Chichen itza 1025099 960 720

A01277178 Valeria Calva Aguilar EVIDENCE 1 - Time line

  • Period: 1500 BCE to 300


    With this name is known the period in which several of the features that would be characteristic of Mesoamerican cultures until the Spanish conquest were consolidated, such as agriculture.
  • 650 BCE

    Cholula's archeological site (INAH)

    Cholula's archeological site (INAH)
    Having its heyday during the Posclassic and at the time of the arrival of Spanian being the second most important city, Cholula was a very important city during pre-Hispanic times, called Cholollan, the space currently occupied by the archaeological site is only a small part of what the city was Cholula. The Great Pyramid called Tiachihualtepetl ("craft hill") is the largest pre-Hispanic structure in the world in terms of volume.
  • 500 BCE

    Archeological site of Monte Albán (UNESCO 1987)

    Archeological site of Monte Albán (UNESCO 1987)
    Monte Albán, the most significant archeological site in the Oaxaca Valley, is one of the most important archaeological zones in Mesoamerica; Monte Albán Archaeological Site, is a UNESCO World Heritage site since 1987.
  • 200 BCE

    Cobá archaeological site, Quintana Roo

    Cobá archaeological site, Quintana Roo
    For many years Coba was an ignored piece of Mayan history due to its location. Located between Tulum Q.R., and Valladolid, Yuc., archeologists first learned about the site in the mid 1800’s, but dense jungle, the Caste War and lack of funds made this site a difficult area to penetrate. This Mayan site is still largely unexcavated making it a Yucatan's true wonder.
  • 100 BCE

    Archaelogical Zone of Palenque, Chiapas

    Archaelogical Zone of Palenque, Chiapas
    Emblematic Mayan vestige. Palenque is located in the heart of southeastern Mexico, northeast of the state of Chiapas, in an area of high tropical jungle where waterfalls and rivers abound. The archaeological zone takes its name from the neighboring community founded at the end of the 16th century: Santo Domingo de Palenque. The Palace and the Temple of the Inscriptions stand out as architectural attractions.
  • 1 CE

    The birth of Jesus

    In 532 AD, Dionysius the Meager, a monk of Syrian origin who lived in a convent in Rome, a mathematician and theologian, after in-depth studies of the Bible and historical sources, came to the conclusion that Jesus Christ had been born on December 25 of the year 754 B.C., and proposed that said year be called 1 A.D. (anno Domini), that is, the year 1 of the Lord. The clergy quickly spread this dating system, although its official introduction took place at very different times in each country.
  • Period: 300 to 950


    It saw a peak in large-scale construction and urbanism, the recording of monumental inscriptions, and significant intellectual and artistic development, particularly in the southern lowland regions.
  • 564

    Tulum Archaeological Site

    Tulum Archaeological Site
    It was rediscovered in 1840 by archaeologist Juan José Gálvez. In the Mayan language, Tulum means “wall”, referring to the large barricade that surrounds the settlement. The buildings in its time, were the city’s main center where ceremonial and political activities took place.
  • 600

    Uxmal, Yucatán

    Uxmal, Yucatán
    The Ancient Mayan City was organized in relation with astronomical phenomena. The ruins of the ceremonial structures at Uxmal represent the pinnacle of late Maya art and architecture in their design, layout and ornamentation.
  • 600

    Pyramid of Niches (Tajín, Veracruz)

    Pyramid of Niches (Tajín, Veracruz)
    Located in Papantla, Veracruz is the most impressive and emblematic ruin of El Tajín. It is 20 meters high, it has 7 stepped terraces leading to the top. Each of its four sides is covered with stacked rows of small niches made of stone blocks. There are 365 in total, which is why it is thought that it was used as an astronomical calendar.
  • 700

    Archaeological zone of Paquimé (UNESCO, INAH)

    Archaeological zone of Paquimé (UNESCO, INAH)
    Paquimé archaelogical zone is located in Casas Grandes, Chihuahua. It is the largest archaelogical zone that represents Chihuahua Desert's peoples and cultures. The construction of the site is attributed to the Mogollón culture. Its vast ruins, which were once tall adobe buildings of up to 7 floors, show a culture perfectly adapted to its surroundings, and marked the development of the architecture of the human settlement of that Mexican region.
  • 700

    Tula Archaeological Zone (INAH)

    Tula Archaeological Zone (INAH)
    Tula or Tollan-Xicocotitlan was the capital of the Toltec culture. As a testimony of the conquering and economic power of Tula was its archaeological site, in which the Pyramid of Tlahuizcalpantecuhtli, the famous Atlanteans and the Burnt Palace stand out.
  • Period: 950 to 1521

    Post classic

    It is the last stage of the independent development of Mesoamerican civilizations.
  • 1000

    El Castillo or Temple of Kukulcán (Chichén Itza)

    El Castillo or Temple of Kukulcán (Chichén Itza)
    Step-pyramid built by the Maya civilisation around 1000 AD, it is the central structure of the Chichen Itza archaeological site in Yucatan, Mexico.
  • 1300

    Archaeological Zone of Mitla

    Archaeological Zone of Mitla
    Mitla refers to 'The place of the dead'. What stands out about the Archaeological Zone of Mitla are its structures and the type of decoration that was used to adorn its temples. The 14 different designs are believed to symbolize heaven and earth, a feathered serpent, and other important beings, in sophisticated stylized forms.
  • 1325

    Pre-Hispanic City of Teotihuacan (UNESCO 1987)

    Pre-Hispanic City of Teotihuacan (UNESCO 1987)
    'The place of the gods'
    For its art and influences, among the classic civilizations of ancient Mexico and since it was the first site in the country declared a World Heritage treasure by UNESCO in 1987, the ruins of Teotihuacan represent Mexico in the international arena. These are its monumental structures:
    • the pyramids of the Sun and the Moon
    • the Temple of Quetzalcoatl
    • the Citadel
  • Apr 19, 1325

    Founding of Tenochtitlan

    Founding of Tenochtitlan
  • 1352

    Xochimilco, Mexico City

    Xochimilco, Mexico City
    On December 11th, 1987 Xochimilco was declared World Cultural Heritage by UNESCO, because of its contributions and representation of Mexico to the world. Xochimilco is the focus of several Mexican and indigenous tradiitions, such as Día de muertos. It carries historical relevancy, since it represents and celebrates Mexican roots.
  • Aug 13, 1521

    Fall of Tenochtitlan

    Fall of Tenochtitlan
  • 1531

    Historic Centre of Puebla

    Historic Centre of Puebla
    Being the origin of evidence and the urban sample of the new world, the Historic Center of Puebla is composed of major religious buildings such as the Cathedral, the churches of Santo Domingo, San Francisco,Jesuit Church and so many emblematic buildings.
  • 1540

    Historic Fortified Town of Campeche

    Historic Fortified Town of Campeche
    Located in Campeche, it was founded in the 16th century on the coast of the Gulf of Mexico, in the Mayan region of Ah-Kim-Pech by the Spanish conquerors. It was the most important seaport of the time, being systematically attacked by pirates and enemies of Spain but being a key piece to conquer and evangelize the Yucatan peninsula, etc. Its commercial and military importance made it the second largest city in the Gulf of Mexico, after Mérida.
  • 1546

    Historic Centre of Zacatecas

    Historic Centre of Zacatecas
    The city of Zacatecas was founded in 1546, shortly after the discovery of a rich silver vein, and prospered thanks to the exploitation of this precious metal, reaching its peak in the 16th and 17th centuries. The panorama it offers is of impressive beauty because it preserves in good condition numerous old buildings, both religious and civil, dominated by the silhouette of the cathedral, which is why it is considered a world heritage site by UNESCO.
  • 1555

    Aqueduct of Padre Tembleque Hydraulic System

    Aqueduct of Padre Tembleque Hydraulic System
    It is the most important hydraulic engineering work built by the Viceroyalty of New Spain and the most outstanding example of the development of hydraulic systems in America. It connects Estado de México and Hidalgo. UNESCO recognized it as a world Heritage in 2015.
  • 1573

    Historic Center of Mexico City

    Historic Center of Mexico City
    1325 - Beggining of Construction of Mexico City. The Historic Center of Mexico City -the largest and most emblematic in Latin America- is one of the most important tourist centers in the world and the main destination for cultural tourism in the country. Some of the most appreciated cultural treasures of the nation and true jewels of architecture are concentrated in it like National Palace.
  • Period: to

    French Revolution

    The French Revolution began when the citizen masses, impoverished and subjected, opposed the feudalists, the bourgeoisie, disobeyed the authority of the monarchy and lit the fuse of historical change. It ended when Napoleon Bonaparte overthrew the revolutionary government and established the French Consulate.
  • Hospicio Cabañas

    Hospicio Cabañas
    Located in Guadalajara, Jalisco, is a World Heritage Site. This building with a neoclassical style is one of the oldest and largest hospital complexes in the Americas.
  • Beginning of Independence of Mexico

    Beginning of Independence of Mexico
  • Ending of the Independence of Mexico

    Ending of the Independence of Mexico
    Mexico would be born as an independent, free and sovereign nation, after the Army of the Three Guarantees, triumphantly entered Mexico City, under the command of Agustín de Iturbide.
  • Battle of Chapultepec

    Battle of Chapultepec
    On Sept. 13, 1847, the American army assaulted the Mexican Military Academy, a fortress known as Chapultepec, which guarded the gates to Mexico City. Although that battle was lost by Mexico, it is celebrated in honor of the young soldiers who fought to protect the fortress.
  • Mexican Anthem

    Mexican Anthem
    The hymn of Jaime Nunó and Francisco González Bocanegra, was practically forgotten for several decades, it was not performed again in public until 1901, during the Porfiriato and became our national anthem.
  • Beginning of Porfiriato

    Beginning of Porfiriato
    Period of the dictatorship of Porfirio Díaz. In these years a relative economic and material progress was achieved, and the country was pacified, although at the cost of great repression, inequality and social injustice.
  • The Valley of Mexico (1877)

    The Valley of Mexico (1877)
    By José María Velasco (1840-1912), the greatest exponent of Mexican landscaping.The painting caused controversy for its techniques that managed to create an illusion of photography that was not common at that time.
  • Historic Centre of Guanajuato (UNESCO 1989)

    Historic Centre of Guanajuato (UNESCO 1989)
    One of the most beautiful historic centres in Mexico. Flanked by elegant buildings, churches, public squares and colonial streets that are part of its intense cultural life. It was inaugurated by Porfirio Diaz in 1903.
  • The Palace of Fine Arts in Mexico City

    The Palace of Fine Arts in Mexico City
    One of the most emblematic and important performance space in Mexico
  • Beginning of Mexican Revolution

    Beginning of Mexican Revolution
    The initial objective of the Mexican Revolution was simply the overthrow of the Diaz dictatorship, but this continued to expand, triggering the 1917 Constitution that provided for the separation of Church and State, state ownership of the subsoil, land ownership by community groups, labor rights and many other aspirations.
  • Woman with pumpkin (1917)

    Woman with pumpkin (1917)
    Painted by Saturnino Herrán. Unlike most of the painters of his time, Herrán adopted the daily customs of the people of Mexico as the subject of his works.
  • The Creation (1922)

    The Creation (1922)
    One of the most emblematic murals by Diego Rivera, marks the beginning of the Mexican muralist movement.
  • Sinfonía de Antígona and Sinfonía India by Carlos Chávez

    Sinfonía de Antígona and Sinfonía India by Carlos Chávez
    An exponent of nationalist music, he was a Mexican composer, conductor, teacher and journalist. He was also founder of the Mexico Symphony Orchestra.
  • Prometeo (1930)

    Prometeo (1930)
    Painted by the iconic muralist José Clemente Orozco. This mural depicts the Greek titan Prometheus stealing fire from the heavens to give to humans.
  • Frida Kahlo and Diego Rivera House and Studio

    Frida Kahlo and Diego Rivera House and Studio
    The emblematic art couple's House-Study Museum is made up of three study-houses, a photographic laboratory and a garage, this set being the watershed of the 20th century architecture, because in this construction the theory of Le Corbusier was embodied, one of the most influential architects in the world. ''The standard is the type of highest performance that corresponds to a given function, the one that requires the least resources.''
  • 'Bésame mucho' by Consuelo Velázquez

    'Bésame mucho' by Consuelo Velázquez
    Is the best known, played and recorded Mexican song in the world.
  • Nahui Olin and Eugenio Agacino in the Atlantic (1934)

    Nahui Olin and Eugenio Agacino in the Atlantic (1934)
    Created by the poet, painter, pioneer of feminism, muse and model of 20th century Mexican art, Carmen Mondragón Valseca -aka Nahui Olin-. Her paintings of her were in a naive style, with vibrant colors and a childlike halo.
  • Unos cuantos piquetitos (1935)

    Unos cuantos piquetitos (1935)
    Raw record of a femicide. It is one of the bloodiest works of Frida Kahlo. She does it when she finds out that a man killed his partner and, as his defense, the murderer argues that he only gave her "a few bites". “Eleven women are killed in this country every day. We have at least 20,000 women who are missing in Mexico.”
  • Period: to

    Golden Age of Mexican Cinema

    It is a period in the history of the Cinema of Mexico when the Mexican film industry reached high levels of production, quality and economic success of its films, besides having gained recognition internationally.
  • Period: to


    Originated in Cuba in 1883, Bolero became a poetic language of love and reached international popularity in Mexico during the “Golden Age” of Cinema, alleviating its popularity amongst screen actors who belted out their feelings in 16 bars, aided by harmonizing guitars.
  • Period: to

    World War II

    It was conflict between 1939 an 1945 that involved all the world's major countries. It was the most destructive war in history and millions of people were killed. It was fought between the Axis and the Allies. It began because the leader of Germany, Adolf Hitler, wanted to expand German territory and wanted to create a state with only certain kinds of people in it. This led to the Holocaust. The Axis was eventually defeated by the Allies.
  • Son de la Negra

    Son de la Negra
    The traditional arrangement being by Blas Galindo and inspired by a locomotive, the Son de la Negra is a Jalisciense son that has taken Mariachi music to all corners of the world and is part of the repertoire of any mariachi.
  • Death of the invasor (1942)

    Death of the invasor (1942)
    David Alfaro Siqueiros, was a Mexican painter and soldier. He is considered one of the three great exponents of Mexican muralism along with Diego Rivera and José Clemente Orozco. In this mural, the image of Mexico and Chile in joint resistance against the Spanish conquest is shown.
  • Paricutín (1943)

    Paricutín (1943)
    The manifest artistic and extra-artistic interest that volcanoes had for Dr. Atl, the pseudonym of Mexican painter and writer Gerardo Murillo Coronado, is well known in Mexico.
  • 'Friday of Sorrows' (1945)

    'Friday of Sorrows' (1945)
    Friday of Sorrows represents an altar made to commemorate the feast of the seven sorrows of the Virgin, which takes place a week before Good Friday. María Izquierdo is its painter, a contemporary of Frida Kahlo, was a defender of the female presence in Mexican art.
  • 'María Bonita' by Agustín Lara

    'María Bonita' by Agustín Lara
    María Félix, an emblematic actress from Mexico, and the composer Agustín Lara were married. To the great love between them that was the inspiration for Lara to create one of the melodies most famous romantics of Mexico, "Maria Bonita"
  • President Aleman Urban Center

    President Aleman Urban Center
    It is one of the best achieved urban ensembles of the 20th century in our country.
  • Luis Barragán House and Studio

    Luis Barragán House and Studio
    Considered a key work of 20th century architecture, it represents one of the most important contemporary architectural works in the international context, as recognized by UNESCO when it was included, in 2004, in its World Heritage list.
  • Rectory Tower UNAM

    Rectory Tower UNAM
    This building is the administrative center of the National University and is especially beloved for the three sculptural murals, painted by the emblematic painter David Alfaro Siqueiros.
  • Film - Los olvidados

    Film - Los olvidados
    Directed by Luis Buñuel and considered Cultural Heritage of Humanity by UNESCO, it is a film that reminds us of the painful result of social inequality, the deficiency in the educational system and the hopelessness of misery in the big cities.
  • Bolero - Gema

    Bolero - Gema
    In 1958, Güicho Cisneros, a composer from Durango, received the gold record as composer of the year for his song “Gema”, his greatest success. He was a Mexican composer who rose to fame in the late 1950s for his romantic bolero songs.
  • Essay - The Labyrinth of Solitude (1950)

    Essay - The Labyrinth of Solitude (1950)
    Written by winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1990 Octavio Paz.It is an essay that reflects the search for Mexican identity, the origins and causes of Mexican behavior both individually and collectively, as well as the way of facing the world.
  • Olympic Stadium UNAM

    Olympic Stadium UNAM
    UNAM sports complex. Designed by the architects Augusto Pérez Palacios, Jorge Bravo and Raúl Salinas Moro, it is the second largest stadium in the country, with a capacity of 72,000 spectators and the only Olympic stadium considered a UNESCO World Cultural Heritage Site. It was the main venue for the 1968 Olympic Games, hosting the opening and closing ceremonies, as well as the athletics competitions.
  • Huapango - Cucurrucucú Paloma

    Huapango - Cucurrucucú Paloma
    Composed by the Zacatecan musician Tomás Méndez, it is a emblematic piece of folk music from Mexico
  • Novel - Pedro Páramo (1955)

    Novel - Pedro Páramo (1955)
    First novel by the author Juan Rulfo. He belonged to the Generation of 52 and considered one of the most important Latin American writers of the 20th century.
  • Bolero - The Clock (1956)

    Bolero - The Clock (1956)
    It is a song of the bolero genre, with music and lyrics by the Mexican composer and singer Roberto Cantoral, then a member of the Los Tres Caballeros trio.
  • Central Library UNAM

    Central Library UNAM
    With one of the largest collections in Mexico, it is the main library of the Ciudad Universitaria Campus and has a multidisciplinary approach for all university courses of all faculties.
    Juan O'Gorman was the creator of the Central Library and its striking mural, the most original and imaginative work of Mexican painting in the first half of the 20th century.
  • Disturbing Presence (1959)

    Disturbing Presence (1959)
    Created by Remedios Varo, Spanish painter who developed most of her pictorial work in Mexico.
  • 1968 Movement

    1968 Movement
    On October 2, 1968, in Mexico City, a terrible massacre occurred in Tlatelolco, in the Plaza de las Tres Culturas, causing the death of more than 300 people.
  • 'El triste' by Roberto Cantoral

    'El triste' by Roberto Cantoral
    It was performed for the first time by the famous Mexican singer José José, on March 15, 1970 during the World Latin Song Festival.
  • Pirékua (UNESCO 2010)

    Pirékua (UNESCO 2010)
    The pirekua is one of the musical genres typical of the Purépecha people of the state of Michoacán and is considered World Heritage by UNESCO since 2010.
  • Mariachi (UNESCO 2011)

    Mariachi (UNESCO 2011)
    The mariachi is a traditional string, song and trumpet music and a fundamental element of the culture of the Mexican people. It is considered intangible heritage of humanity by UNESCO in 2011.