the U.S. to make some controversial decisions. Operation Rolling Thunder, despite the confidence of the Americans, did not work and made the impact of the war much worse.
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    Richard M. Nixon (Republican)

  • Environmental Protection Agency

    Environmental Protection Agency
    Created by President Nixon in 1970, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) enforced laws about environmental topics and conducted research to learn more about how to protect it. This group was controversial because, while most people supported it, large corporations did not want to adhere to the new environmental standards. However, with the EPA's help, the government passed four more acts to help the environment, and would continue to do so for many years to come.
  • Watergate

    The Watergate scandal completely tainted the entirety of Nixon's presidency. Men from his reelection campaign attempted to break into the Democratic Party headquarters at the Watergate hotel and search for important papers, which was eventually discovered and exposed to the public. Nixon, due to immense pressure and growing unpopularity, became the first president to resign. Watergate caused a huge shift in the political world, and gave the Democrats a chance to express themselves through laws.
  • Roe v. Wade

    Roe v. Wade
    Abortion was, and still is, a controversial topic. In the 1960s it was illegal, but throughout the 1970s that changed a little bit in some states. In Roe v. Wade, the Supreme Court ruled that the Constitution protected abortion and that states couldn't stop them during early pregnancy. This was a huge win for the women's movement, but caused major problems for people of the Christian faith. Roe v. Wade caused abortion to be a major issue for many years, and still affects us today.
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    Gerald R. Ford (Republican)

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    Jimmy Carter (Democrat)

  • Hostage Crisis

    Hostage Crisis
    When the Iranian shah fell due to a revolution, Iranians stormed the U.S. embassy, taking 66 people hostage and demanding that we give them the shah (who was in our care). President Carter refused, and the hostages would be in the hands of the Iranians for 444 days. The hostage crisis ruined Carter's presidency because it was a difficult situation to deal with and he dealt with it poorly. The rise in Carter's unpopularity paved the way for Ronald Reagan to easily take the presidency.
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    Ronald Reagan (Republican)

  • Iran-Contra Affair

    Iran-Contra Affair
    The Iran-Contra Affair was a scandal within Reagan's administration about the sale of arms to Iran in exchange for the hostages, in which we used the money to support the Nicaraguan Contras. However, unlike Watergate, Reagan was unaware of this happening within his administration, and did not take the blame. However, this posed lots of concerns about his administration and its legitimacy. The Iran-Contra Affair got our hostages back, but at the cost of the law.
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    George Bush (Republican)