Missouri Compromisewho: Main territory, Missouri territory
what: The induction of Main as a free state and allowed Missouri to have a state constitution
When: January 1820
Where: in congress
Why:The compromise bills served to quell the furious sectional debates that had first erupted during the final session of the 15th Congress
Acquisition of OregonWho: US, Britain, J. Polk
What: Ownership of the Oregon territory was unclear. The US said the US-Canadian border (49th parallel) should go much farther north because they settled in the region first, they explored it more thoroughly, and it made geographical sense to be US land. The British argued their reasons, but later the Webster-Ashburton Treaty was signed and the US gained the Oregon territory
Why: J. Polk had ambitions to acquire the Pacific Northwest Coast
Texas annexed by the USAwho: State of Texas
What: Texas was excepted into the USA
When: December 1845
Where: Current Day Texas
Why: the Republic of Texas voluntarily asked to become a part of the United States
The Walker Tariff reductionWho: enacted by the democrats
What: Applied cuts to the "black terriff"
When: February 1846
Where: passed in congress
Why:reduced tariff rates from 32% to 25%
War with Mexico beginsWho: Mexico vs. USA
What: War with mexico and USA over land
When: April 1846
Where:On the border of Mexico and USA
Why: Mexico did not want to loos Texas and other land they owned
Mexican American WarWho: Mexican troops, US troops, James Polk
What: President J. Polk had American troops stationed at what they viewed as their side of the Rio Grande River when a Mexican army unit attacked the US soldiers
When: 4/25/1846 - 2/2/1848
Where: Rio Grande (between Mexico and Texas)
Why: Mexico was hostile towards the US for many reasons: US annexation of Mexico, fear that US wanted to takeover the Southwest and destroy their republic, US view of Mexicans as incompetent rulers, and election of J. Polk
USA settles dispute with Britain over OregonWho:Russian Empire, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, the Kingdom of Spain and the United States of America
What: Border dispute
When: June 1846
Where: Oregon territory
Why: Countries could not agree where to place the boarders
California Gold RushWho: settlers who came to California
What: The discovery of gold
Why: People were looking to get rich by finding gold
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ends US-Mexican WarWho: Mexico and USA
What: Peace treaty between USA and Mexico
When: February 1848
Why: End the war between USA and Mexico
Compromise of 1850Who: Texas, California, Mexico
What:Agreement between which states would be a free and slave states
Why:Because some states wanted to join the USA
Nashville ConventionWho:President Zachary Taylor's
What: Plan to admit California as a free state
Why: California wanted to be a free state in the USA
Construction of a transcontinental railroadWho: The USA
What: Transcontinental Railroad
When: May 1853
Where: Across the USA
Why: To transport people and Products
Gadsden PurchaseWho: Mexico, US, James Gadsden (US ambassador to Mexico)
What: After the Treaty of Guadelupe Hidalgo, the US bought 75,000 sq km of land from Mexico for $10 million in order to gain a suitable rail route to their new acquisitions in the Southwest
Where: land above Mexico and next to Texas
Why: Mexicans had little use for the land and a lot of use for the money so they were happy to agree to the purchase
Formation of the Republican PartyWho:Amos Tuck
What: creation of republican party
When: March 1854
Where: Ripon, WI
Why: represent the ideas of the people
Ostend ManifestoWho: USA, Cuba
What: Relations with Cuba
When: March 1854
Why:To purchase Cuba from Spain
Kansas-Nebraska Act; Bleeding KansasWho:Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois and President Franklin Pierce
What: Creation of Kansas and Nebraska
Where: Kansas and Nebraska
Why: to create Kansas and Nebraska
Dred Scott JudgmentWho: Dred Scott and Supreme Court
What: hat "a negro, whose ancestors were imported into [the U.S.], and sold as slaves", whether enslaved or free, could not be an American citizen
when: March 1857
Where: Supreme Court
Why: Disagreement on Race rights
Tariff of 1857Who: Congress
What: Reduction of Tariffs
When: May 1857
Why: to reduce Tariffs
Lincoln gives his "House Divided" speechWho: President Lincoln
What: Speech to unite the USA
When: June 1858
Where: Springfield, Illinois
Why: to bring the people of the USA together
Treaty of TianjinWho: US, China
What: The treaty opened up all of China to US trade, allowed American Christian missionaries to come to China, and also allowed an American embassy in Peking (modern day Beijing).
When: June 1858
Why: US was competing with Britain and France who had forced China to open up trade
Lincoln-Douglas Debates of 1858Who: Lincoln and Douglas
where:Acrosss the USA
Why: To help determine the next US President
Congress passes the English Billwho: King James II
What:he English Bill was an offer made by the United States Congress to Kansas Territory
When: August 1858
Why:so the Kansas Territory would accept the Lecompton Constitution
Raid on Harpers ferryWho: USA army, John Brown
What: John Brown taking over an artillery
When: October 1859
Where: Harpers Ferry
Why: To stand up for Black rights
Lincoln ElectionIn a time when the US was divided nation president Lincoln was elected representing the Republican party. This only further pushed the rising tension between the north and the south.
Abraham Lincoln Elected as PresidentWho: Abraham Lincoln
What: Election of a president
When: November 1860
Where: Washington DC
Why: To elect a new President
South Carloinia SuceedsWas the 1st state to succeed from the union after the elction of Lincoln. It became the starting point for the confederacy to make their move towards expanding
South Carolina secedes from the USAWho: South Carolina
What: Removing from the Union
When: December 1860
Why: South Carolina did not want to follow the rules anymore
More states secede from the USAWho:Alabama, Missippi, Georgia
What: Secede from the union
When: January 1861
Why: they did not want to follow the constitution anymore
Confederacy EstablishedWho: Robert E Lee
What: Creation of a new Country
When: February 1861
Where: Southern USA
Why: to create there own constitution
Lincoln inaugurated as presidentWho: Abraham Lincoln
Where: Washington DC
Why: to officially make Lincoln President
CSA takes fort SumterGeneral P.G.T. Beauregard (leader of the confederacy at the time) led southern troops to open fire on the union troops that were currently occupying fort Sumter. Confederates knew that supplies were getting low at the fort and that it would be a good time to attack. This was considered the official start of the Civil war. Miraculously no soldiers were killed in this battle, however the union knew that they were quickly running out of time and supplies, they surrendered.
Four more states join the ConfederacyWho: Boarder states
What: agreeing to the rules of the confederacy
When: April 1861
where: South USA
Why: to follow the set of rules the Confederacy had
Four Slave States decided to stay in the USABorder states were slave states that were somewhat neutral because they didn't join the confederacy but they refused to leave the union. Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland, and Missouri were the 4 states that refused to succeed in 1861. Kentucky was considered more loyal to the union and Lincoln attributes that to their winning of the civil war. Maryland even voted to abolish slavery during the war in 1864.
Bull Runfirst major battle of the civil war. The confederates ad the upper hand because the union slowly positioned themselves, not yet ready for an attack. The union had planned a surprise flank which inevitably failed. The battle drug out longer than expected and there were many causalities.The Confederate victory gave the South a surge of confidence and shocked many in the North
Jefferson Davis elected president of CSA; Trent Affair, danger of British InterventionJefferson ran unopposed in Nov of 1861 and ran a 6 year term. He was the 1st and only president of the Confederate states. The Trent affair involved the U.S. Navy illegally capturing two Confederate diplomats from a British ship. This infuriated the UK and only made tension between the US and UK stronger. The danger of a British attack was very possible due to their strong navy they could have easily attacked the US, however an attack was avoided.
US abolishes slavery in Washington DCThis was a huge step towards the total emaciation of slaves because it was our nations capital.Lincoln signed this act, totally abolishing slavery in the District of Columbia
Homestead ActWho: Lincoln, settlers (including free blacks)
What: The Homestead Act opened huge areas of the West to settlement and farming. 160 acres were given to any new white settler.
Where: US (post-war)
Why: it was a program designed to grant public land to small farmers at low cost
Battle of AntietamMcClellan (union general) led his forces to confront Robert E. Lee’s Army in Sharpsburg, Maryland. Union soldiers made a powerful attack to Lees army ultimately marking it as the single bloodiest day in American military history. The Confederates were at a loss when it came to the size of their army but Lee wouldn't have it, he sent out his entire federal force to the fields. In the end the union claimed victory and this gave way for Lincoln to announce his Emancipation Proclamation
Emancipation ProclamationIssued by Lincoln, this executive order stated that the federal legal status of all African Americans should be changed to being a freed citizen. This was put into action with good intentions however it did not hold true to its meaning until much later. At the beginning if a slave escaped from the confederate states into the Union they were considered free. It went on to eventually liberate all slaves in all territories. However this was more of a war strategy than helping free slaves
Battle of Gettysburg. US defeats CSA armyLargest number of causalities in the war, however it was a turning point for the union and their victory. General Lee led confederate troops towards Gettysburg Pennsylvanian, attempting to move towards Philadelphia. The third day marked the greatest hit to the confederates. Lee retreated back to Virginia. It was a huge win for the Union
US congress passes Wade-Davis BillSenator Benjamin Wade of Ohio and Representative Henry Winter Davis of Maryland both proposed the idea that if 10% of the male population in the confederacy took an oath of loyalty to the north that they could be reinstated into the union. Also recognizing the fact that all slaves were now freed. Congressional Republicans thought that Lincolns plan was too lenient.
Atalanta falls to US forces led by ShermanSherman March was led by Union General William T. Sherman and its purpose was a sort of scare tacit used to intimate the south. He led over 60,000 union soldiers through Atlanta Georgia and his men burned and looted houses. This was in hopes that southern states would abandon the cause and join the Union. However it only spread more hatred and violence among them.
Lincoln defeats McCellen in re-electionThe United States presidential election of 1864 involved Lincoln running for re-election against democratic candidate George B. McClellan. Lincoln won the Electoral College and was now serving a second term. Unfortunately Lincoln was assassinated only 42 days after his reelection.
Lincolns assassinationUnfortunately Lincoln was assassinated only 42 days after his reelection in November of 1864. He was the 16th President of the United States and was killed by John Wilkes Booth while attending the play Our American Cousin at Ford's Theater in Washington, D.C.
Richmond falls to US forces and general Lee surrendersRichmond was a target for the union army since it was so heavily occupied by southern troops. Lee had been holding back union troops for over 10 months in Saint Pettersburg. He abandoned his capital to assist troops in st petersburg. Weitzel was the commanding officer while Lee was assisting away from Richmond. Southern troops in Richmond couldn't not handle the union troops and Lee was forced to surrender
13th Amendment to the US constitutionNeither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction." This was the official ratification of slavery after the emancipation proclamation
Civil Rights ActAnother act passed to help end segregation in public places. This met no discrimination against race sex or nation origin. The initial of the law wasn't strong but it went on to be more heavily enforced by congress as they saw it wasn't applying as heavily as they thought it would.
Midway IslandsWho: US, Midway Islands
What: US annexed the islands as they were unoccupied
Where: Midway Islands in the Pacific
Why: Had potential as a naval base and US wanted to claim it before anyone else
Acquisition of AlaskaWho: US, Russia, William Seward
What: Alaska was difficult to reach from Moscow and it had few settlers or resources, so it made sense for Russia to sell it to the US. Congress was initially reluctant to acquire Alaska but W. Seward managed to push through the deal, paying the Russians $7.2 million for it
Why: The US was keen to acquire Alaska for many reasons: it would expand Pacific coastline, good fishing, keep British out of area, peaceful terms with Russia
14 AmendmentThe 14th amendment deals with equal protection of laws so people wouldn't be subjected to unequal treatment under the same laws as other races.It forbids states from denying any person "life, liberty or property." This amendment had the most application to entire country.
Ulysses S Grant PresidencyMost people know grant as the leading union general during the civil war but after the union victory Grant was appointed the 18th president of the US and attempted to shape and reform new rights and legislation for former slaves
Presidential election leads to inauguration of Rutherford B haysHe was the 1st president to take oath in office. 4th term as vice president. "He serves his party best who serves his country best," is from his 1877 Inaugural Address.It was one of the most contentious and controversial presidential elections in American history. The results of the election were heavily disputed. Compromise of 1877 gave it to Rutherford
Great Sioux WarWho: Lakota Sioux/ Cheyenne tribes, US government
What: A series of battles between Native Americans and the US due to popular and political pressure by white US majority to remove the Native Americans in the region
Where: Black Hills (now South Dakota)
Why: Gold had been discovered in the Black Hills and gold prospectors and settlers started pouring into the Native American territory
Dawes ActWho: President Grover Cleveland, Native American tribes
What: designed to break up the Native American tribal system and assist the integration of Native Americans into normal US society. It authorized the President of the United States to survey American Indian tribal land and divide it into allotments for individual Indians.
Where: Native American territories like Oklahoma
Why: It was a way for some Indians to become U.S. citizens
Guam, Samoa, and Wake IslandWho: US, Guam, Samoa, and Wake Island
What: In 1898, Guam was annexed following military victory over Spain. In 1899, Samoa was annexed in a settlement with Britain and Germany. Also in 1899, Wake Island was annexed because it was an unoccupied area.
Where: Guam, Samoa, and Wake Island
Why: All territories had potential as a naval base, and the Americans wanted to claim it before anyone else
Spanish American WarWho: US, Cuba, Spain
What: Cuba had been fighting for independence from Spain and when the US intervened, war came about. The US battleship, Maine, was sent to Cuba to protect US citizens who had been caught up in the fighting there; however, the ship exploded. Americans blamed Spain, so they declared war.
When: Apr 1898 - Aug 1898
Where: Caribbean territories
Why: War broke out for many reasons: Maine incident, yellow journalism, a Christian mission, protect US business interests, desired land
Acquisition of HawaiiWho: US, Hawaiians
What: US businessmen dominated the economy of the islands and it became an economic satellite of the US. There were protests by the inhabitant against the unofficial takeover by the US, but later the territory was annexed and became part of the US in 1900 and later became a state in 959.
When: 7/7/1898 (annexed)
Why: Economic and political takeover of Hawaii occurred because the US argued that it knew what was best for Hawaiians
Acquisition of Puerto RicoWho: US, Puerto Rico
What: The island was invaded by American troops when US was at war with Spain. Soon the Spanish surrendered and withdrew and under the Organic Act of 1900, Puerto Rico was administered by the US.
Where: Puerto Rico
Why: When the Spanish surrendered, the US gained the territory and it developed more peacefully than Cuba.
Acquisition of PhilippinesWho: US, Philippines, Emilio Aguinaldo, W. McKinley, W. Wilson
What: After Spanish-American war, US marines were ordered to take over the islands of the Philippines. McKinley ordered that the land be transferred to US ownership, but war broke out when leader Aguinaldo and Filipinos tried to get rid of US power. Later, Wilson played a major role in getting the Filipinos independence.
Why: US didn't think Filipinos were capable of self-government.
US-Cuba relationsWho: William McKinley, US, Cuba
What: After the Spanish-American War, a debate started in the US about what to do with Cuba: leave it independent, have it become a colony, or let it go under some protectorate by the US. Later, the Platt Amendment was passed and it gave US control of Cuban foreign, financial, and commercial affairs.
Why: Americans felt that Cubans weren't ready to rule themselves
Philippine Organic ActWho: US, Philippines, Henry Cooper (writer)
What: An act temporarily to provide for the administration of the affairs of civil government in the Philippine islands, and for other purposes.
Why: This act put an official end to the Philippine-American War
Roosevelt CorollaryWho: Theodore Roosevelt
What: Roosevelt added a corollary to the Monroe Doctrine asserting that the U.S. might intervene in the affairs of an American republic threatened with seizure or intervention by a European country.
Why: The Roosevelt Corollary justified American intervention throughout the Western Hemisphere. For example, the US would interfere in case of conflict in Latin America, rather than Europe sending in troops.
Dominican Republic, Nicaragua, and HaitiWho: US, Dominican Republic, Nicaragua, and Haiti
What: The Dominican Republic became a US protectorate with Americans running the economy in 1905. Nicaragua also followed the same process in 1912, as well as Haiti in 1915.
When: early to mid 1900s
Where: Dominican Republic, Nicaragua, and Haiti
Why: Protection of massive US investment was a likely reason for US intervention
Root-Takahira AgreementWho: US, Japan
What: US and Japan agreed to respect each other's interests in China and to maintain the 'status quo' in the Pacific. The Open Door Policy was confirmed for the US, and they agreed to the Japanese that they had a right to annex Korea.
Why: The US saw itself as 'protector' of China against its aggressive neighbors, and wanted to make more peace with the aggressive Japanese.
Panama CanalWho: Theodore Roosevelt
What: Finished the production of the Panama Canal during his presidency, and it played a major part in the development of the US as a Pacific power.
Why: The Panama Canal would be a much easier route from the Pacific to the Atlantic rather than going all the way around South America
WWIWho: US, Germany, Britain
What: WWI broke out but US remained neutral until German aggression led Americans to declare war on them. US joined Allied Powers- Britain, France, Italy- and fought the Central Powers- Germany, Russia, Austro-Hungary
Why: German U-boats and Zimmerman Telegram were main reasons for why the US joined WWI
Treaty of VersaillesWho: nations involved in WWI
What: Treaty put an end to WWI and punished Germany heavily with war guilt and reparations, it also included an establishment of the League of Nations that W. Wilson brought up in his Fourteen Points that were denied.
Where: signed in Versailles Palace
Why: The Allied Powers had to come to an agreement on what to do with Germany and the Treaty of Versailles was the solution; however, the US never ratified the treaty or joined the League of Nations.