Women's Rights and Women's History

  • Jan 1, 1520


    Malinche was a Native American woman who helped Cortes conquer the Aztecs by being his translator and advisor.
  • Anne Hutchinson is banished from Massachusetts

    Anne Hutchinson is banished from Massachusetts
    Anne Hutchinson, while living in Puritan Massachusetts Bay, argued that the magistrates in Puritan society were not directly connected to God More than anyone else. She claimed that God could talk to any believers, and that he had spoken to her. Outraged, John Winthrop and other Puritan leaders banished her. She and some of her followers then, with the support of Roger Williams, founded Portsmouth.
  • Period: to

    Women from 1660-1750

    -The majority of women only had one major way to influence their lives: their choice of whom to marry
    -widows owned 8-10% of land in the colonies, and in the Chesepeake got complete control of their husband's former estates
    -Eliza Pickney owned a large esate in South Carolina
    -Ann Hutchinson defied gender norms and spoke out in Church
    -Women promote "godly order" and communities of women work to protect the poor and vulnerable
    Massachusetts allowed 27 divorces before 1692
  • Gender Ratio Balances

    At first, there had been many more men than women in the New World—especially in the Chesapeake regions, where men had come for economic prosperity. After may efforts to bring women over, the gender ratio in the New World finally balanced out in 1690.
  • Salem Witch Trials Begin

    Salem Witch Trials Begin
    Though no one knows exactly how the Salem Witch Trials began and what was at the heart of the matter, women were especially targetted during them. Evidence was frequently used that only proved the women to be different, such as being single or wearing a red dress.
  • Abigail Adams

    Abigail Adams
    Abigail Adams wrote her husband, John Adams, when he was going to the Second Continental Congress that he should "remember the ladies" when creating the new government.
  • Period: to

    Women from 1788-1800

    -The concept of "Republican Motherhood" was started. This was the idea that women should be educated so that their sons could be educated
    -New Jersey state consitution allowed women to vote (they were later disenfranchised in 1807)
    -Women have more choice in spouse
    -Using pseudonyms, "Matrimonial Republican" and "Daphne" challanged sexual double standards
    -Massachusetts bans elementary schools from exculding girls from their schools
  • Period: to

    The Cult of Domesticity

    The "cult of domesticity" was the philosophy that women were intellectually, physically, and in all other ways inferior to men. The principles of the cult of domesticity insisted that women stay home and keep house rather than truly get involved in society. The philosophy was made law under the doctrine of "femme covert," which took away wives' legal and political rights. It lasted until the Gilded Age.
  • New Jersey Revokes the RIght to Vote

    New Jersey revoked women's right to vote in 1807, after originaly permitting it in their State Consititution. They were the last state to do so, and women could now officially not vote anywhere in the United States.
  • Period: to

    Women from 1815-1860

    -Catherine Beecher Stowe creates the idea of "seperate spheres", saying that women and men had different but equally important roles
    -reform allowed women work outside the home
    -New York women can own property
    -Margaret Fuller was educated as a man, and became a transcendentalist
  • Period: to

    Antebellum Temperance Movement

    Women were greatly involved in the Antebellum Temperance Movement due to the rise of alcohol consumption in the 1800s. Some husbands spent so much money on alcohol that their wives could barely put food on the table, and the incrase in alcohol use caused an increase in domestic abuse. The movement did have some successes, including the criminalization of alcohol in Maine in 1851.
  • Period: to

    Women from 1830-1860

    Pre-Civil War:
    -Harriet Tubman helped over 70 families out of the South
    Civil War:
    -Women worked as nurses, sanitary comissions, in offices, and mills but also worked farms and acted as spies
    -Anna E. Dickinson campaigned effectively for Republican candidates
    -The Woman's National Loyal League, started by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony, connected black rights and womens rights
  • World Anti-Slavery Convention

    World Anti-Slavery Convention
    Elizabeth Cady Stanton wanted to attend the World Anti-Slavery Convention in London in 1840, but was turned away simply because of her gender. She returned outraged and began planning for the Seneca Falls Convention, which would be held in New York in 1848.
  • Dorothea Dix Begins Work

    Dorothea Dix Begins Work
    From 1845 to 1854, Dorothea Dix was an important activist in the Antebellum reform movement who advocated greatly for the reform of prison and mental asylums. Although she did have much success, she stopped her work in America and moved to Scotland in 1854 after President Pierce vetoed her Bill for the Betterment of the Indigent Insane, which would have set aside government lands for building mental asylums.
  • Seneca Falls Convention

    Seneca Falls Convention
    Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton organized the first Women's Rights Convention in the United States at Seneca Falls, NY in 1848. At the Convention, a Declaration of Sentiments was produced that echoed the Declaration of Independence. It proclaimed, "We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men and women are created equal..." This is said to have sparked the coalition of the Antebellum movement for Women's Rights.
  • Period: to

    Antebellum Women's RIghts Movement

    The Antebellm Women's RIghts Movement did have the eventual goal of suffrage, but the main goals of the movement at this time were property rights, divorce rights, equal employment opportunities and equal education opportunities. Leaders included Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott, and Susan B. Anthony.
  • Period: to

    The Civil War

    During the Civil War, women took the jobs men had left to go into battle, increasing their place in the world economically. Some also worked as nurses or spies, or even dressed as men to enter combat themselves.
  • Women's Christian Temperance Union

    Women's Christian Temperance Union
    Frances Willard founded the Women's Christian Temperance Union to conmat alcohol use and abuse. This was an early seed in the movement that led to the outlawing of alcohol in the United States.
  • Period: to

    The Gilded Age

    During the Gilded Age, the role of women in society evolved a lot. Moving past the cult of domesticity, the modern woman became the New Woman or the "Gibson Girl." The Gibson Girl did not have to wear extremely puffy and restrictive clothing—rather, she wore fitted dresses and showed some skin. Women could now date outside of their parlors and parents' sight, and they could engage in physical activity (especially bicycling).
  • Clara Barton Forms the American Red Cross

    Clara Barton Forms the American Red Cross
    Done shortly after the Civil War, this was at a time few women had work outside the home. She later goes on to help soldiers during the Spanish-American War.
  • Jane Goodale Becomes a "Lady Missionary" and opens a day school for Sioux Indians

    She was one of many women to start trying to extend their influence to other cultures.
  • Knights of Labor Accept Women

    Knights of Labor Accept Women
    The Knights of Labor, an extremely idealistic and extremely successful labor union of the late 1800s, accepted women into the union. This was considerd very radical for the time.
  • The Hull House

    The Hull House
    Jane Addams founded the Hull House—one of the first ever settlement houses in America—in Chicago in 1889. Settlement houses like these were mainly run by women, getting women involved in the roots of reform movements.
  • Period: to

    The Progressive Era

    Women are involved with movements outside suffrage such as Florence Kelley, Alice Hamilton, Ida Wells-Barnett, Jane Addams, Margaret Sanger, and Ida Tarbell. It also becomes acceptable to join the WCTU and take up more active roles outside the home. Overall, they are not so confined to the “women’s sphere”.
  • The Farmer's Alliance

    The Farmer's Alliance, a precursor to the Populist party, was one of the first major political organizations that women really became a part of. In her 1892 article "The Women in the Alliance Movement," Annie L. Diggs wrote, "The women are prominent as active, responsible members of the political arena..." Her article further describes how the Famer's Alliance opened doors for women to educate themselves and develop fluency in politics.
  • By this time, only Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, and Idaho allow women voting rights

    Women's Voting Rights:
  • Charlotte Perkins Gilman Writes Women and Economics

    Charlotte Perkins Gilman Writes Women and Economics
    A study about women and gender roles.
  • Carrie Chapman Catt Becomes Head of NAWSA

    Carrie Chapman Catt Becomes Head of NAWSA
    As a suffragist, Catt looked for state level reform.
  • Muller v. Oregon

    The court case Muller v. Oregon upheld a law that limited women's workdays to ten hours. This case was decided only shortly after Locher v. New York, which declared a law limiting bakers' hours unconstituional. The rationale for this was delivered to the Supreme Court in an argument known as the Brandeis Brief, which stated that since women needed special treatment in order to safeguard their reproductive health.
  • Period: to

    Second Suffrage Movement

    During the Progressive Era up to the end of World War I, the Suffrage Movement was revived. Important suffragists include Carrie Chapman Catt, Alice Paul, Margaret Sanger, and Susan B. Anthony.
  • Margaret Sanger Changes Laws about Bith Control

    Margaret Sanger Changes Laws about Bith Control
    Sanger Opens first birth control clinic, and stops laws banning information on contraceptive methods.
  • The Formation of the National Women's Party

    The Formation of the National Women's Party
    The NWP looked for a Constitutional Amendment to give women the right to vote. Paul founded the NWP in 1913, but it did not form until later.
  • Period: to

    New York and Michigan Grant Women the Right to Vote

  • Period: to

    World War I

    Because of the total war of World War I, women got very involved from the home front by getting jobs producing goods, making victory gardens, or participating in "Meatless Mondays" or "Wheatless Wednesday."
  • Period: to

    The Roaring 20s

    During the roaring twenties, the flapper became a popular fad among young women. The flapper wore short dresses, showed skin, drank and smoked in public, and cut their hair short. All of these aspects of the flapper lifestyle were meant to be more masculine, since women and men were now equal. Also, during the roaring twenties, consumer culture became huge. Millions of dollars in advertising began to be spent on targetting women, who became a huge part of the economy.
  • The Nineteenth Amendment Gives Women the Right to Vote

    The Nineteenth Amendment Gives Women the Right to Vote
  • Adkins v. Children's Hospital

    Adkins v. Children's Hospital was the case that repealed the decision of Muller v. Oregon and made limiting work hours for women unconstitutional. This was done with the reasoning that since women were now "equal" to men and should hold the same place in society, they should not get special treatment.
  • Gertrude Stein Defines a Generation

    With the publication of Ernest Heminway's "The Sun Also Rises" in 1926, Gertrude Stein's coined term "the lost generation" began to catch on as a moniker for the writers and and all the broken people of the WWI generation.
  • Period: to

    The Great Depression

    During the Great Depression, women had to go to work and support their families after their husbands lost their jobs. In fact, 20 to 50 percent of women were their household's sole source of substantial income during the Depression. It was still seen as somewhat unconventional and looked down upon for women to work outside of the home, but that clearly did not stop them. Overall, women's role in society increased during this time period.
  • Eleanor Roosevelt Gets Involved in Public Affairs

    Eleanor Roosevelt Gets Involved in Public Affairs
    Eleanor Roosevelt was arguably the first First Lady to get involved with anything political. She strongly supported the New Deal and civil rights, and she also pushed for birth control rights and better working conditions for women. Also, she is famous for arranging for Marian Anderson, an African-American singer, to sing on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial when the Daughters of the Revolution refused to let her perform for them due to her race. Mrs. Roosevelt was very well-liked by the public.
  • Frances Perkins Becomes FDR's Secretary of Labor

    Frances Perkins Becomes FDR's Secretary of Labor
    Frances Perkins was the first ever woman in the cabinet. She was a close friend and advisor of FDR and is creditted with heping to bring labor regulations in the New Deal. She is also known for drafting the Social Security Act.
  • Dorothea Lange Becomes a Well-Respected Photographer

    Dorothea Lange Becomes a Well-Respected Photographer
    Dorothea Lange's work photographing the Dust Bowl earned her respect across the nation.
  • Mary McLeod Bethune Leads the Black Cabinet

    Mary McLeod Bethune Leads the Black Cabinet
    Mary McLeod Bethune was a leader in Roosevelt's Black Cabinet, his informal group of African-American social policy advisors. She later headed the Division of Negro Affairs in the National Youth Administration.
  • Types of Working Women are Diversified

    Types of Working Women are Diversified
    -75% of new women workers married
    -60% over 35
    -33% had children under 14
  • Government Starts to Encourage Women to Enter the Workforce

    Government Starts to Encourage Women to Enter the Workforce
    Previously, women were encouraged to leave jobs not related to the home to men.
    -6 million women enter the workforce
    -constitute over 1/3 of the workforce
    The image of Rosie the Riveter is created.
  • More than 3000 Women join the armed forces; given military status

    More than 3000 Women join the armed forces; given military status
    Marks the first time women were given military jobs outside of nursing.
  • Women Assume Other Roles at the Homefront

    Women Assume Other Roles at the Homefront
    -rolling bandages for the Red Cross
    -Victory Gardens
  • Period: to

    Women Military Units Created

    -Women’s Army Corps (WAC)
    -The Navy’s Women Appointed for Volunteer Emergency Service (WAVES)
    -Women’s Airforce Service Pilots (WASP)
  • Period: to

    the 1950s

    During the 1950s, there was a mass movement of whites to the suburbs, and the quintessential woman became a housewife who stayed at home and took care of the children. Women were extremely bored and felt a sense of purposelessness. This led to the publishing of Betty Friedan's "The Feminine Mystique."
  • in 1960 ⅓ labor force was female and twice as many women were working than in 1940, 60 % were married, 40 % had school aged children, and an increase in the total number of women state legislatures and doctors

  • Rachel Carson publishes Silent Spring

    Rachel Carson publishes Silent Spring
  • Betty Friedan publishes The Feminine Mystique

    Betty Friedan publishes The Feminine Mystique
  • The Civil Rights Act of 1964 expanded to include women

  • National Organization for Women founded 1966

    Major leader of this orginzation: Betty Friedan
  • Ms. America Protest

    Ms. America Protest
    New York Radical women hold various protests against the Ms. America pagent. One way of protesting was crowning a sheep as Ms. America.
  • 50 Year Anniversary of Women Enfranchisment

    Women hold various protests and rallies with the goal to pass ERA, the Equal Rights Amendment.
  • Women allowed to run in the Boston Marathon

    Women allowed to run in the Boston Marathon
    Formerly, it was considered harmful for women to run long distances. Roberta Louise Gibb is the first women to successfully complete it.
  • Title IX of the Education Amendment put in place

    Forbids schools from receiving money for denying female applicants
  • Roe V. Wade

    Roe V. Wade
    -Finds it unconstitutional for a state to deny someone the right to an abortion
    -Expands privacy rights
  • Senate Passes the ERA

    Senate Passes the ERA
    The Equal Rights Amendment was a proposed Amendment to the Constitution orginally drafted by Alice Paul in the 1920s. In the 1970s, Gloria Steinam revived it and pushed for it to be passed. The Amendment would have banned all discrimination based on sex. Although it did pass in Congress, however, it was not ratified by enough states for it to become a Constitutional amendment.
  • Women enter military schools for the first time and other schools become co-educational

    Women enter military schools for the first time and other schools become co-educational
  • Sandra Day O'Connor Appointed

    Sandra Day O'Connor Appointed
    Sandra Day O'Connor, the United States' first female Supreme Court Justice, was appointed by Ronald Reagan in 1981.
  • Election of 1984

    Election of 1984
    Walter Mondale ran on the Democratic ticket in 1984 against Ronald Reagan. He ran supporting the ERA and his Vice Presidential candidate was Geraldine Ferraro, the first ever woman Vice Presidential candidate.