Title ix 1

Significant Events for Women in Sports

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    The 1800's

  • The beginning

    The beginning
    Significance of women in sports ranges back until 776 B.C when ancient greek olypics were held and women were not only banned from participation, but from being spectators as well. Any noted participation of women in sports was not until 1811 when womens first golf and tennis teams were formed. Several years later, Matthew Vassar opened Vassar College with a special school for women in physical education only including physical accomplishments for grace and "bodily strength"
  • "Blondes and Brunettes"

    "Blondes and Brunettes"
    In 1866, Vassar college was the first school to have two amateur baseball teams, the "blondes" and "brunettes." Almost ten years later, on Septemeber 11, 1875, the two teams played for the first time publicly, and money being charged for entry at the gates. This sparked a future for women in sports that would be considered more rigorous, yet proved women were fully capable.
  • AAU forms

    In 1888, due to women beginning to participate in amateur sports, the Amateur Athletic Union (AAU) was formed for men and women to establish standard and uniformity within amateur sports.
  • YMCA

    In 1882, the YMCA in Boston decided to hold the first athletic games for women, and ten years late after observation, in 1892 decided to devote an issue in its journal, "Physical Education," saying "women need physical strength and endurance, dismissing the popular idea that women are too weak to exercise."
  • "Fears" of being "less feminine"

    "Fears" of being "less feminine"
    Ranging from the 1900's til 1920', physical educators strongly opposed competition among women, fearing it would make them less feminine. Therefore when women were first allowed to join the Olympics in 1900, the only two events they were allowed to participate in were tennis and golf with appropriate feminine attire. Men wanted to see women wearing long skirts, make-up, and looking as feminine as possible even if they were playing a considered sport.
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  • Women join Olympics....well some

    In 1900, women participated in the first Olypics, but only in tennis and golf. It was not until the 1908, gym, tennis, archery, and figure skating were added, and then 1912, swimming was added as well. Although this was a big step internationally for women participating in the Olypics, zero American female athletes participated because it was frowned upon. In 1914, the American Olympic committee formally opposed women from participating in any event, with the exception of floor exercises.
  • Founding of Women's Associations

    In 1917, the American Physical education Association forms a committee on women's athletics to draft standarized and seperate rules for women's college field hockey, swimming, track and field, and soccer. Followed by the forganization of the National Women's Athletic Association in 1921, and the National Amateur and Athletic federation (NAAF) in 1922, commited on making sure boys and girls were being on an "equal footing with the same standards, same program, and same regulations."
  • A women who ruffled feathers

    A women who ruffled feathers
    Gertrude Ederle is a honorable mention for significant figures in women gaining more oppurtunity in sports, because she was not only the first women to swim the english channel, but her time also broke men's records. She proved to society women can not only things just as well as men, but possibly even better.
  • Taking two steps forward and ten steps back

    In the 1928 summer Olympics, five track and field events were added for women. The women did astonishingly well, with American Betsy Robinson the first win a gold medal in track in field for 100 meter race. It appeared as if women athletes were pushing forward for new oppurtunities. Regardless of some women's success, due to some women appearing exhausted after the race, the committee decided to ban track and field events until 1960
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    The 1900's

  • 3 strikes your out....then your banned

    In 1931, 17 year old pitcher, Virne Beatrice "Jackie" Mitchell struck out Babe Ruth and Lou Gehrig in exhibition games. The thought of a female athlete being better in a sport than professional males athletles started a huge controversy for women playing baseball. The final result was decided by baseball commisioner, Judge Kennesaw Mountain Landis who decided to ban women from professional baseball alltogether, which lasted until 1992.

    In 1932, the famous Babe Didrickson was the first American women to win three medals in three different events in the Olympics, two gold and one silver. Although, one gold was eventually taken away from her because she supposedly broke a rule. Regardless, this was a huge step and proof of women belonging in sports.
  • All American Red Heads

    All American Red Heads
    The All-American Red Heads basketball team was formed in 1936. The team lasted for over fifty years, using mens rules and competed against male basketball teams, winning 85-90 % of their games. With the American basketball team continuing and growing stronger, USA womens basketball competed in international competitions and won the world championship for the first time in 1953.
  • Unstoppable

    Although women were banned in 1931 to play professional baseball with men, in 1943 they were able to for an all american baseball league. Then in 1946, women's professional golf league was formed.
  • "We are all equal"

    "We are all equal"
    In 1948, Alice Cochran was the first african american female to receive a gold medal in the Olympics.
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    The 1900's

  • Gender Tests

    In 1968, the Olympic committee decides they will begin conducting gender tests for eligibility to compete in Olympic events effective at the winter games in Greennoble, France. Three years later, the AIAW, Association for Intercollegiate Athletics for women was created to organize and run sponsorship oppurtunities for college women. It also advocated equality in sports for women and men, and successfully provided college oppurtunities for women until 1982 when NCAA allowed women to join.
  • Title IX

    Title IX
    On July 23, 1972, President Nixon passed Title IX, an education ammendment that would change oppurtunity for women in sports forever. The ammendment stated, "No person in US shall, on basis of sex, be excluded from part in, be denied benefits of, or be subject to discrimination under any educationprogram or activity receiving federal financial assistance." Before Nixon signed the Title IX, about 31,000 women were involved in women sports, spending under 100,000 in funds, and 2.1 college teams.
  • Post Title IX

    Post Title IX
    Although Title IX was not officially in effect until June 21,1975, it had already started making changes. For one, the Boston Marathon now allowed women to receive a number and participate in the race. The first year, nine women ran, and one of the women, Nina Kuscik finished race before eight hundred other men. Another positive outcome was the increasing number of girl participants in highschool sports estimated at 1.3 million just one year later in 1973.
  • More positive outcomes

    After Title IX, the 1980's experienced many highs and lows for women in sports. In 1980, 223 women competed in the women olympics. In 1982, the NCAA added nine womens national collegiate championships for future school years. Last, in 1983, the NCAA finally recognized women as athletes, and the NAIAW is dissolved, so NCAA can take over. In 1984, womens shooting events is added to Olympics.
  • Weaken and Regain

    In 1984, the US supreme court weakens Title IX in the case Grove City College V. Bell by effectively denying application of Title IX in non-federal funded sub-units of education institutions, such as college departments of physical education and athletics. But in 1988, Title IX strength is regained when congress enacts Civil Rights Restoration Act which vetoes prohibition of sex discrimination throughout education institutions receiving federal funds. Also in 1990, Supreme Court boosts Title IX.
  • "Now any kind of girl is more likely to get involved in sports."-Michelle Akers

    "Now any kind of girl is more likely to get involved in sports."-Michelle Akers
    Just in the short year of 1999, several advancements happened for women in sports. For starters, two women were featured in Sports IIlustrated under, "Our Favorite Athletes of the 20th century" a long side other men athletes. Also, the womens US national team won the world cup for the first time and the first ever WNBA all-star game was held. In 1999, new statistics show women participating in sports has now tripled, 200 million dollars in school funding, and about 7.7 college teams per school.
  • New Century, New outlook

    New Century, New outlook
    The struggles of female athletes in sports has come a long way since the 1800's up to the 20th century. Now in the twentieth century women of all races were more and more equal not only in the sport industry but in society as a whole. In 2000, a very manly perceived sport, weightlifting was added to Olympic events for women, the olympics decided to end gender testing, and annual statistc women participant rates were continue to rise to all time heights.
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    20th Century

  • New face of sports

    New face of sports
    In twentieth century, women are no longer concerned on getting approval and recognition of their athletic abilities, because their presence has become common. The new popular image of women is the more in shape and "athletic," the sexier. By 2004, Olympic events were made up of 44% of women athletes, and only five countries do no allow women to participate. In 2006, NCAA took an additional step setting up a task force, enforcing more women and minorities be included in administration positions.