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History of Mexico: Neocolonial era

By mrhoe
  • 1542

    The Mixton War

    The Mixton War
    A war fought from 1540-1542 between the Caxcanes and other semi-nomadic indigenous people of the area of northwestern Mexico against Spanish invaders, including their Aztec and Tlaxcalan allies.
    "thousands were dragged off in chains to the mines, and many of the survivors (mostly women and children) were transported from their homelands to work on Spanish farms and haciendas." Wikipedia:
  • The Chichimeca War

    The Chichimeca War
    A military conflict between Spanish colonizers and their Indian allies against a confederation of Chichimeca Indians. It was the longest and most expensive conflict between Spaniards and the indigenous peoples of New Spain.
    1567 Spain adopted the policy of a "war of fire and blood" (guerra a fuego y a sangre) – promising death, enslavement, or mutilation to the Chichimeca.
    The Spanish policy evolved to make peace with the Chichimecas, start an assimilation process that would last 300 years.
  • Abdication of the Spanish King, Charles IV - 1808

    Abdication of the Spanish King, Charles IV - 1808
    In 1808, a year after Napoleon invaded Portugal, the French turned on Spain, a previous ally, which led to a political crisis.
    Napoleon replaced Charles IV with his brother, Joseph Bonaparte.
    Joseph Bonaparte ruled Spain for 5 years.
  • Political crisis and corruption in New Spain - 1808-1810

    Jose Joaquin Vicente de Iturrigaray, viceroy of New Spain intended to dissolve the viceroyalty, create a new state and proclaim himself the head. The news reached those who were against his corruption.
    On September 15, 1810 insurgents arrested him at his residence, marking the first coup d'etat in New Spain
  • The Conspiracy of Queretaro - 1810

    The Conspiracy of Queretaro - 1810
    The clandestine conspiracy movement that included Father Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla and the military Ignacio Allende started in 1810.
    This group was formed by writers, merchants, and more military men from the colonial army.
    Their plan to attack on October 1st of that year failed because people opposed and in favor of the Colonial government disclosed the existence of this movement.
    On the night of September 16th Father Hidalgo
  • Supreme Central Junta (Peninsular War) - 1810

    Supreme Central Junta (Peninsular War) - 1810
    The Spanish organ that accumulated the executive and legislative powers during the Napoleonic occupation of Spain.
    In Spanish America describes the first autonomist governments established in 1809-1811 in reaction to the developments in Spain.
    American juntas did not send representatives to Cádiz, but rather continued to govern on their own or called for congresses to set up permanent governments. This development resulted in the Spanish American wars of independence.
  • Spanish Constitution 1812

    Spanish Constitution 1812
    Constitution of Cadiz, one of the earliest codified constitutions of the world.

    Established a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system.
    It was one of the first constitutions that allowed universal male suffrage. It extended political rights for representation to Spanish America and the Philippines.
  • Mexico becomes an independent monarchy

    Mexico becomes an independent monarchy
    After years of battles, Mexico finally gains its independence.
    General Agustín de Iturbide is proclaimed the new monarch of the independent Mexican empire.
  • Antonio López de Santa Anna and Guadalupe Victoria

    Antonio López de Santa Anna and Guadalupe Victoria
    In 1823, Santa Anna declares Iturbide's plan nule and changes the constitution to declare Mexico a Republic.
    General Guadalupe Victoria is elected the first president of the republican nation. After 6 presidents, Santa Anna would be elected in 1833.
  • Texas independence

    Texas independence
    In 1836, Santa Anna creates a centralized government placed in the center of the country. Texas is against this action and begins its fight for independence.
    Santa Anna is made prisoner and obligated to sign the independence of Texas.
    However, because Santa Anna is a prisoner, this legal agreement is not valid.
  • The "Guadalupe Hidalgo" treaty

    A decade later, USA invades Mexico. The war between the two countries lasted for two years. Mexico loses signs the Guadalupe Hidalgo treaty. Mexico accepted the independence of Texas and granted half of its territory to the USA. The USA indemnified Mexico with 15 million pesos for damages during this war.
  • The sale of the "Mesilla"

    In 1853, Santa Anna sold the "mesilla", land south of Arizona to USA for 10 million pesos.
    Santa Anna loses his dictatorship to the liberals in Mexico.
    During the following years, the conservatives and liberals of Mexico will have disputes and battles in their effort to control the government.
  • Benito Juarez, the "War of the Reform" and the McLane-Ocampo treaty

    Benito Juarez, the "War of the Reform" and the McLane-Ocampo treaty
    The government splits into a conservative one and a liberal one. The liberal government was lead by Benito Juárez and the conservative government was lead by the General Felix Zuluaga. The United States mediated and the McLane-Ocampo treaty legally recognized Benito Juárez' government as the legitimate one.
  • Benito Juárez suspends payments on foreign debt

    Benito Juárez suspends payments on foreign debt
    Due to the internal financial crisis after the war between Conservatives and Liberals, Juárez suspends payments of foreign debt in late 1861 (debt acquired during the Mexican-American war and civil war). The British, French, and Spanish empires see an opportunity to invade. The United States intervenes and the British and Spanish come to the table and renegotiate the debt.
    France backs the Mexican conservative groups who want to get rid of Juárez and invades Mexico.
  • General Porfilio Diaz participation in the Francoh war

    General Porfilio Diaz participation in the Francoh war
    General Porfilio Diaz and other military generals lead the war against the French invasion in Puebla, Mexico in 1862. General Diaz became a war hero after defeating the French troops that invaded Puebla.
  • The "Porfiriato", Presidency of Porfilio Diaz

    The "Porfiriato", Presidency of Porfilio Diaz
    General Porfilio Diaz "is elected" President after leading a revolt against Interim Pres. Sebastián Lerdo that lasted over a year.
    Diaz initially defended the liberal ideals of the Constitution of 1857, but later he maintained control by catering to separate groups, offering generous patronage to allies, and playing off one interest against another.
    He prohibited the freedom of the press, he persecuted, and assassinated all opposition.
    His presidency lasted for 3 decades.
  • Regeneración" newspaper and the "Liberal Mexican Party"

    Regeneración" newspaper and the "Liberal Mexican Party"
    The Porfiliato brought Capitalism, industrialization and foreign investment, but only the elite had access to it. The working class continued to be exploited, suffering poverty, the greatest social inequality, and a new form of "slavery".
    In early 1900s the Flores Magón brothers founded a newspaper and in 1905 they founded the "Liberal Mexican party" which promoted several riots and revolts of peasants and workers. The leaders of those revolts were assassinated in 1907.
  • The Mexican Revolution of 1910

    The Mexican Revolution of 1910
    Also called the "Maderista" revolution.
    The opposition to the dictatorship of Porfilio Diaz, lead by Madera attacked Diaz government on this date. The revolution intended to make social, economic, political changes because Diaz' government kept the country in extreme poverty by favoring the elite in all socio economic activities. The revolution continued for seven years, ending in February, 1917.
  • The Mexican Revolution: Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata

    The Mexican Revolution: Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata
    In 1910, two more peasant leaders joined Francisco Madero in the revolt against the Diaz regime with the objective to return all stolen land to the indigenous people.
    At the north, Pancho Villa and Pascual Orozco join the revolution, and to the South, Emiliano Zapata.
    In 1911 they took Ciudad Juárez and they obligated Diaz to declare their victory over his government. Diaz was forced to leave the country and he fled to France.
  • Emiliano Zapata continues the fight against the oligarchy

    Emiliano Zapata continues the fight against the oligarchy
    Francisco Madero becomes president, but he makes alliances and treaties with the old government. Emiliano Zapata declares Madero a traitor and organizes a revolt against him for not returning the lands to the peasants and indigenous people.
    Madero orders Pancho Villa to fight Zapata and the other leaders of the revolution.
  • Madero is assassinated by the coup d'etat

    Madero is assassinated by the coup d'etat
    The nephew of Porfidio Diaz, Felix Diaz, and the general Victoriano Huerta organized a coup d'etat against Madero.
    The US ambassador to Mexico, Henry Lane Wilson, also joins the conservative movement because Madero was not protecting the interests of the USA.
    Madero is made prisoner and executed.
  • Venustiano Carranza becomes president and changes the constitution

    Venustiano Carranza becomes president and changes the constitution
    After the death of Maderos, Huerta proclaims himself president. Huerta loses against the revolts of Zapata, VIlla, Orozco and is forced to leave the country. General Venustiano Carranza is elected President and grants some of the petitions of Zapata to return the land to the peasants. Carranza changes the constitution to protect the freedoms and rights of people in Mexico.
    Pancho Villa leaves the military and focuses on building schools and improving the lives of Mexican people in the country.
  • Emiliano Zapata and Carranza are assassinated

    Emiliano Zapata and Carranza are assassinated
    Emiliano Zapata, the Southern leader of the peasant movement is assassinated by conservative members of the government.
    President Carranza proposes to change the Constitution so that no more military leaders, but civilians would serve as presidents.
    Carranza is assassinated by the military generals.
  • Pancho Villa is assassinated

    Pancho Villa is assassinated
    The retired General, Pancho Villa, is assassinated by the military government of Alvaro Obregón in an effort to silence all opposition and the possibility of new revolts.
    The military government has the support of the United States forming an alliance that provides industrial investment in exchange for Mexican resources.
    It is suspected that the plot to kill Villa included several government members including the Minister of Interior, Plutarco Calles, and the governor of Durango, Agustin Castro.
  • Plutarco Elias Calles and his "Maximato"

    Plutarco Elias Calles and his "Maximato"
    General Plutarco Elias Calles (right) becomes president and throughout nearly a decade he killed his opposition, President Alvaro Obregón (left on photo) and he managed three other presidents until he founded his party "Partido Nacional Revolucionario" which dominated the country throughout the 20th century.
  • FDR's Good neighbor policy and effect on Mexico

    FDR's Good neighbor policy and effect on Mexico
    US feared neutrality of countries over anything else (fear of communism) so they pushed nations like Mexico to side with the US. Later, President Kennedy strengthened the Good Neighbor Policy by implementing his Alliance for Progress program, which helped Latin American countries with "economic growth and development."
    This American influence would put a strain on Mexico whenever they wanted to have positive relations with Cuba.
  • General Lázaro Cárdenas and his "Mexican miracle"

    General Lázaro Cárdenas and his "Mexican miracle"
    General Lázaro Cárdenas, a follower of Carranza and Emiliano Zapata, becomes president in 1934. He creates lots of agricultural reforms to give peasants back the lands that had been taken from them.
    Cardenas changed the constitution to ensure a civil Presidency elected via a democratic suffrage.
    His presidencial term is considered the "Mexican miracle" because of all the progress achieved and the opportunities created for all people in the country.
  • Pres. Cárdenas nationalized Mexico's petroleum reserves

    Pres. Cárdenas nationalized Mexico's petroleum reserves
    Cárdenas expropriated the equipment of the foreign oil companies in Mexico. Cárdenas' action angered the international business community and especially the United Kingdom.
    The company that Cárdenas founded, Petróleos Mexicanos later served as a model for other nations seeking greater control over their natural gas resources. Cárdenas founded the National Polytechnic Institute to ensure the education and training of people to run the oil industry.
  • 20,000-40,000 Spanish war refugees

    20,000-40,000 Spanish war refugees
    Cárdenas supported the Republican government of Spain with weapons and financial aid during the Spanish Civil War 0f 1936-1939.
    Although Mexico's efforts in the Spanish Civil War were not enough to save the Spanish Republic, it did provide a place of exile for as many as 20,000-40,000 Spanish refugees. Among those who reached Mexico were distinguished intellectuals who left a lasting imprint on Mexican cultural life.
  • Mexico's progress during WWII

    Mexico's progress during WWII
    World War II stimulated Mexican industry, which grew by approximately 10% annually between 1940 and 1945, and Mexican raw materials fueled the US war industry. Mexico and USA had a very strong economical and political relationship during this time.
  • Mexico-United States sign new agreements

    The agreement resolved most of their outstanding quarrels. The old problem of U.S. agrarian claims was settled, a reciprocal-trade treaty was outlined, and the Mexican peso was stabilized and supported to maintain a constant dollar ratio. The United States agreed to continue silver purchases at world prices and to provide long-term loans. Separate agreements were reached on military aid, primarily to professionalize the Mexican army and its small air force.
  • President Manuel Avila Camacho declares war to the Axis

    President Manuel Avila Camacho declares war to the Axis
    After two of Mexico's ships carrying oil were destroyed by German submarines in the Gulf of Mexico, Camacho declared war against the Axis powers on 22 May 1942. Mexican participation in World War II was mainly limited to an airborne squadron, (Escuadrón 201), to fight the Japanese in the Pacific.
    Despite its short participation in the war, Mexico belonged to the victorious nations and gained the right to participate in the postwar international conferences.
  • President Miguel Alemán

    President Miguel Alemán
    Pres. Alemán is elected. Massive hydraulic projects were undertaken to furnish electric power, new lands developed, and Mexico became the regional centre of agricultural-industrial complexes. The nationalized oil industry became a major producer of natural gas and petrochemicals. Economic integration was accomplished by the extension of railroad, highway, and airline networks to nearly all regions.
  • Women's suffrage

    Pres. Adolfo Ruiz Cortines enfranchised women with a constitutional amendment in 1953, though they did not actually vote until 1958.
  • Mexico's Dirty War

    Mexico's Dirty War
    The Mexican Dirty War was an internal conflict from the 1960s to the 1980s between the Mexican PRI-ruled government under the presidencies of Gustavo Díaz Ordaz, Luis Echeverría and José López Portillo, which were backed by the US government, and left-wing student and guerrilla groups. Gov. forces carried out disappearances (estimated at 1,200 - 300 deaths at the massacre of Tlatelolco in 1968), systematic torture, and "probable extrajudicial executions" .
  • Mexico in the Latin American Free Trade Zone

    Mexico in the Latin American Free Trade Zone
    LAFTA was created in Montevideo by Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, and Uruguay. The signatories hoped to create a common market in Latin America and offered tariff rebates among member nations. During Adolfo López Mateos’ presidency (1958-1964), also established political and economic relations with numerous Asian countries such as India, the Philippines, Japan and Indonesia.
  • Student protest in late 1960s

    Student protest in late 1960s
    The precipitating factor was Mexico's hosting of the Summer Olympic games in 1968. A student protest in Mexico city in July was met with brutal force from the riot police.
    On October 2nd, a rally of students in the capital city was met by military forces. The crowd was caught in a murderous crossfire, killing over 300 students.
    The massacre proved the bankruptcy of the PRI monopoly on power.
  • Guerrillas during Echeverría's presidency

    Guerrillas during Echeverría's presidency
    Pres. Echeverría increased government spending and the number of gov. agencies and institutions.
    Inflation became a problem. The peso devaluated and a series of guerrilla movements called for violent action against the PRI and all its works. They staged a series of bank robberies and high-profile kidnappings.
  • Oil prices fall and Mexico struggles to pay international debt

    Mexico’s economic growth in the 1970s was financed with massive international loans. Government planners calculated easy repayment from projected oil revenues, including income from the huge reserves discovered in 1976 in Tabasco and Chiapas states. They were unable, however, to predict the world oil glut of the early 1980s and the sharp fall in oil prices. The Mexican government struggled increasingly to pay even the interest on its huge foreign debt.
  • NAFTA - North American Free Trade Agreement is created

    NAFTA - North American Free Trade Agreement is created
    Ross Perot opposed NAFTA, stating that the policy would harm American workers.
    More than 950,000 specific U.S. jobs were lost to NAFTA outsourcing and import floods under just one narrow program.
    It devastated Mexico's rural economy and destroyed many small- and medium-sized businesses in Mexico as big corporations and retailers moved in the country.
  • Pres. Carlos Salinas de Gortari and NAFTA

    Pres. Carlos Salinas de Gortari and NAFTA
    In 1989 Salinas was determined to end with gov. corruption. He raid the head of the oil workers' union and arrested him for illegal possesion of firearms. He continued with neoliberal strategies (eliminating price controls, deregulating capital markets, lowering trade barriers). He supported fair government elections and he denationalized gov. institutions. Inflation went down from 60 to 20%.
    He negotiated NAFTA with US which entered in effect on January 1st, 1994.
  • Pres. Clinton's $50 billion rescue plan for Mexico

    Pres. Clinton's $50 billion rescue plan for Mexico
    The peso eventually lost more than half its value against the US dollar due to inflation, massive migration, US corporations taking over Mexico's resources, and gov. corruption.
    Pres. Clinton put together a multilateral rescue package of nearly $50 billions.
  • Pres. Vicente Fox

    Pres. Vicente Fox
    Pres. Zedillo committed to stop using the "dedazo" political strategy of appointing the next Mexican president and support clean Presidential elections.
    Pres. Vicente Fox is chosen as the next president. He created tax reforms, privatization of gov. institutions.
    Mexico lost jobs and market share to China and the economy / GDP fell almost 1 point per year.
  • USMCA agreement replaces NAFTA

    USMCA agreement replaces NAFTA
    - more level playing field for American workers, American farmers, ranchers, and agribusinesses,
    - Supporting a 21st Century economy through new protections for U.S. intellectual property, and ensuring opportunities for trade in U.S. services.
    - New chapters covering Digital Trade, Anticorruption, and Good Regulatory Practices, as well as a chapter devoted to ensuring that Small and Medium Sized Enterprises benefit from the Agreement.