The Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) was an agency that managed and administrated the land that was for the American Indians. The Bureau had an impact on the government's decision to educate the Natives, not allowing them to use their native language or be a part of their old culture.
Indian Removal Act
Congress passed a law that gave the president the right to negotiate with the Indians living in the south and relocate them to lands west of the Mississippi in return for the land they were on. It also allowed the Natives that had adopted an agricultural way of life to stay living on lands east of the Mississippi.
This act offered anyone who wanted to settle in the west 160 acres. The people that received the land had to build a home and farm the land in order to live there under this. Couples would receive double the amount of land.
A flank attack did not work so General Lee organized one last attack. General George Pickett’s division was the largest that marched toward the Union lines. It totally failed, with over 5,000 casualties in about 50 minutes. Pickett blamed General Lee and never forgave him.
The Gettysburg address
Lincoln goes to a ceremony in Gettysburg PA to commemorate the event and dedicate a cemetery to the fallen soldiers in the civil war. Edward Everett was the key note speaker who spoke for three hours, but Lincoln’s 2 minute speech was the one most remembered
On this day congress passed an act to establish a bureau for the relief of Freedmen and Refugees, to provide food, shelter, clothing, medical services, and land to displaced Southerners, including newly freed African Americans and poor whites.
Surrender at Appomattox
General Lee had no choice but to surrender to General Grant. They met in the McLean home to make the surrender official. Grant was generous with surrender terms. He took no prisoners, and the men could keep their personal horses and other belongings.
Assassination of Abraham Lincoln
While watching a play at Ford’s Theatre with his wife, Abraham Lincoln was fatally shot in the head by actor John Wilkes Booth. He died the next day with many people around him in his bed. John was later found and shit to death. Lincoln was the first President of the United States to be assassinated.
The Reconstruction process begins as progress is made to improve the lives of African Americans. New laws including the 13th, 14th, and 15th admendments are passed, abolishing slavery, allowing blacks to become citizens, and giving them the right the vote.
President Andrew Johnson was impeached. The United States House of Representatives decided to impeach him for high crimes and misdemeanors. They passed the Tenure of Office act over Johnson’s veto. It stated that a President couldn’t dismiss appointed officials without the consent of congress.
William Seward( sec. of state) bought Alaska from Russia for $7.2 million. Many Americans were not pleased with this purchase and called Alaska “Seward’s Folly” or “Seward’s Icebox”
Rockefeller incorporates Standard Oil
John D. Rockefeller's Standard Oil Company is incorporated in Ohio. Rockefeller has been active in the oil business since 1863. Standard Oil was first formed as a partnership in 1868.
Compromise of 1877
All the Reconstruction efforts come to a halt as as the corrupt Compromise of 1877 allows whites to regain control over blacks in the South.
Statue of Liberty
Designed by Frederick Auguste Bartholdi, this state was a gift from France in commemoration of the American Revolution. It was built in France, then taken apart and shipped to America. Known as the “Gateway to America”
Sherman Antritrust Act
Congress passes the Sherman Antitrust Act, the first legislation enacted by Congress to curb concentrations of power that interfere with trade and reduce economic competition.
On this day the game of basketball was born in Springfield, Massachusetts. James Naismith brought this sport upon his student at the YMCA. The new sport quickly grew popular and students went on to become teachers and coaches, spreading the game.
On this day Ellis Island is opened on New York Harbor. This is where about 12 million immigrants passed in and out to find a new home/life.
Plessy V. Ferguson
After Homer Plessy refused to leave his seat in a train because he was black, he took the case to court and the United States Supreme Court made a decision to accept segregation by mandating that blacks were "seperate but equal." This law would stand for the next 70 years.
The rough riders were a volunteer calvary under the command of Teddy Roosevelt. They were an army of 17,000 that fought in Cuba near Santiago. The Rough Riders would receive more publicity than any other Army unit in that war, and they are best remembered for their conduct during the Battle of San Juan Hill.
Sinking of the Maine
This ship blew up in the harbor of Havana. more than 260 men were killed. President McKinely had ordered the USS Maine to Cuba to bring home American citizens in danger from the fighting and to protect American property. The rallying war cry was “Remember the Maine”.
War coming to an end( Battle of San Juan Hill)
Battle of San Juan Hill, also known as the Battle of San Juan Heights, the most significant U.S. land victory, and one of the final battles, of the Spanish-American War. As part of their campaign to capture Spanish-held Santiago de Cuba on the southern coast of Cuba, the U.S. Army Fifth Corps engages Spanish forces at El Caney and San Juan Hill. The Rough Riders were among the troops in the right flank attacking Kettle Hill.
Carrie Nation wields a hatchet
The prohibition movement gains a powerful symbolic leader when temperance crusader Carry Nation destroys a hotel barroom in Wichita, Kansas, with a hatchet. Nation’s tactics are at odds with the more moderate Woman’s Christian Temperance Union.
After the assassination of President William McKinley his vice president, Theodore Roosevelt, becomes president. Roosevelt takes office with progressive ideas and hopes to reform several areas of American society.
Assassination of Franz Ferdinand
The assassination of Franz Ferdinand is known to be what started the Great War. He was in heir to the Austrian-Hungarian empire. On this day he decided to visit Sarajevo but was assassinated by a Serbian terrorist group called the black hand.
Sinking of the Lusitania
The RMS Lusitania was attacked by a German U-boat and sank in just under 20 minutes. More than 1,000 of the 2,000 passengers died , many of them being American citizens. This is what prompted America to get involved in the war.
On this day the National Woman’s Party was formed by Alice Paul and Lucy Burns. They campaigned for the first Equal Rights Amendment . The Woman’s party was one of the first groups not employ non-violent protests.
Picketting the White House
On this day the NWP began to Pickett the White House. Many stood at the White House and carried banners comparing President Wilson to Kaiser Wilhelm || of Germany. Many woman were wrongfully arrested for these protests.
Battle of Belleau Wood
occurred during the German Spring Offensive in World War I, near the Marne River in France. It was an allied victory, and the first major engagement of the U.S. army in World War I, that greatly boosted morale amid the German's Spring Offensive.
The Treaty of Versailles
The official peace settlement was signed near the palace at Versailles, near Paris. The treaty was very harsh on Germany and the resentment it created is often credited with causing WW2. It forced Germany to take full responsibility for the war, pay reparations, give up territory, and reduce their army to 100,000 people.
Pushing for the 19th Amendment
After being arrested for their protests many of the women went on hunger strikes. The guards force fed the, and the force feeding of Lucy Burns required five people to hold her down. It was painful an caused severe bleeding. Finally after many years the 19th Amendment was ratified when Tennessee became the 36th state to ratify it.
Ellis island closes
On this day Ellis Island, the gateway to America, shuts it doors after processing more than 12 million immigrants since opening in 1892.
Alaska becomes a state
President Dwight Eisenhower sighed the proclamation admitting Alaska to the U.S. A “moment after the stroke of noon.”
After Queen Liliuokalani tried to remove landowning requirement in Hawaii, she was overthrew with the help of marines, and business groups. Sanford B. Dole became temporary President until the annexation of it under President McKinley. It later became the 50th state.