Westward expansion

Expanding the New Nation

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    Westward Expansion

  • Russia Retreats Behind the 54*40' Line

    Fifty-Four Forty or Fight!In 1824 and 1825 Russia signed two different treatiees with Britain and American that cause it to retreat behind the line of 54*40'. This caused tension between GB and the US over Oregon.
  • The "Corrupt Bargain"

    During the Presidential election of 1824 between John Quincy Adams, Henry Clay, William H. Crawford, and Andrew Jackson, Henry Clay used his power as Speaker of the House, and J.Q. Adams win, after being taken out of the race.
  • "Clinton's Big Ditch" is completed in New York

    This canal was supposed to represent the "marriage of waters", by connecting Lake Erie, the Hudson River, and the Ney York Harbor. The construction began in 1817, and upon completion the canal measured 363 miles long. AKA: "the Governor's Gutter"
  • Andrew Jackson elected as President

    Andrew Jackson elected as President
    The race between Adams and Jackson was dirty and harsh, as both men accused the other of such things as gambling, serving as a pimp, and having a mother who was a prostitute.
  • The First Railroad is Cpmpleted in America

    Railroads were faster, cheaper, and more reliable than the already-in-use canals, and didn't freeze in the winter. Their construction was also easier and cheaper for the government, and railroads could be built through almost any terrain.
  • Cyrus McCormick invents the Mechanical Reaper

    Cyrus McCormick invents the Mechanical Reaper
    This tool allowed for farmers to do five mens' work at one time. The Reaper causeed subsistence farmers to grow into large production companies, and commerce began to include trading and transport by way of rivers running north to south.
  • Railroads are Prohibited from Carrying Freight

    The New York Legislature temporarily forbid the carrying of freight on Railroads, in oder to protect their investment made on the Erie Canal.
  • Anti Catholic Riot in Boston

    Anti Catholic Riot in Boston
  • Sewing Machine is Invented by Elias Howe

    Sewing Machine is Invented by Elias Howe
    (perfected by Isaac Singer) This invention helped the northern economy and industrialization.
  • Grain Production in Buffalo begins Steep Incline

    This incline continued through 1860, and grain shipments and production (mainly through Buffalo) increased by sixtyfold.
  • John Deere Invents a Steel Plow

    Broke the "virgin soil" of the West.
  • Canadian Revolt

    Though short-lived, this insurrection caused concern in the United States.
  • Panic of 1837

    An economic panic took place in 1837, which contributed to the struggles between American ships and embargos.
  • The 'Caroline' Affair

  • Oregon Fever

    This was a term used to describe the mad desire settlers had to move west, particularly along the Oregon Trail. It was a long and diffucult trek, but the number of restless pioneers increased continuously despite the hardships.
  • Maine Boundary Dispute

    Maine Boundary Dispute
    The St. Lawrence River was a disputed boundary line between the U.S. and Canada, mainly after the War of 1812.Gruesome fights flared up, and was nick-named the "Aroostook War".
  • Buffalo Handles more Western Produce than New Orleans

    As trhe Mississippi River became a central point of transportation and trade, it brought many more business opportunities to cities near it, such as Buffalo.
  • 10 Hour Day Established

    10 Hour Day EstablishedThis was established by President Van Buren for federal empolyees.
  • President Harrison Dies

    President Harrison Dies
    After his death, Presient John Tyler was sworn into office.
  • British officials offered Asylum to Slaves

    British officials in the Bahamas offered asylum to 130 Virginia slaves who had revolted and captured the 'Creole', an American ship. This increased, once again, the tension between Great Britain and the United States.
  • American Hatred of the British Grows

    During the 19th century, American hatred of the British continueed to grow, and dangerously so. In the year 1842, the "poison had festered ominously".
  • New York abandons wells and adopts a piped-in water supply.

    By doing so, New York unknowingly eliminated breeding places for many disease-carrying mosquitoes.
  • Commonwealth vs. Hunt

    This court case declared labor unions were legal in Massachusetts.
  • Election of 1844

    Election of 1844
    This election was surrounded by much controversy, between Henry Clay, John Tyler, and James K. Polk. Though Polk won, many of his opposers called the election a "corrupt bargain" and used slogans such as "Polk, Slavery, Texas or Clay, Union, Liberty".
  • "Europe stretches to the Alleghenies; America lies Beyond." -Ralph Waldo Emmerson

    "Europe stretches to the Alleghenies; America lies Beyond." -Ralph Waldo Emmerson
  • Texas becomes the Leading Issue in the Presidential Debate

    Because Texas had angered Mexico by winning its freedom, some Americans worried that its annexation would cause a war with Mexico. The three presidential candidates who argued over this issue were Henry Clay, James K. Polk, and John Tyler.
  • Samuel Morse invents the Telegraph

    Samuel Morse invents the Telegraph
    This invention made internation communication much easier, and also allowed for eay contact between ships and land.
  • Anit-Catholic Riot in Philadelphia

  • Clipper Ships Rise in Popularity

    Clpiier Ships saw their popularity soar between 1840 and 1850. This new, sleek design was majestic and fast, and usually carried lighter cargo to achieve top speed. Clipper ships also changed the course of tea-shipping, by being able to "outsail" British and Far East ships.
  • The United Sates annexes Texas

    The United Sates annexes Texas
  • Potato Famine

    Potato Famine
    A new disease ruins all potato crops in Ireland, causing mass starvation. Scared, Irish immigrants flooded into America.
  • Polk Orders March to Rio Grande

    Polk Orders March from Nueces River to Rio GrandePresident Polk finally got tired of the issues with Mexico, so he ordered 4,000 men to march from the Nueces River to the Rio Grande, which was very close to Mexican forces.
  • Mexican Troops Attack

    The Mexican troops crossed the Rio Grande and attacked General Zachary Taylor's troops, which caused a loss of 16 American lives.
  • 5,000 Americans have Settled South of Columbia River

    5,000 Americans have Settled South of Columbia River
    Thses settlers were known as "border ruffians", and arrived here by way of the Oregon Trail. The journey was about 5 months long, and many humans, horses nd oxen died en route.
  • Treaty of Guadelupe Hidalgo

    This treaty was signed for peace between Mexico and America, but really did nothing but benefit the U.S.
  • First St. Patrick's Day Parade in America

    First St. Patrick's Day Parade in the U.S.In 1848, several New York Irish Aid societies decided to unite their parades to form one official New York City St. Patrick's Day Parade.
  • John Jacob Aster Dies, Leaving a $30 billion Estate Behind

    Stories of the rich and successful continued to become more prominent as Westward exansion grew, as shown by the example of John Jacob Aster, a fur trader and real estate speculator.
  • California Gold Rush

    California Gold Rush
    By early 1848, the word about gold mining in CA had gotten out, and many Americans began to travel West to "strike it rich".
  • The "Order of the Star-Spangled Banner if formed.

    The "Order of the Star-Spangled Banner if formed.
    AKA: The "Know-Nothing" Political Party
  • Southerners Demand a New Fugitive Slave Law

    The old fugitive slave law was "too loose", and had proved inadequate to catching and returing the escaped slaves the way Southerners wanted it to happen. The law from 1793 was infuriating, and the appeals to Congress became angrier and harsher in 1850.
  • Interchangeable Parts Concept Grows in Acceptance

    This became the basis of assembly line producytion, which is still used today!
  • Explosion of Railroad Construction

    Explosion of Railroad Construction
    Between 1850 and 1860 an explosion occured within the construction of Railroads, particularly in the North.
  • Horse-Drawn Carriages become a Common Form of Transportation

    Horse-Drawn Carriages become a Common Form of Transportation
    These Stagecoaches were peoularized in Mark Twain's novel "Roughing It", and their transportation routes extended from the Missouri River to California.
  • Cyrus Field Stretches Cable from N. Atlantic to Newfoundland and Ireland

    Cyrus Field was known as "the greatest wire puller in history", and for a good reason. His cable was a crucial development in internationsl communications, and was the first of its time.
  • Whitney's Cotton Gin Kicks In

    Whitney's Cotton Gin Kicks In
    By this date, more than 400 million pounds of cotton were being sent annually to mills, mostly in New England.
  • The Pony Express is Developed

    The Pony Express is Developed
    This mail service carried a new form of cummunication quickly between St. Joseph, Missouri and Secremento, California- a two thousand mile stretch. Each station was approximately 10 miles apart, and the trip could be completed in just 10 days.
  • Cincinati Records a Population that is 45% Immigrants

    Cincinati Records a Population that is 45% Immigrants
    The total population was 161,044 in 1860, but nearly half of this number consisted of immigrants. Cincinati was also known as the "Queen City of the West", and continued to grow as the country expanded Westward.
  • 43 American cities with populations over 20,000

    In 1790, there were only two cities with these population numbers: Philadelphia and New York.
  • Nearly 1,000 Steamboats Travel the Mississippi River

    Nearly 1,000 Steamboats Travel the Mississippi River
    In 1820 there were an estimated 60 steamboats travelling the Mississippi River, but this number grew to 1,000 by the year 1860.
  • United States has Over 30,000 Miles of Railroad Track

    Three-fourths of this track was found in the North, where industry was important and booming.