World History II

  • The Gunpowder Plot

    The Gunpowder Plot
    The Gunpowder plot was a failed assassination attempt on King James I. The conspirators put 36 barrels of gunpowder in the cellars of the Houses of Parliament. On the 5th of November, Guy Fawkes was found underneath Parliament with the gunpowder. He was hanged along with the other conspirators.
  • The English Civil War

    The English Civil War
    The English Civil War was a series of battles between the Parliamentarians (roundheads) and Royalists (cavaliers) that began on 8/22/1642. This war was started because of the issues between King Charles I and Parliament, and the issues of religious freedom. Parliament won the war and executed King Charles I.
  • Cromwell’s Post-Death Execution

    Cromwell’s Post-Death Execution
    On this date, Oliver Cromwell’s dead body was hung. Cromwell was a military dictator who forced strict religious rules, and he got rid of most forms of entertainment. Charles II ordered Cromwells body to be hanged although he was already dead. His head was displayed on a spike.
  • Birth of Montesquieu

    Birth of Montesquieu
    On this date, the philosopher Montesquieu was born. Montesquieu believed in separation of powers, and he thought the government should be separated into three branches: Legislative, Executive, and Judicial. Montesquieu also believed each branch should limit the power of the other 2 branches through Checks and Balances. Many of Montesquieu’s beliefs have influenced America’s government.
  • The English Bill of Rights

    The English Bill of Rights
    The English Bill of Rights was passed on this date by William III and Mary II after they overthrew James II. This bill gave Parliament control over the monarchy. Absolute rule was over and parliament was in control.
  • Voltaire is Imprisoned

    Voltaire is Imprisoned
    On this date, Voltaire was imprisoned in the Bastille. Voltaire liked to write using satire, and he defended freedom of speech and religion. Voltaire made enemies and he was imprisoned another time, and exiled to England for 2 years. One of his quotes is, “ I do not agree with a word you say, but will defend to death for your right to say it.”
  • Birth of William Wilberforce

    Birth of William Wilberforce
    On this date, William Wilberforce was born. William Wilberforce was a Parliament member who is remembered for his work to abolish the slave trade. His slogan was: “Am I not a Man and a brother.”
  • James Hargreaves’ “spinning jenny”

    James Hargreaves’ “spinning jenny”
    On this date, the spinning jenny was patented by James Hargreaves. The spinning jenny was one of the key developments for the textile industry during the industrial revolution. This machine changed the way cotton was spun. It used one wheel that was connected to eight spindles that each spun thread. This made the operator able to spin eight threads at once.
  • James Cook Claims Australia

    James Cook Claims Australia
    On this date, Australia was claimed by James Cook for Great Britain. Australia was originally used to hold prisoners. Later, colonists moved to Australia because of gold.
  • The Wealth of Nations

    The Wealth of Nations
    On this date, Adam Smith published his book, The Wealth of Nations. The main point of this book is that our individual need to fulfill self interest results in societal benefit. Adam Smith is known as the father of capitalism, and he also believed that the government should stay out of economy.
  • The Storming of the Bastille

    The Storming of the Bastille
    The storming of the Bastille was an event that occurred when a group of revolutionaries stormed and seized control of the Bastille. The Bastille was a prison that was being used to store gunpowder. This event is viewed as the start of the revolution.
  • The Execution of King Louis XVI

    The Execution of King Louis XVI
    On this date, King Louis XVI was executed by a guillotine. Although the monarchy had already been abolished by the National Convention, they still believed that if the royal family lived, the monarchy could be restored. King Louis’ wife and son were executed as well. Only his daughter was allowed to leave.
  • The Execution of Charlotte Corday

    The Execution of Charlotte Corday
    Charlotte Corday was a Girondin supporter who assassinated Jean-Paul Marat. Jean-Paul Marat was a leading Jacobin figure who was responsible for making the Jacobins more radical. Charlotte went into his bathroom and stabbed him while he was taking a medical bath. Charlotte was arrested and executed by a guillotine.
  • The Law of Suspects

    The Law of Suspects
    On this date, The Law of Suspects was passed by the National Convention. At this time, the Committee of Public Safety faced the threat of counter-revolutionary uprisings. The purpose of this decree was to establish revolutionary courts to try anyone who was suspected of treason against the revolution. The problem was that this document was so broad that almost anyone could be a suspect. This document initiated The Reign of Terror.
  • Eli Whitney’s Cotton Gin

    Eli Whitney’s Cotton Gin
    On this date, the cotton gin was patented by Eli Whitney. The cotton gin was a machine that separated the seeds from cotton quicker. The downside of this machine is that it made slave labor more efficient and profitable.
  • The Execution of Maximilien Robespierre

    The Execution of Maximilien Robespierre
    After the Reign of Terror, people were angry and blamed Maximilien Robespierre. He was the leading member of the Committee of Public Safety. He was arrested and executed by a guillotine. This event marked the end of the Reign of Terror.
  • The Invention of the Smallpox Vaccine

    The Invention of the Smallpox Vaccine
    The smallpox vaccine was invented by Edward Jenner. On this date, Edward Jenner tested it on James Phipps. The smallpox vaccine contained the cowpox disease which made people immune to smallpox.
  • Napolean’s Coup d’etat

    Napolean’s Coup d’etat
    With the government in disarray, Napoleon launched a successful Coup d’etat (government overthrow) on this date. Napoleon seized control of France in only a couple days, and he didn’t sacrifice a single life. At first, Napoleon declared himself First Consul, then he made himself Consul for life, and finally he proclaimed himself Emperor.
  • Abolition of the Slave Trade Bill

    Abolition of the Slave Trade Bill
    On this date, The Abolition of the Slave Trade Bill was passed in Britain. This bill made it illegal to buy or sell people. Unfortunately, it was still legal to keep slaves and force them to work.
  • Napoleon Enters Moscow

    Napoleon Enters Moscow
    After facing the Russian army’s retreat and scorched earth tactics, the French troops reach Moscow (Russia’s capital) on this date. They found the city abandoned and on fire, and they were forced to retreat. Winter came during their retreat, and it killed a lot of men.
  • Napoleon’s Defeat at Waterloo

    Napoleon’s Defeat at Waterloo
    After escaping his exile at Elba, Napoleon fights his last battle against the Coalition forces at Waterloo. Napoleons forces are defeated, and this event marks the end of “the hundred days.” Napoleon was exiled to the island of St. Helena.
  • The Reform Bill of 1832

    The Reform Bill of 1832
    On this date, The Reform Bill of 1832 was passed by parliament. This reform bill relaxed the property requirements for voting so more men could vote. It also granted more seats in the House of Commons.
  • Queen Victoria Begins Her Reign

    Queen Victoria Begins Her Reign
    On this date, Queen Victoria began her reign over great Britain at the age of 18. Queen Victoria ruled for over 63 years. She is known for her influence on Victorian England, such as wearing white on your wedding day, and wearing black while mourning. The monarchy was an unpopular position that Queen Victoria made popular.
  • Treaty of Nanjing

    Treaty of Nanjing
    On this date, the treaty of Nanjing was signed between China and Great Britain. This treaty ended the Opium Wars which was when China was trying to end British opium smuggling in China. This treaty forced China to surrender and trade with Great Britain.
  • Samuel Morse’s Telegraph

    Samuel Morse’s Telegraph
    On this date, the first message was sent using the telegraph. The telegraph was invented by Samuel Morse, and it revolutionized long-distance communication. The telegraph worked by transmitting electrical signals over a wire laid between stations. A telegraph communicated using Morse code.
  • The Crystal Palace Exhibition

    The Crystal Palace Exhibition
    On this date, The Crystal palace opened in London. The purpose of the exhibition was to show off the innovations/inventions from the British Empire. It was an international exhibition that showed the innovations from many nations.
  • Treaty of Kanagawa

    Treaty of Kanagawa
    On this date, the treaty of Kanagawa was signed between the US and Japan. This treaty was a trade treaty that ended Japanese isolation. Matthew Perry and a gunboat diplomacy was sent by the US to negotiate this treaty.
  • Death of Prince Albert

    Death of Prince Albert
    On this date, the husband of Queen Victoria (Prince Albert) died. For the rest of her life, Queen Victoria dressed in black. Subsequently, Queen Victoria influenced the mourning rituals of the Victorian era.
  • John Deere’s Steel Plow

    John Deere’s Steel Plow
    On this date, the steel plow was patented by John Deere. Moving plows from wood to steel made it way easier to plow tough soil. The steel plow and many other new innovations made food production increase. Today, the John Deere company is still significant in agriculture.
  • David Livingston is Found

    David Livingston is Found
    Dr. David Livingston was a man from Scotland who did humanitarian and religious work in Africa. Livingston went missing for 6 years with no contact. Henry Stanley was a explorer that found Livingston in Ujiji. Stanley’s newspaper reports created European interest in Africa.
  • The Patent of the Telephone

    The Patent of the Telephone
    On this date, the telephone was patented by Alexander Graham Bell. He used electricity to transmit sounds over distance. These early telephones were wet up in a network within a small geographic area. An individual would have to manually connect wires to each other through a switchboard so two people could talk to each other.
  • The Patent of the Light Bulb

    The Patent of the Light Bulb
    On this date, the light bulb was patented by Thomas Edison. Thomas Edison is often credited with creating the first light bulb because he created the carbon-filament light bulb. This light bulb was widely accepted.
  • Treaty of Shimonoseki

    Treaty of Shimonoseki
    On this date, the treaty of Shomonoseki was signed between Japan and China. This treaty ended the Sino-Japanese war. Japan won the war and gained more control.
  • Birth of Alexei Romanov

    Birth of Alexei Romanov
    On this date, Alexei Romanov was born into the Romanov family that ruled Russia. Alexei was born with hemophilia, and the family was worried that as the heir, he would not be able to fulfill his duties. The Romanov family accepts the help of Rasputin. Whenever Rasputin is around, Alexei's bleeding stops. This lead to Rasputin gaining an influence in Imperial Russia.
  • Bloody Sunday

    Bloody Sunday
    Bloody Sunday occurred when peaceful demonstrators marched to the Winter Palace in St Petersburg to petition the Czar. They were gunned down by the Imperial Guard, and between 500-1000 people were killed. This event marked the beginning of the violent phase of the Russian Revolution.
  • Treaty of Portsmouth

    Treaty of Portsmouth
    On this date, the treaty of Portsmouth was signed between Japan and Russia. This treaty ended the Russo-Japanese war. Japan won the war and gained more control. The treaty was mediated in Portsmouth NH by Theodore Roosevelt.
  • First Production of the Model T

    First Production of the Model T
    The model T was invented by Henry Ford, and it was first produced in Detroit on this date. The Model T made cars affordable. Although it was slow, ugly, and difficult to drive; its price never changed. The Model T allowed the average person to afford a car.
  • The Sinking of the Lusitania

    The Sinking of the Lusitania
    The Lusitania was a British-owned steamboat that transported goods. On this date, the ship was torpedoed by a German U-boat. It was torpedoed because the ship was transporting war munitions for Britain. There were many Americans aboard the ship that died, and this event led to the U.S. entering WW1.
  • Death of Rasputin

    Death of Rasputin
    Rasputin was a Russian mystic and "holy man" that gained a large influence in Imperial Russia. On this date, Rasputin was assassinated by Felix Yusupov. Apparently, Rasputin had already survived two separate assassination attempts that involved him being poisoned and shot in the chest. Finally, Yusupov shot Rasputin in the head, wrapped him in carpet, chained him, and threw him in the Neva River. Rasputin's autopsy showed that his cause of death was hypothermia from the freezing river.
  • Representation of the People Act

    Representation of the People Act
    On this date, Parliament passed the Representation of the People Act. This allowed women over 30 to vote. All men also gained suffrage, and property qualifications were eliminated.
  • Treaty of Brest Litovsk

    Treaty of Brest Litovsk
    On this date, the Treaty of Brest Litovsk was signed between Russia and Germany. This was a peace treaty that ended Russian involvement in WW1. This treaty was not favorable towards Russia, and a lot of Russian territory was given to Germany. The treaty was signed in German-controlled Brest Litovsk.
  • Execution of the Czar

    Execution of the Czar
    On this date, Czar Nicholas II was executed by the Bolsheviks. The entire Imperial family was taken by the Bolsheviks, and they were moved around so they couldn't be rescued by the White Army. Nicholas II and his family were executed by a firing squad in the cellar of a house. Their bodies were burned and buried.
  • The Red Terror Begins

    The Red Terror Begins
    The Red Terror occurred because opponents tried to assassinate Vladimir Lenin. The Red Terror involved a lot of political repression, and it sought to eliminate threats to the Bolshevik power. Many executions were carried out by the Cheka (secret police).
  • WW1 Armistice

    WW1 Armistice
    On this date, the WW1 armistice was signed. The armistice was a ceasefire that ended fighting between the Allies and Germany. Although the war was not technically over, the ceasefire stopped fighting on the Western Front while a peace treaty was negotiated.
  • Treaty of Versailles

    Treaty of Versailles
    On this date, the Treaty of Versailles was signed between the Allies and Germany in the Hall of Mirrors. This was a peace treaty that officially ended WW1. Germany suffered huge territorial losses and reparations due to the treaty. The treatment of Germany in this treaty is seen as a major cause of WW2.
  • The Kronstadt Revolt

    The Kronstadt Revolt
    Due to war communism, there was discontent among peasants, workers, and sailors. The discontent led to violence among peasants, and it caused workers to go one strike. It also caused sailors to revolt in a naval base.