The Transforming Identity of American Women

By mcim
  • Restriction of Women's Property Rights

    Restriction of Women's Property Rights
    Married women cannot own property or keep their earnings.
  • "Remember the Ladies"

    "Remember the Ladies"
    Abigail Adams writes to her husband, John Adams, to "remember the ladies" at the time the Declaration of Independence was being written.
  • Women's Education

    Women's Education
    Mary Lyon founded Mount Holyoke College in Massachusetts, the first college exclusively for women. Oher institutions quickly began to follow suit.
  • Seneca Falls

    Seneca Falls
    The first Wome's Rights convention held in the Uninted States led by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott and took place in Seneca Falls New York.
  • Harriet Tubman

    Harriet Tubman
    Harriet Tubman escpaed from slavery and over the next 10 years worked to free other slaves via The Underground Railroad
  • The Lily

    The Lily
    Both published and edited by Amelia Jenks Bloomer, The Lily is the first women's rights newspaper.
  • Female Medical College

    Female Medical College
    Women are given the opportunity to study medicine upon the foundation of the Female Medical College of Pennsylvania, an institution created by Quaker physicians.
  • "Lucy Stoners"

    "Lucy Stoners"
    After her marriage, Lucy Stone became known as the first woman on record to keep her own name after her marriage. Women began to follow the precedent which she set forth and, consequently, became known as "Lucy Stoners"
  • Women and State Schools

    The rights of women substantially expand as the University of Iowa becomes the first sate school to admit women.
  • American Equal Rights Association

    American Equal Rights Association
    The American Equal RIghts Association is founded and becomes the first organization to advoctae women's suffrage in the United States.
  • Fourteenth Amendment

    Fourteenth Amendment
    The Fourteenth Amendment is passed by Congress and identifies the term "citizens" and "voters" with men.
  • National Labor Union

    National Labor Union
    The National Labor Union calls for equal pay for men and women.
  • The Revolution

    The Revolution
    Started by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anythony, icons of the women's rights movement, the Revolution is published becoming an important women's movement perodical.
  • Women on Juries

    Women on Juries
    For the first time on history,in the Wyoming Territory, women begin serving on juries
  • Arabella Mansfied

    Arabella Mansfied
    Arabella Mansfield becomes the first woman admitted to the bar in Iowa.
  • Fifteenth Amendment

    Fifteenth Amendment
    The Fifteenth Amendment is ratified stating that women are not, specifically, excluded from the vote. In jurisdictions stretching from Delaware to California approximately 150 women will attempt to vote.
  • Belva Lockwood

    Belva Lockwood
    Congress passes a law to give federal women employees "equal work for equal pay" due to the efforts of the lawyer Belva Lockwood.
  • Charlotte Ray

    Charlotte Ray
    Charlotte Ray becomes the first African American woman admitted to the United States bar.
  • Bradwell v. Illinois

    Bradwell v. Illinois
    In the decision of Bradwell v. Illinois, the rights of women are restricted as the Supreme Court affirms the constitutionality of states to restrict women from the practice of any porfession to uphold the law.
  • Helen Magill

    Helen Magill
    Helen Magill becomes the first woman to recieve a Ph.D. in the United States from Boston University.
  • The Susan B. Anthony Amendment

    The Susan B. Anthony Amendment
    The Susan B. Anthony Amendment is introduced to Congress to grant women the right to vote.
  • Belva Lockwood and the Presidential Election

    Belva Lockwood and the Presidential Election
    Belva Lockwood, the presidential candidate for the National Equal RIghts Paty, becomes the first woman to receive votes in a presidential election.
  • Women's suffrage in the Senate

    Women's suffrage in the Senate
    The United States Senate votes of women's suffrage, the first and only time this occurs during this century. The proposal loses in the Senate 34 to 16.
  • National Consumers League

    National Consumers League
    The National Consumers League is formed, an organization in which women used their power as consumers to push for better working conditions and protective laws for women workers. Florence Kelley is the president of this organization.
  • Divorce

    Divorce
    Two-thirds of all divorce cases are initiated by women.
  • Muller v. Oregon

    Muller v. Oregon
    The Supreme Court upheld an Oregon law, which limited women from working no more than ten hours a day. The ruling was meant to "protect" women, but many felt it was just a way to retain a patriarchal society.
  • Women Garmet Strike.

    Women Garmet Strike.
    Women garmet workers start a strike in New York demanding both better wages and working conditions. 20,000 women took part in the uprising, an event which had important results as over 300 shops signed union contracts.
  • American Group of Girl Guides

    American Group of Girl Guides
    In Atlanta Georgia Juliette Gordon Low founds the first group of American Girl Guides, a group which becomes known as the Girl Scouts of the USA. This group proves, to this day, to teach girls independence and resourcefulness.
  • Congressional Union

    Congressional Union
    The Congressional Union is founded by Alice Paul and Lucy Burns, an organization which is later renamed as the National Women's Party. Use the tactic of civil disobedience to draw attention to the cause of women's suffrage.
  • Women and World War I

    Women and World War I
    A video which discusses the roles of women during World War I.With men vacating their positions in the workforce to take part in the war effort, women move into many male dominated positions including jobs in heavy industry, mining, automobile, manufacturing, and railway plants. Women also take part in delivering mail, conducting trains, and directing traffic.
  • Jeannette Rankin

    Jeannette Rankin
    Jeannette Rankin becomes the first woman elected to the United States Congress
  • Women's Suffrage Amendment

    Women's Suffrage Amendment
    The women's suffrage amendment is passed in the House of Representatives 304 to 89 and in the Senate with a vote of 56 to 25. An amendment which gives women the right to vote.
  • American Birth Control League

    American Birth Control League
    Margaret Sanger organizes the American Birth Control League, an organization which takes the name of Planned Parenthood in 1942.
  • Adkins v. Children's Hospital

    Adkins v. Children's Hospital
    Supreme Court ruled that it was unconstitutional to establish a minimum wage for women, giving men and women equal rights with working wages.
  • Frances Perkins

    Frances Perkins
    The first woman to be in the United States Cabinet, Frances Perkins serves as the Secretary of Labor during the Roosevlet administration.
  • Pittsburgh Press Co. v. Pittsburgh Commission on Human Relations

    Pittsburgh Press Co. v. Pittsburgh Commission on Human Relations
    Court ruled that it was unconstitutional to categorize jobs based on a person's gender.
  • Women During World War II

    Women During World War II
    A governmental media campaign encourages women to take part in the war. The campaign has a reposne from 7 million women, 2 million work on the home front and 400,000 join th military. The iconic Rosie the Riveter is born. A woman's war too.
  • Women Lose their Jobs

    Women Lose their Jobs
    Women in industrial positions begin to lose their jobs to men returning from the serivce. However, 80% of women continue to participate in the workforce.
  • Women and Votes

    Women and Votes
    The number of women voting is equivalent to the number of men voting for the first time in history.
  • Women and Wages

    Women and Wages
    Women earn only 60 cents for every dollar earned by men. For women of color, wages are even less with only 42 cents for every dollar earned by men, a serious decline for both groups since 1955.
  • Equal Pay Act Gains Passage

    Equal Pay Act Gains Passage
    Proposed 20 years earlier, the Equal Pay Act finally establishes equal pay between men and women for equal labor performance. However, the law excludes domestic or agricultural workers, executives, administrators, or professionals.
  • The Feminine Mystique

    The Feminine Mystique
    Betty Friedan's novel, The Feminine Mystique, is published. By 1970, the book sells 5 million copies laying the groundwork for the feminist movement.
  • Civil Rights Act

    Civil Rights Act
    Tilte VII of the Civil RIghts Acts furthers the rights of women by prohibiting employment discrimination by employers and unions based on race, gender, and other grounds. The Civil Rights Act establishes the Equal Employmet Opportunity Commission to hear complaints and enforce the regulations set forth by the Civil Rights Act. The EEOC receives 50,000 complaints of discrimination based on gender in the first five years.
  • Griswold v. Connecticut

    Griswold v. Connecticut
    Connecticut law banned the use of contraceptives, but the court ruled that married women could use contraceptives due to the right to privacy,
  • National Organization for Women

    National Organization for Women
    Twenth-eight women found the National Organization for Women in response to the influx of gender related discrimination in the workplace. The National Organization for Women serves as a civil rights organization for women.
  • Shirley Chisholm

    Shirley Chisholm
    Shirley Chisholm becomes the first African American women elected to the US Congress.
  • Women's Liberation Conference

    Women's Liberation Conference
    The National Women's Liberation Conference is held for the first time in history in Chicago.
  • The Fall of Women's Wages

    The Fall of Women's Wages
    Women's wages decrease to 59 cents for every dollar earned by men. A fall from women's wages in 1960 during which women earned 60 cents for every dollar earned by men.
  • Re-introduction of Equal Rights Amendment

    Re-introduction of Equal Rights Amendment
    The Equal Rights Amendment, previously brought to the attention of Congress, is reintroduced into Congress.
  • Reed v. Reed

    Reed v. Reed
    Court unanimously ruled that a state which provides that males must be preferred to females denies women equal protection of the law. This is the first time the Court decides that a law, which discriminates women, is unconstitutional under the Fourteenth Amendment.
  • Phillips v. Martin Marietta

    Phillips v. Martin Marietta
    Declared that under Title VII it is unconstitutional to refuse to hire women.
  • Phillips v. Martin Marietta Corp

    Phillips v. Martin Marietta Corp
    In a unanimous ruling the Court said that employers could not refuse to hire women with pre-school aged children and then hire men with children of the same age.
  • Ms. Magazine

    Ms. Magazine
    The first issue of Ms. Magazine is published after its first publication as a sample insert in New York magazine with over 300,000 copies sold. Confounder and editor of this magazine, Gloria Steinem becomes an icon of the modern feminist movement and the magazine itself becomes a voice for feminist movements.
  • Billie Jean King

    Billie Jean King
    Billie Jean King defeats Bobby Riggs in "the tennis tournament watched by nearly 48,000,000 people," a huge victory for female athletes nationwide.
  • Roe v. Wade Decision

    Roe v. Wade Decision
    The landmark decision in the case of Roe v. Wade establishes a woman's right to abortion. This decision proced to cancel the anti-abrotion laws set forth by 46 states.
  • Pittsburgh Press v. Pittsburgh Commission on Human Relations

    Pittsburgh Press v. Pittsburgh Commission on Human Relations
    Court rules that sex segregated columns and publications of these columns is illegal because they express unlawful gender preferences.
  • MANA

    MANA
    The Nexican-American Women's National Assoiation is developed and becomes a feminist activist organization.
  • Corning Glass Works v. Brennan

    Corning Glass Works v. Brennan
    First time the Court considers an Equal Pay Act. The case determined that the difference in pay between Corning's female day inspectors and male night inspectors violated the Equal Pay Act.
  • Women and College

    Women and College
    Hundereds of colleges begin offering women's studies courses. Support for women students is offered at women's centers on many college campuses.
  • Women's Bank

    Women's Bank
    In New York City, the First Women's Bank is founded and opened. Madeline H. McWhinney served as its first president followed by Lnn Salvage in 1976.
  • Stanton v. Stanton

    Stanton v. Stanton
    Court ruled that setting the age of majority for women at 18 and then 21 for males, based on idea that women need less education and preparation for adulthood, was unconstitutional.
  • Taylor v. Louisiana

    Taylor v. Louisiana
    Requires states to call men and women to jury duty on equal basis.
  • Califano v. Goldfarb

    Califano v. Goldfarb
    Supreme Court invalidated gender based distinctions in social security advisor benefits, finding these to be archaic ideas on women's dependancy.
  • Nashville Gas Co. v. Satty

    Nashville Gas Co. v. Satty
    Court ruled its unconstitutional to deny accumulated seniority to employees returning from pregnancy
  • Women Surpass Men

    Women Surpass Men
    For the first time in history, the number of women attending college surpasses that of the number of men enrolling.
  • Califano v. Westcott

    Califano v. Westcott
    The Court invalidates an unconstitutional program, which provided unemployment benefits to families where the father is unemployed but not to families where the mother is unemployed.
  • Califano v. Westcott

    Califano v. Westcott
    Ruled that it is unconstitutional to just provide benefits to unemployed fathers, must provide it for unemployed mothers as well.
  • Sandra Day O'Connor

    Sandra Day O'Connor
    Sandra Day O'Connor becomes the first woman in history to be appointed the the United States Supreme Court.
  • Rostker v. Goldberg

    Rostker v. Goldberg
    Supreme Court rules that it is not unconstitutional for the draft registration to only mandate for men. The Court also decided that this gender-related issue is up to Congress to decide.
  • County of Washington v. Gunther

    County of Washington v. Gunther
    Ruled that there will be equal wages for men and women.
  • National Women's History Week

    National Women's History Week
    President Carter sets forth the precedent of "National Women's History Week" and established March 8th as International Women's Day.
  • Arizona Governing Committee v. Norris

    Court says that a state pension that gives employees a number of retirement benefits to choose from, all of which pay women lower benefits than men, is unconstitutional.
  • Geraldine Ferraro

    Geraldine Ferraro
    Geraldine Ferraro becomes the first women to be elected as a vice-presidential candidate for the Democratic Party.
  • Meritor Savings Bank v. Vinson

    Meritor Savings Bank v. Vinson
    Ruled that sexual harrassment that creates a hostlle environment is a form of sex discrimination prohibited by Title VII.
  • Meritor Savings Bank v. Vinson

    Meritor Savings Bank v. Vinson
    Sexual harassment that creates a hostile environment is sexual discrimination.
  • Johnson v. Transportation Agency, Santa Clara

    Court ruled that it was okay for an employer to consider sex if it is in line with an affirmative action plan that works to better represent women in traditionally sex-segregated jobs.
  • Price-Waterhouse v. Hopkins

    Price-Waterhouse v. Hopkins
    When gender discrimination plays a part in employment, an employer can avoid liability by proving that the same decision would have been made in the absence of gender discrimination.
  • African American Women in Office

    African American Women in Office
    African American women's influence in an elective office position has increased from 131 to 1,950 in a 20 year time span, 1970-1990.
  • International Union, UAW v. Johnson Controls, Inc.

    International Union, UAW v. Johnson Controls, Inc.
    Johnson Controls Inc. barred fertile women from obtaining jobs with exposure to lead even though it was also equally harmful to man's reproductive system in which the court ruled was unconstitutional to discriminate a job based on gender.
  • United Auto Workers v. Johnson Controls

    United Auto Workers v. Johnson Controls
    Women must be allowed to make their own decisions about pregnancy and dangerous occupations. Employers cannot exclude women from certain jobs because of concern for children that may be conceived.
  • Take Our Daughters to Work Day

    Take Our Daughters to Work Day is established so as to expose girls to a variety of careers and build their self-esteem.
  • Women in the Olympics

    Women in the Olympics
    Women in the United States achieve remarkable success in the 1996 Summer Olympics winning 19 gold medals, 10 silver medals, and 9 bronze medals.
  • United States v. Virginia

    United States v. Virginia
    The Supreme Court held Virginia Military Institute in direct violation with the Constitution because it was a male only institution.
  • Kolstad v. American Dental Association

    Kolstad v. American Dental Association
    A court can grant punitive damages to a women alleging sex discrimination even if she does not show the employer's behavior as being egregious. Also an employer will not be held responsible for managerial activities.
  • Nguyen v. INS

    Nguyen v. INS
    Court upholds a law that states out-of-wedlock children born overseas to be U.S. citizens when their mothers are citizens, but if only the father is a citizen then before the child is 18 steps acknowledging paternity must be taken to prove citizenship.
  • Ferguson v. City of Charleston

    Ferguson v. City of Charleston
    Pregnant women cannot be subjected to warrantless and suspicionless searches like substance abuse tests because they are pregnant.