US History 1840s-1930s

  • Missouri Compromise

    Missouri Compromise
    who: Main territory, Missouri territory
    what: The induction of Main as a free state and allowed Missouri to have a state constitution
    When: January 1820
    Where: in congress
    Why:The compromise bills served to quell the furious sectional debates that had first erupted during the final session of the 15th Congress
  • Acquisition of Oregon

    Acquisition of Oregon
    Who: US, Britain, J. Polk
    What: Ownership of the Oregon territory was unclear. The US said the US-Canadian border (49th parallel) should go much farther north because they settled in the region first, they explored it more thoroughly, and it made geographical sense to be US land. The British argued their reasons, but later the Webster-Ashburton Treaty was signed and the US gained the Oregon territory
    When: 8/9/1842
    Where: Oregon
    Why: J. Polk had ambitions to acquire the Pacific Northwest Coast
  • Texas annexed by the USA

    Texas annexed by the USA
    who: State of Texas
    What: Texas was excepted into the USA
    When: December 1845
    Where: Current Day Texas
    Why: the Republic of Texas voluntarily asked to become a part of the United States
  • The Walker Tariff reduction

    The Walker Tariff reduction
    Who: enacted by the democrats
    What: Applied cuts to the "black terriff"
    When: February 1846
    Where: passed in congress
    Why:reduced tariff rates from 32% to 25%
  • War with Mexico begins

    War with Mexico begins
    Who: Mexico vs. USA
    What: War with mexico and USA over land
    When: April 1846
    Where:On the border of Mexico and USA
    Why: Mexico did not want to loos Texas and other land they owned
  • Mexican American War

    Mexican American War
    Who: Mexican troops, US troops, James Polk
    What: President J. Polk had American troops stationed at what they viewed as their side of the Rio Grande River when a Mexican army unit attacked the US soldiers
    When: 4/25/1846 - 2/2/1848
    Where: Rio Grande (between Mexico and Texas)
    Why: Mexico was hostile towards the US for many reasons: US annexation of Mexico, fear that US wanted to takeover the Southwest and destroy their republic, US view of Mexicans as incompetent rulers, and election of J. Polk
  • USA settles dispute with Britain over Oregon

    USA settles dispute with Britain over Oregon
    Who:Russian Empire, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, the Kingdom of Spain and the United States of America
    What: Border dispute
    When: June 1846
    Where: Oregon territory
    Why: Countries could not agree where to place the boarders
  • California Gold Rush

    California Gold Rush
    Who: settlers who came to California
    What: The discovery of gold
    When:January 1848
    Where: California
    Why: People were looking to get rich by finding gold
  • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ends US-Mexican War

    Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ends US-Mexican War
    Who: Mexico and USA
    What: Peace treaty between USA and Mexico
    When: February 1848
    Where: Congress
    Why: End the war between USA and Mexico
  • Compromise of 1850

    Compromise of 1850
    Who: Texas, California, Mexico
    What:Agreement between which states would be a free and slave states
    When:September 1850
    Where: Congress
    Why:Because some states wanted to join the USA
  • Nashville Convention

    Nashville Convention
    Who:President Zachary Taylor's
    What: Plan to admit California as a free state
    When:October 1850
    Where California
    Why: California wanted to be a free state in the USA
  • Construction of a transcontinental railroad

    Construction of a  transcontinental railroad
    Who: The USA
    What: Transcontinental Railroad
    When: May 1853
    Where: Across the USA
    Why: To transport people and Products
  • Gadsden Purchase

    Gadsden Purchase
    Who: Mexico, US, James Gadsden (US ambassador to Mexico)
    What: After the Treaty of Guadelupe Hidalgo, the US bought 75,000 sq km of land from Mexico for $10 million in order to gain a suitable rail route to their new acquisitions in the Southwest
    When: 12/30/1853
    Where: land above Mexico and next to Texas
    Why: Mexicans had little use for the land and a lot of use for the money so they were happy to agree to the purchase
  • Formation of the Republican Party

    Formation of the Republican Party
    Who:Amos Tuck
    What: creation of republican party
    When: March 1854
    Where: Ripon, WI
    Why: represent the ideas of the people
  • Ostend Manifesto

    Ostend Manifesto
    Who: USA, Cuba
    What: Relations with Cuba
    When: March 1854
    Where: USA
    Why:To purchase Cuba from Spain
  • Kansas-Nebraska Act; Bleeding Kansas

    Kansas-Nebraska Act; Bleeding Kansas
    Who:Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois and President Franklin Pierce
    What: Creation of Kansas and Nebraska
    When:May 1854
    Where: Kansas and Nebraska
    Why: to create Kansas and Nebraska
  • Dred Scott Judgment

    Dred Scott Judgment
    Who: Dred Scott and Supreme Court
    What: hat "a negro, whose ancestors were imported into [the U.S.], and sold as slaves",[2][3] whether enslaved or free, could not be an American citizen
    when: March 1857
    Where: Supreme Court
    Why: Disagreement on Race rights
  • Tariff of 1857

    Tariff of 1857
    Who: Congress
    What: Reduction of Tariffs
    When: May 1857
    Where: Congress
    Why: to reduce Tariffs
  • Lincoln gives his "House Divided" speech

    Lincoln gives his "House Divided" speech
    Who: President Lincoln
    What: Speech to unite the USA
    When: June 1858
    Where: Springfield, Illinois
    Why: to bring the people of the USA together
  • Treaty of Tianjin

    Treaty of Tianjin
    Who: US, China
    What: The treaty opened up all of China to US trade, allowed American Christian missionaries to come to China, and also allowed an American embassy in Peking (modern day Beijing).
    When: June 1858
    Where: China
    Why: US was competing with Britain and France who had forced China to open up trade
  • Lincoln-Douglas Debates of 1858

    Lincoln-Douglas Debates of 1858
    Who: Lincoln and Douglas
    What: Debates
    When:August 1858
    where:Acrosss the USA
    Why: To help determine the next US President
  • Congress passes the English Bill

    Congress passes the English Bill
    who: King James II
    What:he English Bill was an offer made by the United States Congress to Kansas Territory
    When: August 1858
    Why:so the Kansas Territory would accept the Lecompton Constitution
  • Raid on Harpers ferry

    Raid on Harpers ferry
    Who: USA army, John Brown
    What: John Brown taking over an artillery
    When: October 1859
    Where: Harpers Ferry
    Why: To stand up for Black rights
  • Lincoln Election

    Lincoln Election
    In a time when the US was divided nation president Lincoln was elected representing the Republican party. This only further pushed the rising tension between the north and the south.
  • Abraham Lincoln Elected as President

    Abraham Lincoln Elected as President
    Who: Abraham Lincoln
    What: Election of a president
    When: November 1860
    Where: Washington DC
    Why: To elect a new President
  • South Carloinia Suceeds

    South Carloinia Suceeds
    Was the 1st state to succeed from the union after the elction of Lincoln. It became the starting point for the confederacy to make their move towards expanding
  • South Carolina secedes from the USA

    South Carolina secedes from the USA
    Who: South Carolina
    What: Removing from the Union
    When: December 1860
    Where: congress
    Why: South Carolina did not want to follow the rules anymore
  • More states secede from the USA

    More states secede from the USA
    Who:Alabama, Missippi, Georgia
    What: Secede from the union
    When: January 1861
    Where: Congress
    Why: they did not want to follow the constitution anymore
  • Confederacy Established

    Confederacy Established
    Who: Robert E Lee
    What: Creation of a new Country
    When: February 1861
    Where: Southern USA
    Why: to create there own constitution
  • Lincoln inaugurated as president

    Lincoln inaugurated as president
    Who: Abraham Lincoln
    What: Inauguration
    When:March 1861
    Where: Washington DC
    Why: to officially make Lincoln President
  • CSA takes fort Sumter

    CSA takes fort Sumter
    General P.G.T. Beauregard (leader of the confederacy at the time) led southern troops to open fire on the union troops that were currently occupying fort Sumter. Confederates knew that supplies were getting low at the fort and that it would be a good time to attack. This was considered the official start of the Civil war. Miraculously no soldiers were killed in this battle, however the union knew that they were quickly running out of time and supplies, they surrendered.
  • Four more states join the Confederacy

    Four more states join the Confederacy
    Who: Boarder states
    What: agreeing to the rules of the confederacy
    When: April 1861
    where: South USA
    Why: to follow the set of rules the Confederacy had
  • Four Slave States decided to stay in the USA

    Four Slave States decided to stay in the USA
    Border states were slave states that were somewhat neutral because they didn't join the confederacy but they refused to leave the union. Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland, and Missouri were the 4 states that refused to succeed in 1861. Kentucky was considered more loyal to the union and Lincoln attributes that to their winning of the civil war. Maryland even voted to abolish slavery during the war in 1864.
  • Bull Run

    Bull Run
    first major battle of the civil war. The confederates ad the upper hand because the union slowly positioned themselves, not yet ready for an attack. The union had planned a surprise flank which inevitably failed. The battle drug out longer than expected and there were many causalities.The Confederate victory gave the South a surge of confidence and shocked many in the North
  • Jefferson Davis elected president of CSA; Trent Affair, danger of British Intervention

    Jefferson Davis elected president of CSA; Trent Affair, danger of British Intervention
    Jefferson ran unopposed in Nov of 1861 and ran a 6 year term. He was the 1st and only president of the Confederate states. The Trent affair involved the U.S. Navy illegally capturing two Confederate diplomats from a British ship. This infuriated the UK and only made tension between the US and UK stronger. The danger of a British attack was very possible due to their strong navy they could have easily attacked the US, however an attack was avoided.
  • US abolishes slavery in Washington DC

    US abolishes slavery in Washington DC
    This was a huge step towards the total emaciation of slaves because it was our nations capital.Lincoln signed this act, totally abolishing slavery in the District of Columbia
  • Homestead Act

    Homestead Act
    Who: Lincoln, settlers (including free blacks)
    What: The Homestead Act opened huge areas of the West to settlement and farming. 160 acres were given to any new white settler.
    When: 5/20/1862
    Where: US (post-war)
    Why: it was a program designed to grant public land to small farmers at low cost
  • Battle of Antietam

    Battle of Antietam
    McClellan (union general) led his forces to confront Robert E. Lee’s Army in Sharpsburg, Maryland. Union soldiers made a powerful attack to Lees army ultimately marking it as the single bloodiest day in American military history. The Confederates were at a loss when it came to the size of their army but Lee wouldn't have it, he sent out his entire federal force to the fields. In the end the union claimed victory and this gave way for Lincoln to announce his Emancipation Proclamation
  • Emancipation Proclamation

    Emancipation Proclamation
    Issued by Lincoln, this executive order stated that the federal legal status of all African Americans should be changed to being a freed citizen. This was put into action with good intentions however it did not hold true to its meaning until much later. At the beginning if a slave escaped from the confederate states into the Union they were considered free. It went on to eventually liberate all slaves in all territories. However this was more of a war strategy than helping free slaves
  • Battle of Gettysburg. US defeats CSA army

    Battle of Gettysburg. US defeats CSA army
    Largest number of causalities in the war, however it was a turning point for the union and their victory. General Lee led confederate troops towards Gettysburg Pennsylvanian, attempting to move towards Philadelphia. The third day marked the greatest hit to the confederates. Lee retreated back to Virginia. It was a huge win for the Union
  • US congress passes Wade-Davis Bill

    US congress passes Wade-Davis Bill
    Senator Benjamin Wade of Ohio and Representative Henry Winter Davis of Maryland both proposed the idea that if 10% of the male population in the confederacy took an oath of loyalty to the north that they could be reinstated into the union. Also recognizing the fact that all slaves were now freed. Congressional Republicans thought that Lincolns plan was too lenient.
  • Atalanta falls to US forces led by Sherman

    Atalanta falls to US forces led by Sherman
    Sherman March was led by Union General William T. Sherman and its purpose was a sort of scare tacit used to intimate the south. He led over 60,000 union soldiers through Atlanta Georgia and his men burned and looted houses. This was in hopes that southern states would abandon the cause and join the Union. However it only spread more hatred and violence among them.
  • Lincoln defeats McCellen in re-election

    Lincoln defeats McCellen in re-election
    The United States presidential election of 1864 involved Lincoln running for re-election against democratic candidate George B. McClellan. Lincoln won the Electoral College and was now serving a second term. Unfortunately Lincoln was assassinated only 42 days after his reelection.
  • Lincolns assassination

    Lincolns assassination
    Unfortunately Lincoln was assassinated only 42 days after his reelection in November of 1864. He was the 16th President of the United States and was killed by John Wilkes Booth while attending the play Our American Cousin at Ford's Theater in Washington, D.C.
  • Richmond falls to US forces and general Lee surrenders

    Richmond falls to US forces and general Lee surrenders
    Richmond was a target for the union army since it was so heavily occupied by southern troops. Lee had been holding back union troops for over 10 months in Saint Pettersburg. He abandoned his capital to assist troops in st petersburg. Weitzel was the commanding officer while Lee was assisting away from Richmond. Southern troops in Richmond couldn't not handle the union troops and Lee was forced to surrender
  • 13th Amendment to the US constitution

    13th Amendment to the US constitution
    Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction." This was the official ratification of slavery after the emancipation proclamation
  • Civil Rights Act

    Civil Rights Act
    Another act passed to help end segregation in public places. This met no discrimination against race sex or nation origin. The initial of the law wasn't strong but it went on to be more heavily enforced by congress as they saw it wasn't applying as heavily as they thought it would.
  • Midway Islands

    Midway Islands
    Who: US, Midway Islands
    What: US annexed the islands as they were unoccupied
    When: 1867
    Where: Midway Islands in the Pacific
    Why: Had potential as a naval base and US wanted to claim it before anyone else
  • Acquisition of Alaska

    Acquisition of Alaska
    Who: US, Russia, William Seward
    What: Alaska was difficult to reach from Moscow and it had few settlers or resources, so it made sense for Russia to sell it to the US. Congress was initially reluctant to acquire Alaska but W. Seward managed to push through the deal, paying the Russians $7.2 million for it
    When: 3/30/1867
    Where: Alaska
    Why: The US was keen to acquire Alaska for many reasons: it would expand Pacific coastline, good fishing, keep British out of area, peaceful terms with Russia
  • 14 Amendment

    14 Amendment
    The 14th amendment deals with equal protection of laws so people wouldn't be subjected to unequal treatment under the same laws as other races.It forbids states from denying any person "life, liberty or property." This amendment had the most application to entire country.
  • Ulysses S Grant Presidency

    Ulysses S Grant Presidency
    Most people know grant as the leading union general during the civil war but after the union victory Grant was appointed the 18th president of the US and attempted to shape and reform new rights and legislation for former slaves
  • Presidential election leads to inauguration of Rutherford B hays

    Presidential election leads to inauguration of Rutherford B hays
    He was the 1st president to take oath in office. 4th term as vice president. "He serves his party best who serves his country best," is from his 1877 Inaugural Address.It was one of the most contentious and controversial presidential elections in American history. The results of the election were heavily disputed. Compromise of 1877 gave it to Rutherford
  • Great Sioux War

    Great Sioux War
    Who: Lakota Sioux/ Cheyenne tribes, US government
    What: A series of battles between Native Americans and the US due to popular and political pressure by white US majority to remove the Native Americans in the region
    When: 1876-1877
    Where: Black Hills (now South Dakota)
    Why: Gold had been discovered in the Black Hills and gold prospectors and settlers started pouring into the Native American territory
  • Dawes Act

    Dawes Act
    Who: President Grover Cleveland, Native American tribes
    What: designed to break up the Native American tribal system and assist the integration of Native Americans into normal US society. It authorized the President of the United States to survey American Indian tribal land and divide it into allotments for individual Indians.
    When: 2/8/1887
    Where: Native American territories like Oklahoma
    Why: It was a way for some Indians to become U.S. citizens
  • Guam, Samoa, and Wake Island

    Guam, Samoa, and Wake Island
    Who: US, Guam, Samoa, and Wake Island
    What: In 1898, Guam was annexed following military victory over Spain. In 1899, Samoa was annexed in a settlement with Britain and Germany. Also in 1899, Wake Island was annexed because it was an unoccupied area.
    Where: Guam, Samoa, and Wake Island
    Why: All territories had potential as a naval base, and the Americans wanted to claim it before anyone else
  • Spanish American War

    Spanish American War
    Who: US, Cuba, Spain
    What: Cuba had been fighting for independence from Spain and when the US intervened, war came about. The US battleship, Maine, was sent to Cuba to protect US citizens who had been caught up in the fighting there; however, the ship exploded. Americans blamed Spain, so they declared war.
    When: Apr 1898 - Aug 1898
    Where: Caribbean territories
    Why: War broke out for many reasons: Maine incident, yellow journalism, a Christian mission, protect US business interests, desired land
  • Acquisition of Hawaii

    Acquisition of Hawaii
    Who: US, Hawaiians
    What: US businessmen dominated the economy of the islands and it became an economic satellite of the US. There were protests by the inhabitant against the unofficial takeover by the US, but later the territory was annexed and became part of the US in 1900 and later became a state in 959.
    When: 7/7/1898 (annexed)
    Where: Hawaii
    Why: Economic and political takeover of Hawaii occurred because the US argued that it knew what was best for Hawaiians
  • Acquisition of Puerto Rico

    Acquisition of Puerto Rico
    Who: US, Puerto Rico
    What: The island was invaded by American troops when US was at war with Spain. Soon the Spanish surrendered and withdrew and under the Organic Act of 1900, Puerto Rico was administered by the US.
    When: 7/25/1898
    Where: Puerto Rico
    Why: When the Spanish surrendered, the US gained the territory and it developed more peacefully than Cuba.
  • Acquisition of Philippines

    Acquisition of Philippines
    Who: US, Philippines, Emilio Aguinaldo, W. McKinley, W. Wilson
    What: After Spanish-American war, US marines were ordered to take over the islands of the Philippines. McKinley ordered that the land be transferred to US ownership, but war broke out when leader Aguinaldo and Filipinos tried to get rid of US power. Later, Wilson played a major role in getting the Filipinos independence.
    When: 1899-1902
    Where: Philippines
    Why: US didn't think Filipinos were capable of self-government.
  • US-Cuba relations

    US-Cuba relations
    Who: William McKinley, US, Cuba
    What: After the Spanish-American War, a debate started in the US about what to do with Cuba: leave it independent, have it become a colony, or let it go under some protectorate by the US. Later, the Platt Amendment was passed and it gave US control of Cuban foreign, financial, and commercial affairs.
    When: 3/2/1901
    Where: Cuba
    Why: Americans felt that Cubans weren't ready to rule themselves
  • Philippine Organic Act

    Philippine Organic Act
    Who: US, Philippines, Henry Cooper (writer)
    What: An act temporarily to provide for the administration of the affairs of civil government in the Philippine islands, and for other purposes.
    When: 7/1/1902
    Where: Philippines
    Why: This act put an official end to the Philippine-American War
  • Roosevelt Corollary

    Roosevelt Corollary
    Who: Theodore Roosevelt
    What: Roosevelt added a corollary to the Monroe Doctrine asserting that the U.S. might intervene in the affairs of an American republic threatened with seizure or intervention by a European country.
    When: 1904
    Where: Americas
    Why: The Roosevelt Corollary justified American intervention throughout the Western Hemisphere. For example, the US would interfere in case of conflict in Latin America, rather than Europe sending in troops.
  • Dominican Republic, Nicaragua, and Haiti

    Dominican Republic, Nicaragua, and Haiti
    Who: US, Dominican Republic, Nicaragua, and Haiti
    What: The Dominican Republic became a US protectorate with Americans running the economy in 1905. Nicaragua also followed the same process in 1912, as well as Haiti in 1915.
    When: early to mid 1900s
    Where: Dominican Republic, Nicaragua, and Haiti
    Why: Protection of massive US investment was a likely reason for US intervention
  • Root-Takahira Agreement

    Root-Takahira Agreement
    Who: US, Japan
    What: US and Japan agreed to respect each other's interests in China and to maintain the 'status quo' in the Pacific. The Open Door Policy was confirmed for the US, and they agreed to the Japanese that they had a right to annex Korea.
    When: 11/30/1908
    Where: China
    Why: The US saw itself as 'protector' of China against its aggressive neighbors, and wanted to make more peace with the aggressive Japanese.
  • Panama Canal

    Panama Canal
    Who: Theodore Roosevelt
    What: Finished the production of the Panama Canal during his presidency, and it played a major part in the development of the US as a Pacific power.
    When: 1914
    Where: Panama
    Why: The Panama Canal would be a much easier route from the Pacific to the Atlantic rather than going all the way around South America
  • WWI

    Who: US, Germany, Britain
    What: WWI broke out but US remained neutral until German aggression led Americans to declare war on them. US joined Allied Powers- Britain, France, Italy- and fought the Central Powers- Germany, Russia, Austro-Hungary
    When: 4/6/1917
    Where: US
    Why: German U-boats and Zimmerman Telegram were main reasons for why the US joined WWI
  • Treaty of Versailles

    Treaty of Versailles
    Who: nations involved in WWI
    What: Treaty put an end to WWI and punished Germany heavily with war guilt and reparations, it also included an establishment of the League of Nations that W. Wilson brought up in his Fourteen Points that were denied.
    When: 6/28/1919
    Where: signed in Versailles Palace
    Why: The Allied Powers had to come to an agreement on what to do with Germany and the Treaty of Versailles was the solution; however, the US never ratified the treaty or joined the League of Nations.