US chronology 2019

  • Period: to

    Spanish Texas (Texas)

    Spanish had established sovereignty over the land + 3 presidios. Many people who lived from cattle raising, they were called rancheros
  • Treaty of Fontainebleau (United States)

    Treaty of Fontainebleau (United States)
    The Louisiana territories West of the Mississippi were secretly ceded to Spain by Louis XV, following France's defeat in the Seven Year's War
  • Proclamation Line (United States)

    Proclamation Line (United States)
    Issued by King George III of Great Britain, the purpose was to organize these new lands and stabilize relations with the Amerindians by regulating the fur trade, colonization and land purchases on western border
  • Treaty of Paris (United States

    Treaty of Paris (United States
    Louis XV ceded to England the Louisiana territories East of the Mississippi, except New Orleans
  • Period: to

    The American Revolutionary War (United States)

    Between Britain and the Thirteen Colonies. At the end they declared independence and called themselves the United States of America
  • Period: to

    Territorial Expansion (United States)

    ●PHASE 1 (1780s-1845): context of imperial rivalry, important to assert US sovereignty over Indian Reserve and Louisiana. Instrumental to define main aspects of western land policy and territorial government.
    ●PHASE 2 (1845-1860): fulfilling the United States’ Manifest Destiny: Western settlement and investment were key national goals.
    ●PHASE 3 (1860s-1900): era of the “Great Surveys” by US Geological Survey, scientific explorations and inventories
  • Treaty of Paris (Native Americans)

    Treaty of Paris (Native Americans)
    Signed in Paris by the US and the Great Britain, it ended the American Revolutionary War. American Independence recognized, end of 'Indian Reserve
  • Land of Ordinance (United States)

    Land of Ordinance (United States)
    Adopted by the US Congress, settlers had the right to purchase title to farmland in the part which was not developed in the west
  • Northwest Indian War (Native Americans)

    Northwest Indian War (Native Americans)
    Aka 'Little Turtle's War', opposed the US army to Native Confederacy sometimes with support from British forts; St Clair's Defeat, Battle of Fallen Timbers. Ended in 1795.
  • Major Indian victory (Native Americans)

    Major Indian victory (Native Americans)
    St. Clair’s Defeat, indians against General St. Clair (US Army)
  • State of Kentucky (United States)

    State of Kentucky (United States)
    Originally came from Virginia, growth of Kentucky population and resistance to Virginia government. Kentuckians asked for statehood as early as 1784, state admitted into the Union in 1792 after the US had his Constitution ratified
  • Major Indian defeat (Native Americans)

    Major Indian defeat (Native Americans)
    Battle of Fallen Timbers (against General Anthony Wayne’s Legion of the United States)
  • Treaty of Greenville (Native Americans)

    Treaty of Greenville (Native Americans)
    In Ohio, Indians ceded large tracts of lands, established the annuity system + supplies in exchange for lands; marked border between Indian lands and white settlers
  • State of Tennessee (United States)

    State of Tennessee (United States)
    Initially part of North Carolina, the trans-Appalachian lands ceded by North Carolina to the federal government, permanent conflicts with Indian tribes, statehood granted in 1796
  • Thomas Jefferson elected President (United States)

    Thomas Jefferson elected President (United States)
    Elected third president of the United States in 1800 (mandate 1801-1809), author of Declarations of Independence, organized Louisianna Purchase, Lewis and Clark Expedition
  • Treaty of San Ildefonso (secret deal with Napoleon) (United States)

    Treaty of San Ildefonso (secret deal with Napoleon) (United States)
    Secret Treaty by which Spain returns to France the territories of Louisiana located West of the Mississippi
  • Louisiana Purchase Treaty (United States)

    Louisiana Purchase Treaty (United States)
    The sale of Louisiana is signed for 15 million dollars
  • Lewis & Clark Expedition (United States)

    Lewis & Clark Expedition (United States)
    President Jefferson asked Meriwether Lewis to explore the lands west of Mississippi River, he chose William Clark as co-leader. Ended in September 1806.
  • Meriwether Lewis (United States)

    Meriwether Lewis (United States)
    1774-1809: American explorer tasked by Jefferson to explore the lands west of Mississippi River from 1804 to 1806
  • William Clark (United States)

    William Clark (United States)
    1770-1838: American explorer, joined the state militia and was the co-leader of Meriwether Lewis during the Lewis and Clark Expedition from 1804 to 1806
  • Sacagawea (United States)

    Sacagawea (United States)
    1788-1812: Shoshone Indian woman, Lewis and Clark hoped she could translate the conversations between the indians and them during their expedition from in 1804
  • Mexican War of Independence (Mexico)

    Mexican War of Independence (Mexico)
    Mexico became independent from Spain, armed conflit. Ended in 1821.
  • The Oregon Trail (Oregon)

    The Oregon Trail (Oregon)
    Laid by fur traders, passable on foot or horseback : Route from Missouri to Oregon, used by Emigrants to go west, 2000 miles. Ended in 1840
  • Fort Astoria (Oregon)

    Fort Astoria (Oregon)
    Primary fur trading post of John Astor's Pacific Fur Company later named Fort George.
  • Battle of the Thames (Native Americans)

    Battle of the Thames (Native Americans)
    US victory over British and Indian forces, allow the US to have more control over the Northwest
  • Convention of 1818 (Oregon)

    Convention of 1818 (Oregon)
    Signed between Britain and the United States, Oregon then extended from the boundary of Mexican California to the Southern boundarynof Russia's Alaska. Treaty renewed in 1827.
  • Declaration of Independence of the Mexican Empire (Mexico)

    Declaration of Independence of the Mexican Empire (Mexico)
    Mexico became independent
  • 21 California missions (California)

    21 California missions (California)
    Spanish missions in California run by Franciscan friars, helped by military men in order do develop the land, people used indians for captive labor
  • Bureau of Indian Affairs (Native Americans)

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Native Americans)
    In 1851, tried to help the indians, negociations treaties to put them on reservation. California congressman disagreed, forced the indians to move on military reservation, California committed an Indian genocide
  • Colonization Act of 1824 (California)

    Colonization Act of 1824 (California)
    Allowed governors to grant land titles to foreignors for the establishment of ranchos
  • Stephen Austin, Jr. (Texas)

    Stephen Austin, Jr. (Texas)
: Empresario, 'Father of Texas' worked under mexican authorities to organize the migration of the Americans' family to settle in. In 1825, Austin had brought the first 300 families to his settlement
  • Andrew Jackson elected President (United States)

    Andrew Jackson elected President (United States)
    Elected seventh president of the Unites States in 1828 (mandate 1829-1837): American soldier, statesman, signed the Indian Removal Act, he recognized the Republic of Texas, advocated the Annexation of Texas
  • Cherokee Phoenix (Native Americans)

    Cherokee Phoenix (Native Americans)
    First newspaper published by Native Americans in the United States in a Native American language
  • Cherokee territory Gold (Native Americans)

    Cherokee territory Gold (Native Americans)
    Gold found on Cherokee territory
  • Georgia Rush (California)

    Georgia Rush (California)
    Discovering of Gold in Georgia, end in the 1840s because Gold became difficult to find
  • Indian Removal Act (Native Americans)

    Indian Removal Act (Native Americans)
    Congress gave the President authority to negociate with Indians in the Southeast their removal to federal territory west of the Mississippi River = 'Indian Territory' -> Moving a series of tribes including cherokees from the South East to a place they didn't know
  • Cherokee Nation v. Georgia (Native Americans)

    Cherokee Nation v. Georgia (Native Americans)
    Bill brought by the Cherokee Nation asking for an injunction against laws passed by the state of Georgia
  • Worcester v. Georgia (Native Americans)

    Worcester v. Georgia (Native Americans)
    Laws that followed the agreement between the Cherokee tribe and the state governmant of Georgia. Those laws forbade the non-indians from living in Indian territories.
  • Antonio López de Santa Anna elected President of Mexico (Texas)

    Antonio López de Santa Anna elected President of Mexico (Texas)
    1794-1876): Mexican politician, defended royalist New Spain and for Mexican Independence, president of Mexico from 1833 to 1835
  • Mexican Secularization Act (California)

    Mexican Secularization Act (California)
    Act that disestablished the Spanish missions in California because Mexico feared that Spain continue to have influence over California due to theses missions
  • California's Rancho Era (California)

    California's Rancho Era (California)
    Rancheros were the people who had power (key aspect of California's life), Ranches were tracts of land used for cattleraising, sheep, horses.
  • Treaty of New Echota (Native Americans)

    Treaty of New Echota (Native Americans)
    The Cherokee Nation ceded its territory in the southeast and agreed to move west to the Indian Territory
  • David Crockett (Texas)

    David Crockett (Texas)
 Frontiersman, bearhunter, western legend, died during the Battle of the Alamo in 1836
  • Jim Bowie (Texas)

    Jim Bowie (Texas)
: frontiersman from the South, invented a knife, used by trappers, died during the Battle of the Alamo in 1836
  • Period: to

    The Republic of Texas (Texas)

    They had a constitution, but started petitions for annexation + controversy about slavery, South favorable for expand slavery and North opposed.
  • The Battle of the Alamo (Texas)

    The Battle of the Alamo (Texas)
    Battle between the Republic of Texas and Mexico, 200 Americans/Tejanos versus 5000 mexicans. Americans lost aginst mexicans (The Fall of Alamo), Crockett died, controversy on Crockett, some people said he tried to negociate with the mexicans Ended a few days later in March 6th
  • Texas Declaration of Independence (Texas)

    Texas Declaration of Independence (Texas)
    Texas became independent
  • The Battle of San Jacinto (Texas)

    The Battle of San Jacinto (Texas)
    Led by Santa Anna for the Mexicans and by Sam Houston for the Americans, end by a defeat of the Mexican army
  • Trail of Tears (Native Americans)

    Trail of Tears (Native Americans)
    The Cherokee nation was forced to give up its land of the Mississippi River due to the Indian Removal Act (many died of disease, starvation, awful conditions)
  • The Willamette Cattle Company (Oregon)

    The Willamette Cattle Company (Oregon)
    Purpose of purchasing cattle in Mexican California
  • John Tyler elected Preisdent (United States)

    John Tyler elected Preisdent (United States)
    1790-1862: Elected Tenth president in 1840 (mandate 1841-1845), opened the door for Texas annexation, signed in March 1845, convinced of the right of the southern states to maintain slavery
  • James K. Polk elected President (United States)

    James K. Polk elected President (United States)
    1795-1849: Elected 11th president of the United States in 1844 (mandate 1845-1849), he led the US during the Mexican-American War, Polk sent Fremont and and Kit Carson reach sutter's fort, made an announcement about Gold discovered in California
  • Manifest Destiny (United States)

    Manifest Destiny (United States)
    Religious belief in the US in the 19th century in which settler expanded across North America, reason for them to justify these acquisitions, describe the ideology of continental expansionism. The term 'Manifest Destiny' appeared for the first time in 1845 in an article from O'Sullivan
  • John O'Sullivan (United States)

    John O'Sullivan (United States)
    1813-1895: Journlist and founder, editor of the United States Magazine and Democratic Review, first to use the term “Manifest Destiny” in 1845
  • Annexation of Texas (Texas)

    Annexation of Texas (Texas)
    The US Congress passed a “Joint Resolution for Annexing Texas to the United States”, John Tyler signed the annexation and Texas was admitted to the Union as the 28th state
  • Battle of Monterrey (Mexico)

    Battle of Monterrey (Mexico)
    General Taylor (US) crossed the Rio Grande and defeated once again the Mexican Army of the North during the battle
  • The Conquest of New Mexico (Mexico)

    The Conquest of New Mexico (Mexico)
    American troops led by Kearny, disagreement in Mexico, mexicans did not want to happen like the Battle of Alamo, mexicans met not armed and surrendered the province. Ended 2 months later in August.
  • Wilmot Proviso (Mexico)

    Wilmot Proviso (Mexico)
    Unsuccessful proposal to ban slavery from Mexico in the Mexican-American War
  • Oregon Treaty (Oregon)

    Oregon Treaty (Oregon)
    Treaty between Britain and the United States, end to the Oregon boundary dispute, occupied by both Britain and the US
  • Bear Flag Revolt (California)

    Bear Flag Revolt (California)
    American settlers in California rebelled against Mexican authority. Ended the next month in July.
  • Sam Houston Governor of Texas (Texas)

    Sam Houston Governor of Texas (Texas)
: American soldier and politician, president of the Republic of Texas, led the Texian Army to victory at the Battle of San Jacinto
  • John C. Fremont (California)

    John C. Fremont (California)
    1813-1890: Led several expeditions to the West in the 1840s, survey the land, organized the bear flag revolt, he used Mountain Men and American landowners in the Sacramento Valley 1846
  • The Mexican-American War (Mexico)

    The Mexican-American War (Mexico)
    It was a dispute border between the United States (led by Polk) and Mexico (led by Santa Anna) triggered when the US Congress voted the Annexation of Texas in 1845. José Joaquin de Herrera was general in the Mexican Army during the Mexican-Amerian War. John Slidell was sent by Polk in 1846 to meet the mexican authorities, sent to negociate. Ended in February 3rd 1848.
  • A State of War (Mexico)

    A State of War (Mexico)
    The US congress approved the declaration of war against Mexico sought by Polk
  • Battle of Buena Vista (Mexico)

    Battle of Buena Vista (Mexico)
    General Taylor invaded Monterrey and Saltillo, the US won the battle against the mexican army, Santa Anna defeated, had to retreat
  • Invasion of Vera Cruz (Mexico)

    Invasion of Vera Cruz (Mexico)
    Assault by the US military forces, shells damaged within the city at the end surrender + occupation of the city by the amercans
  • Battle of Cerro Gordo (Mexico)

    Battle of Cerro Gordo (Mexico)
    Santa Anna was back but defeated again by the US, he had to flew on a Mue
  • Battle of Chapultepec (Mexico)

    Battle of Chapultepec (Mexico)
    Led by general Scott, 2,000 US troops attacked 880 mexican troops.
  • California Vigilantes (California)

    California Vigilantes (California)
    Citizens who decided to take justice on their own, they organized a group of men and they went after people who caused trouble
  • Gold nugget (California)

    Gold nugget (California)
    It was found on John Augustus Sutter's property by James Marshall in January 1848. Polk made an announcement later about gold found in California.
  • Zachary Taylor elected President (United States)

    Zachary Taylor elected President (United States)
    1784-1850: Officer in the US army he became later the 12th president of the United States in 1848 (mandate 1849-1850), sent by Polk to the mouth of the Rio Grande with volunteer troops
  • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (Mexico)

    Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (Mexico)
    Negociated by peace commissioner, Trist, mexican session (Texas, California, New Mexico, Arisona, Nevada..) compensation for Mexico 15M$
  • Oregon Territory (Oregon)

    Oregon Territory (Oregon)
    Established until February 1853 because it became a state
  • California Gold Rush (California)

    California Gold Rush (California)
    Gold in California brought back 300,000 people to California in Spring 1849
  • Panama Shortcut - Around Cape Horn - Staking claims (California)

    Panama Shortcut - Around Cape Horn - Staking claims (California)
    Panama: Faster way to go to California for Gold, short cut to death, many people died in the jungle of Panama.
    Cape Horn: Safest way to go to California, very expensive, the more interested the people were, the more increased the price was
    Lode and Placer claims
  • Act for the Government and Protection of Indians (Native Americans)

    Act for the Government and Protection of Indians (Native Americans)
    Allowed white people to declare indians as vagrants and turn them into indentured servants, they worked for a master until their debt was paid off + children turned into indentured servants
  • Compromise of 1850 (United States)

    Compromise of 1850 (United States)
    Five seperate bills passed by the US Congress between the slave states of the South and the free states of the North. It allowed California to be admitted as a free state, and New Mexico and Utah Territory left to the decision of the people about slavery
  • Treaty of Fort Laramie (Native Americans)

    Treaty of Fort Laramie (Native Americans)
    Guaranteed lands on Plains to each tribes, protection from white intrusion and supplies for 50 years. Renewed in 1868, the two majors leaders Lakota Sioux Chief Red Cloud and Tecumseh Sherman signed it. New agreement: indians had to stopped attacking prospectors because they were passing through their territory
  • Indian Appropriations Act (Native Americans)

    Indian Appropriations Act (Native Americans)
    Act to make sure that money was available to move western tribes to reservations (closed to where the indians lived)
  • State of Oregon (Oregon)

    State of Oregon (Oregon)
    It was admitted to the Union as the State of Oregon
  • Indian Territory (Native Americans)

    Indian Territory (Native Americans)
    Territory reduced in size severly when the Kansas and Nebraska territories were opened to white settlement. Image of 1834
  • Pike's Peak Gold Rush (California)

    Pike's Peak Gold Rush (California)
    Boom in Gold, around 100,000 gold seekers took part in one of the greatest gold rushes in North America. Ended in 1875.
  • Great Surveys (United States)

    Geological Survey, scientific explorations and inventories (prelude to conservation movement) four major explorations in the region west of the Mississippi River. End in 1879
  • Homestead Act (United States)

    Homestead Act (United States)
    It promoted the settlement and devolpment of the American West, to encourage western migration, they allowed the US citizens to settle on and farm the land
  • Sand Creek Massacre (Native Americans)

    Sand Creek Massacre (Native Americans)
    Major example of ruthless massacre: The US army (Officer John Chivington) killed the Cheyenne people including women and children.
  • Navajo 'Long Walk' (Native Americans)

    Navajo 'Long Walk' (Native Americans)
    Idea of taking a population and displace it, they had to walk to Arizona to a reservation in Mexico. Many people died in the way.
  • Medecine Lodge Treaty (Native Americans)

    Medecine Lodge Treaty (Native Americans)
    Signed by tribes in Southern Lands, two sides: the BIA and the tribes (Comanches, Kiowas, Cheynes). They were given reservations in the Western part of Indian Territory. There were promises in return except they were not kept. + intensified the warfare problem.
  • Amendment to Indian Appropriation Act of 1851 (Native Americans)

    Amendment to Indian Appropriation Act of 1851 (Native Americans)
    It caused the end of 'dependent domestic nation', indians tribes couldn't be associated with 'dependent domestic nations' anymore
  • Battle of the Little Big Horn (Native Americans)

    Battle of the Little Big Horn (Native Americans)
    Battle between the indians led by Sitting Bull and the US army led by General Armstrong Custer. The prospectors came into the Black Hills (Gold there) when it was forbidden to go through because it belonged to The Great Sioux Reservations so they attacked. US army decimated including Custer
  • Anti-Debris Association (California)

    Anti-Debris Association (California)
    First association which try to lobby the state legislature to pass legislation and to limit the destruction and exportation of Western Lands -> But not successful
  • The Dawes Act (Native Americans)

    The Dawes Act (Native Americans)
    Authorized the federal government to divide the reservation lands into allotments for each Indian head of family and tribal government was brought to an end.
    Once every indians had their piece of land, surplus lands were auctionned off to white settlers
  • Wounded Knee Massacre (Native Americans)

    Wounded Knee Massacre (Native Americans)
    Triggered by the Sioux because they continued to practice the traditional Ghost Dance (you had to be in a kind of trans to participate), and this dance was forbidden, the Indian Agence found out and massacred them
  • Sierra Club (California)

    Sierra Club (California)
    By John Muir who was environnementalist, he visited all the places in the West that he wanted to protect