Western Expansion

  • Oklahoma Land Rush

    Seven land runs took place in Oklahoma, beginning with the Land Run of April 22, 1889, which opened the Unassigned Lands and led to today's Canadian, Cleveland, Kingfisher, Logan, Oklahoma, and Payne counties of the U.S. state of Oklahoma.[1]
  • Chief Joseph

    He led his band during the most tumultuous period in their contemporary history when they were forcibly removed from their ancestral lands in the Wallowa Valley by the United States federal government and forced to move northeast, onto the significantly reduced reservation in Lapwai, Idaho Territory
  • Irish immigrants

    emigration became a massive, relentless, and efficiently managed national enterprise
  • Colorado Gold Rush

    was the boom in gold prospecting and mining in the Pike's Peak Country of western Kansas Territory and southwestern Nebraska Territory of the United States that began in July 1858 and lasted until roughly the creation of the Colorado Territory on February 28, 1861
  • Homestead Act of 1862

    The first of the acts, the Homestead Act of 1862, was signed into law by President Abraham Lincoln on May 20, 1862. Anyone who had never taken up arms against the U.S. government (including freed slaves and women), was 21 years or older, or the head of a family, could file an application to claim a federal land grant. There was also a residency requirement.
  • Morrill Act

    The Morrill Land-Grant Acts are United States statutes that allowed for the creation of land-grant colleges, including the Morrill Act of 1862
  • Sand Creek Massacre

    was an atrocity in the Indian Wars that occurred on November 29, 1864, when a 700-man force of Colorado Territory militia attacked and destroyed a peaceful village of Cheyenne and Arapaho encamped in southeastern Colorado Territory,[3] killing and mutilating an estimated 70–163 Indians, about two-thirds of whom were women and children
  • Treaty of Ft. Laramie

    The Treaty of Fort Laramie (also called the Sioux Treaty of 1868) was an agreement between the United States and the Oglala, Miniconjou, and Brulé bands of Lakota people, Yanktonai Dakota, and Arapaho Nation[1] signed in 1868 at Fort Laramie in the Wyoming Territory, guaranteeing to the Lakota ownership of the Black Hills, and further land and hunting rights in South Dakota, Wyoming, and Montana.
  • The Battle of the Little Bighorn

    The Battle of the Little Bighorn, commonly referred to as Custer's Last Stand, was an armed engagement between combined forces of Lakota, Northern Cheyenne and Arapaho tribes, against the 7th Cavalry Regiment of the United States Army. The battle, which occurred on June 25–26, 1876
  • Exodusters

    Exodusters was a name given to African Americans who migrated from states along the Mississippi River to Kansas in the late nineteenth century, as part of the Exoduster Movement or Exodus of 1879
  • A Century of Dishonor’

    A Century of Dishonor is a non-fiction book by Helen Hunt Jackson first published in 1881 that chronicled the experiences of Native Americans in the United States, focusing on injustices.
  • cattle drives

    A cattle drive is the process of moving a herd of cattle from one place to another, usually moved and herded by cowboys on horses.
  • Helen Hunt Jackson

    Helen Maria Hunt Jackson, born Helen Fiske (October 15, 1830 – August 12, 1885), was a United States poet and writer who became an activist on behalf of improved treatment of Native Americans by the U.S. government
  • Transcontinental Railroad

    A transcontinental railroad is a contiguous network of railroad trackage
  • Dawes Allotment Act

    authorized the President of the United States to survey American Indian tribal land and divide it into allotments for individual Indians.
  • vaqueros

    is a horse-mounted livestock herder of a tradition that originated on the Iberian Peninsula
  • open-range system

    The Western open-range tradition originated from the early practice of unregulated grazing in newly acquired western territories, which was codified in the laws of Western US states as they developed written statutes.[
  • Chinese immigrants

    are people of Chinese birth or descent who live outside the People's Republic of China and Republic of China (Taiwan).
  • Sitting Bull

    was a Hunkpapa Lakota holy man who led his people as a tribal chief during years of resistance to United States government policies.
  • Battle of Wounded Knee

    The Wounded Knee Massacre occurred on December 29, 1890,[4] near Wounded Knee Creek on the Lakota Pine Ridge Indian Reservation in the U.S. state of South Dakota. It was the last battle of the American Indian Wars. On the day before, a detachment of the U.S. 7th Cavalry Regiment commanded by Major Samuel M. Whitside intercepted Spotted Elk's band of Miniconjou Lakota and 38 Hunkpapa Lakota near Porcupine Butte and escorted them five miles westward (8 km) to Wounded Knee Creek, where they made ca