Jan 1, 1301
Beginning of the Italian RenaissanceThe Italian Renaissance doesn't really have an exact starting date, but it wwas extremely important in the 14th Century. It was the rebirth of the ideas that man should be free to develop his own abilities and interests and that living was important. This time is often regarded as the break between the past and modern times. There were changes in many art forms as well as in the way people thought. The biggest development was the rise of humanism.
(Picture is Sanzio's 'Lady With a Unicorn.)
Period: Jan 1, 1301 to Jan 1, 1400
The Fourteenth CenturyThe Fourteenth Century was a time of changes, and many important events have their roots in the 1300s.
Jan 1, 1309
The Avignon PapacyIn 1309 (exact date unknown) the papacy was moved from Rome to Avignon, France. When Pope Clement V was elected, he wanted to stay in Avignon, and so he moved the papcy there. He got his wish, but this led to a conflict which resulted in popes in both Rome and Avignon and some anti-popes.
Jan 1, 1315
The Great FamineThe Great Famine lasted from 1315 until 1317 and was caused by severe storms and winters brought on by the Little Ice Age. The crop failure at the time was incredible, and it ended up effecting the livestock and trading as well. This resulted in severe drops in population throughout Europe.
Jan 1, 1315
Beginning of Major Storm Patterns and the Little Ice AgeIn 1315 a period known as the Little Ice Age began. There is debate over the exact span of the Little Ice Age, but it is significant in history. It brought many storms and changed standard weather patterns, making it difficult for a world that depended on the fields. Crop failure brought famine, and with the famines came shortages of other materials. This in turn caused economic unstability and large drops in populations. Farming practices had to be adapted, and people changed their diets.
Sep 14, 1321
Dante AlighieriDante is a famous Italian poet, who is widely regarded as the author of the greatest work composed in the Italian language. His Divine Comedy has been praised by many people, and he is called the 'Father of the Italian Language'.
(Date is the day he died. He was born in 1265, but the Divine Comedy was popular in the 14th century.)
Oct 31, 1337
Start of the Hundred Years WarThe Hundred Years War was a dynastic quarrel fought primarilly between England and France. It started in 1337 and lasted until 1453. Both sides had tremendous victories throughout the war, but the end of the war saw a French victory and the retreat of England. A lot of history in the 14th and 15th centuries was influenced by this war and the effects on all parties involved.
Oct 1, 1347
Appearance of the Black Death in EuropeThe plague was brought to Europe from Asia in 1347 and wreaked havoc every time it appeared. People believed it was a sign of God's displeasure, and relied heavily on religion to get through it. It wiped out a third of Europe's population, and disrupted the daily activities of what ever city it was in.
(Pictured is a doctor with the protection they wore against the plague.)
Aug 29, 1350
The Battle of Les Espangols sur MerThis was a battle fought between England and Castile during the Hundred Year's War. It was a significant victory for England, and can be looked upon as the beginning of England's emergence as a major naval power. That title would later be secured for England after the defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588.
Apr 8, 1364
King Charles V of FranceKing Charles V was the king of France during the Hundred Years War, and was a member of the House of Valois. He was called King Charles the Wise, and during his reign the French had many important victories in the war.
(Date given is ascention to the throne)
Jan 1, 1365
Christine de PizanChristine de Pizan was a medevil poet who found her fame because of her gender. Even though woman of her time were regarded as having an intellect inferior to a man's, she rose above the stereotypes and wrote many brilliant poems.
(The exact date of her birth is unknown. She died in 1434.)
Dec 21, 1375
Giovanni BoccaccioBoccaccio was an author of many works in the Italian vernacular. One of his most notable works is the Decameron. He was also a humanist.
(Date show is the date he died. He was born in 1313, but the date is unknown, so I used the one with an exact date.)
Jan 1, 1376
John Wycliffe writes Civil Dominion, Lollardy MovementJohn Wycliffe was the leader of the Lollards, who were a precursor to the Protestant Reformation. His Civil Dominion started to stir things up and got him in some trouble with the Catholic Church. His work is often regarded as the beginnigs to the Protestant Reformation.
Jan 1, 1378
Beginning of Papal SchismThe Papal Schism lasted from 1378 until 1417. It stems from the Avignon Papacy, and is consequential because two people claimed to be the pope at the same time. It was driven by much the same politics as the Avignon Papacy, and ended with the Council of Constance.
Jun 2, 1381
Pesasant's RevoltThe Peasant's Revolt was one of the most extreme and widespread rebellions in English history. It started as a revolt against a tax, but eventually came to be the beginning of the end of serfdom and brought on the realization in the upper-class that reformation of the feudal system was necessary.
Oct 25, 1400
Geoffrey ChaucerChaucer is often regarded as the father of English literature, mostly the result of his most famous work, The Canterbury Tales. He wrote in the English vernacular, and was also a poet, philosopher, bureaucrat, courtier and diplomat.
(Date shown is the date he died. He was born in 1343, but there is debate on the actual day, so I used the more accurate.)