New Mexico Digital Timeline

  • Jan 1, 1000

    Classic Bonito Phase

    Classic Bonito Phase
    In the Classic Bonito Phase around Chaco Cayon, the first Pueblo Peoples moved to the New Mexico area the as they began building large structures, and kivas. This period was relativly interesting because it contains some of the the earliest records of structures and art work from the Native Americans. Such artwork includes red pottery work as well as black on white pottery. Exact date unknown. Image Caption: This image is of an original Pueblo, one of the oldest in New Mexico.
  • Jan 1, 1100

    The Anasazi Peoples Settle Around the Jemez Mountains

    The Anasazi Peoples Settle Around the Jemez Mountains
    Around 1100 The Anisazi Peoples begin to settle around the Jemez Mountains. When the Anasazi came in they settled at the upland mesas that are just a little east of the Jemez Mountains. They mostly came as individuals and or small size families. Exact date unknown. Image Caption: This is one of the oldest Anasazi settlements, naturally preserved around the Jemez Mountain area. Although they came in small sizes this settlement was relatively large.
  • Jan 1, 1130

    The Drought

    The Drought
    A major drought sweeps the area and the Anasazi and other Pueblo Peolple abandond the area. Although it is unknown what day the drought started, we know it was very serious. This drought ended what is known as The Chaco Phenomenon. Exact Date Unknown. Image Caption: This particular Anasazi settlement was effected very badly by this drought. So bad that the people abandoned the area.
  • Jan 1, 1300

    Anasazi Pueblo on Pajarito Plateau

    Anasazi Pueblo on Pajarito Plateau
    In the early 1300's The Anasazi's few villiages grew quite a lot larger in size. The most notable of those villages were the Puye, Tsankawi, Tyuonyi, Otowi, Shufinne, and Tsirege villages. The village Tsirege means "little bird" in Tewa, when translated to spanish its called Pajarito, thus Pajarito Pueblo. Exact Date Unknown. Image Caption: This area (very similar to the classic bonito phase picture) is one of the more notable villages and was actually inspired by the bonito structural design.
  • Jan 1, 1325

    Abondoning the Four Corners

    Abondoning the Four Corners
    A lot of tribes abandoned the four corners area. This caused an increase in population around south side of the Rio Grande, as well as parts of Colorado and The Hopi Mesas. Exact Date Unknown. Image Caption: This is a picture of the four corners monument, it connects Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona.
  • Jan 1, 1449

    The Statues of the Purity of the Blood

    The Statues of the Purity of the Blood were a symbol of a distinction between Christians (Good Blood) And Convero's (Bad Blood), which were Jewish converts. The Statues were designed for the sole purpose of colonizing the America's after the conquest and discovery. The Spanish used this statue method to convince natives to side with Christianity rather than other religions. Exact Date Unknown, there is no documented pictures of the statues available.
  • Jan 1, 1450

    Migration of Navajo and Apache

    Migration of Navajo and Apache
    From 1450-1550 The Navajo and Apache move from the southwest to the northern regions of New Mexico, as well as other states such as Arizona and a little of Utah. The earliest archeological evidence of the Navajo presense in that region was around what is now upper San Juan. For The Apache, the earliest that they could be recorded there was around the Pre-Columbian Period. Exact Date Unknown. Image Caption: This is a picture of the estimation of where the Navajo and Apache migrated.
  • Jun 7, 1494

    The Treaty of Tordesillas

    The Treaty of Tordesillas
    On January The Treaty of Tordesillas was passed by the Pope himself in Juan de Oñate's Act of Possession. The treaty was to decide what whether possesion of certain land belonged to the Portguese or the Spanish. This document is one of the most importent in the Spanish conquest to expand their domain in the new world. This is the document of The Treaty of Tordsesillas itself, it is very well preserved and considered on of the most importent documents in history.
  • Jan 1, 1500

    First Exploration

    First Exploration
    Starting in the early 1500's the Spanish started colonizing in New Mexico. The early exploration of New Mexico was considered both dangerous and very expensive, but was considered a success because it was very useful for missionaries to convert Indians to Christainity. Image Caption: An artists representation of a Spanish Conquistador, painted for the purpose describing First Exploration.
  • Jul 1, 1536

    Cabeza de Vaca goes into Mexico

    Cabeza de Vaca goes into Mexico
    Around July of 1536 Cabeza de Vaca, Esteban (Later called Estevanico), and two others reached the area located around Culiacan, Mexico. The party reached there after wandering accros New Mexico and Texas for approximately eight years. They had been shipwrecked around present day Galveston in 1527. Image Caption: This is a painting (Edited) of Cabeza de Vaca himself, this was taken to describe his legacy.
  • Jan 1, 1539

    Estevanico and Niza Explore New Mexico

    Estevanico and Niza Explore New Mexico
    Estevanico and Fray Marcos de Niza leave Culiacan in 1539 and go to explore the area of New Mexico. Estevanico was killed by Zuni Natives for reasons currently unknown, but it is possible that he was killed because of the jewelry he wore as they depicted snakes. Later Niza returned stating claims of the 7 Cites of Cibola. Exact Date of Death Unknown. Image Caption: This is an artists painting (Edited) of Esteban, or Estivanico, he was an explorer closest to Cabeza de Vaca.
  • Apr 1, 1539

    First Encounter

    First Encounter
    Around April of 1539 the Spanish contacted the first Pueblo they had seen yet in New Mexico. At this point the Pueblo Peoples were very peaceful with the Spanish. Exact Date Unknown. Image Caption: This was the first Pueblo that the Spanish had encountered, they were attracted to the area because of the large rock formation.
  • Jan 1, 1540

    Coronado attacks Moho Pueblo

    Coronado attacks Moho Pueblo
    From January to March of 1540 Francisco Vasquez de Coronado attacked the Moho Pueble or what is also part of The Tiguex War. During the seige they killed approximately two-hundered Native American men, women, and childeren. Image Caption: This is an image of the remains of one of the most terrible massacre's in the history of New Mexico.
  • Aug 1, 1540

    The 7 Cites of Cibola

    The 7 Cites of Cibola
    Although the exact date is unknown, we know that in the late 1540's Coronado got permission from the Provincial Government to search for the 7 Cites of Cibola. He took 337 Spaniards and over 700 Native American allies, as well as thousands of livestock to north to find the fabled cites. Image Captions: This is an artists representation of what the fabled cites of gold would look like if found.
  • The Quest of Juan de Onate

    The Quest of Juan de Onate
    On April 30, 1598 Governer Don Juan de Onate, and a few other colonists take possesion of the New Mexico area in the name of the King of Spain. After an attack from the Acoma Pueblo, Onate sends a small force of troops to attack the Pueblo even though based on it's structure it was almost impenetrable, however Onate beat the odds and ended up killing over 800 men, women, and childeren. As an act of what he considered retribution, Onate made the remaining male prisoners cut one of their feet off.
  • The Founding of Santa Fe

    The Founding of Santa Fe
    In 1609, Governer Pedro de Peralta establishes a new capitol in Santa Fe, and begins construction of the Palace of the Governers. Around the same time Gaspar de Villagra publishes a book about the starting history of New Mexico. It is the first book printed about any area in modern day United States. Image Caption: This was a painting taken after the founding of Santa Fe, featuring all those importent in the founding.
  • The founding of Alburquerque

    The founding of Alburquerque
    Albuquerque was founded in 1706 Gov. Francisco Cuervo y Valdes and 12 families. It was named after The Duke of Alburquerque who lived in New Spain. Althought the original name was Alburquerque the "r" was droped due to 19th century english, who pronounced it Albuquerque. Image Caption: This is one of the oldest buildings in New Mexico, it was built during the founding of Albuquerque.
  • The Revolutionary War

    The Revolutionary War
    In 1775 The Revolutionary War starts. Joseph de Galvez sends a dispatch team to Teodoro de Croix, commander of the Internal Provinces, not limited to, but including New Mexico, asking for donations for the war. They gained millions of pesos. Image Caption: This is a painting representing the first shots of the start of the Revolutionary War.
  • Smallpox Epidemic

    Smallpox Epidemic
    It is unknown when the first case started, but the damage was terrible. Smallpox during this year killed over 5000 New Mexicans a quarter of New Mexico's population. Image Caption: This is a painting of nurses treating patients, diagnosed with smallpox, this was a very large epidemic and many nurses got sick.
  • Louisianna Purchase

    Louisianna Purchase
    In 1803 The Louisianna Purchase was signed by negotiators. The settlement was reached after France won the land from Spain in a peace treaty. Image Caption: This image shows the area in which the land that was gained from the Spainish Empire.
  • The Ban on Slavery

    The Ban on Slavery
    Responding to a request for more troops for protection against the northern nations, Governor Joseph Manrrique sent a circular to each of the alcaldes in New Mexico in 1812, including Santa Cruz and Taos, wherein he reiterated the ban on slaving. He wrote, “The acquisition of Indians as slaves is strictly prohibited, as is their sale, exchange and possession even though other Indians have captured them during wartime.”
    Source: SANM II, 17:554.
    Exact Date Unavailable.
  • The Mexican-American War

    The Mexican-American War
    Probably one of, if not the most importent and significant events in New Mexican history. The Mexican-American War was officially declared on May 13, 1846 in which afterwords, New Mexico would officailly become United States Territory. Image Caption: An artistic representation of the Mexican-American War's first battles. On May 13, 1846
  • Kearny invades

    Kearny invades
    Brigadier General Stephen W. Kearny and the Army of the West enter Santa Fe and officially conquer New Mexico. They did not fire a single shot, and declares freedom of religion and the protection of private property. Image Caption: This is a painting of Brig. Gen. Stephen Watts Kearny, painted near the time of the invasion.
  • Revolt of 1847

    Revolt of 1847
    In 1847 there was a revolt after the reaction of Kearny taking Santa Fe without a fight, the revolt began on January 19 when rebels in Toas killed the Governer of New Mexico Charles Bent. During that time there was a simultaneous rebel attack at Simeon Turley's mill in Arroyo Hondo, killing him as well as six others. The U.S. send a counter attack and kill 150 New Mexicans and evetually capture the rebel leaders. The rebel leaders were later hanged. Image Caption: An image of the ambush.
  • The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

    The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
    The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was signed on February 2, 1848 officially ending the Mexican-American War. The agreement stated that Mexico would have to ceced 55% of it's land to the United States including New Mexico. Image Caption: This is the image of The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, well preserved and is considered a priceless peice of history.
  • Civil War

    Civil War
    The Civil War comes to New Mexico. First by the Confederates who wanted New Mexico as a path to California as well as controlling the gold and silver mines of Colorado. Image Caption: This is an artistic representation of the Battle at Gettysburg, considered on of the most importent battles in the history of the United States of America.
  • The First New Mexico Film

    The First New Mexico Film
    The first film in New Mexico is called Indian Day School. The film was by Thomas Edison on February 24, 1898. Image Caption: A still image of the first film, the film lasted about 30 seconds.
  • New Mexico

    New Mexico
    New Mexico is becomes and offical state on January 6, 1912. New Mexico becomes the 47th state in the United States of America under President Taft. Image Caption: The signing of the document in which New Mexico was declared offically the 47th state.
  • World War I Begins

    World War I Begins
    On June 28, 1914 World War I began with the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, in Sarajevo. Ferdinand's death at the hands of the Black Hand, a Serbian nationalist secret society, set in train a mindlessly mechanical series of events that culminated in the world's first global war.
    Image Caption: Images of some of the most memorable and famous parts of World War I, for example; the trenches on the western front, as well as German biplanes.
  • Women's Suffrage Movement

    Women's Suffrage Movement
    Starting in the late 1800's (but most prominent in 1915), the attempt to get women voting rights became to be known as the "Womens Suffrage Movement". Despite the effort put in by the movement in 1915, sadly New Mexico's legislature was one of (if not the) last to ratify the 19th Amendment to the U.S. Contitution in 1920.
    Image Caption: This image was of a group of protesters using songs and poetry as a convincing arguement of women's right to vote.
  • Billingual Education Bill of 1915

    "The proposed curriculum consisted of bilingual educational materials for children of Spanish descent, and the State Department of Education was to be responsible for developing texts and materials for English-speaking students. The bill proposed mandatory bilingual education in all school districts having fifty percent or more Hispano children. This bill was eventually passed." © 2004-2012 New Mexico State Record Center and Archives. Unable to find exact date or image.
  • Film Clip, Alfalfa Farm near Deming

    Film Clip, Alfalfa Farm near Deming
    "Film clip of alfalfa farm near Deming, taken from "West Side, 1914." Taken for the Panama-California International Exposition at San Diego in 1915 by the Santa Fe Motion Picture Company."
    taken from New Mexico Historical Society. While this may seem insignificant, in reality it was one of the earliest films (or rather film clips) in New Mexico. Unable to find Exact Date.
  • Pancho villa's Raid on Columbus

    Pancho villa's Raid on Columbus
    The Battle of Columbus, the Burning of Columbus or the Columbus Raid to which it is usually refered to, was a raid by Pancho Villa's Division of the North on Columbus New Mexico. The Americans were deeply angered by the attack and the President at the time Woodrow Wilson would then order a search party known as the Pancho Villa Expedition and the U.S, invaded Mexico in an Unsuccesful Attempt to find him. Image Caption: These are the ruins of the attack, Villa's raid was considered succesful.
  • Theodore Roosevelt Visits Albuquerque

    Theodore Roosevelt Visits Albuquerque
    On October 23rd 1916, Presidential Candidate Theodore Roosevelt visited Albuquerque to campaign for the Republican Presidential Nomination. During this time a clip was filmed of the parade, Roosevelt is sitting in a car next to Albert B. Fall, one of the first New Mexico Senators.
    Image Caption: This is a still image of the film clip that was taken during the parade.
  • Nina Otero-Warren Becomes the Superintendent of Santa Fe School

    Nina Otero-Warren Becomes the Superintendent of Santa Fe School
    During the Womans Suffrage Campaign, Nina Otero-Warren was one of the biggest voices during that time, as she rose through the ranks very fast in the state Congressional Union. She was eventually addmited as superintendent of Santa Fe School, making her the fisrt woman to do so. She also was nominated to run for the U.S. House of Representitives in 1922. Image Caption: This is a picture of Nina Otero-Warren.
  • Flu Epidemic of 1918

    Flu Epidemic of 1918
    All through early 1918 the Influenza Epidemic of 1918 was devastating to the Native American pueblo people of New Mexico. The treatment--bed rest, a liquid diet, open windows and doors--was not a part of the traditional healing methods of the people, nor were they entirely trustful of the outsiders who seemed to force these strange ways upon them.
    Image Caption: A nationally issued warning about the flu giving info and protection tips.
  • World War I Ends

    World War I Ends
    The fighting ended with the signing of an armistice which went into effect at 11:00 a.m. on November 11, 1918. It required the German forces to evacuate their positions and return to Germany. I think maybe they had to leave their artillery and other heavy weapons behind. After that a formal peace treaty was developed by the victorious powers at Versailles, France and Germany and Austria were given the choice of accepting it or continuing the war. Image Caption: A local paper stating the end.
  • The Journey of Fr. Toribius Christman

    The Journey of Fr. Toribius Christman
    Fr. Toribius Christman Describes in the book; History of New Mexico: Land of the Brave, Land of the Slaves his journey through the cold winter in the Apache Reservation. This is one of the most remembered stories in the book, and is also one of the most notable as the writings are very vivid and detailed.
    Image Caption: This is the cover art of the book History of New Mexico: Land of the Brave, Land of the Slaves. It is one of the most famous New Mexico history books.
  • Ratification of Ninth Amendment

    Ratification of Ninth Amendment
    In 1920, New Mexico finally ratifies the Ninth Amendment. This gives women the right to vote, or more precisely; rights kept by the people. Unable to find exact date of ratification.
    Image Caption: This is an image of the Bill of Rights, as the Ninth Amendment was included along with the other first ten Amendments of the United States of America.
  • The Founding of the Spanish Colonial Arts Society

    The Founding of the Spanish Colonial Arts Society
    The Spanish Colonial Arts Society was founded in 1925, it was founded by the writer Mary Austin, and by artist Frank G. Applegate. The purpose of it was to perserve and create Hispanic art that has been around for centuries starting as old as 1598. Today it is one of the leaders in public education in teaching people about traditional Hispanic art. Unable to find exact date of founding. Image Caption: This is one of the organizations newer logos, and it features some of the popular art.
  • Birth of Route 66

    Birth of Route 66
    On November 11, 1921 the United States modified the Federal Highway Act. The effect was the construction of an interstate highway system that would go into motion across the United States. Route 66 would connect Chicago to Los Angeles, thus the birth of the "Mother Road". Image Caption: This is the famous sign of Route 66, while there are many other signs this one is one of the oldest and most memorable.
  • The Great Depression Part 1

    The Great Depression Part 1
    The prosperity of the 1920's was short lived starting around 1929 the first wave of The Great Depression hit the United States. Thousands of banks were closed, and millions of Americans were jobless in what seemed like an instant. This hit New Mexico especially hard as it was the second pooriest state at the time and only with Roosevelt's "New Deal" was any hope looming. No official date of the beginning of the Great Depression. Image Caption: This is a famous picture of the Wall Street crysis.
  • TAT Crash in New Mexico

    TAT Crash in New Mexico
    On September 3, 1929 Transcontinental Air Transport (T.A.T.) Ford 5-AT-B Tri-Motor crashed on Mt. Taylor New Mexico due to wheather conditions, low visibility, and strong downdrafts. It was considered one of the most tragic and memorable plane crashes in New Mexico. The wreckage can still be seen today. Image Caption: This is a picture of the Ford 5-AT-B Tri-Motor that crashed just before the flight, it is the only documented image.
  • The Great Depression Part 2: The New Deal

    The Great Depression Part 2: The New Deal
    The New Deal was an series of programs inacted by President Franklin D. Roosevelt to help America get out of the Great Depression, while maintaining the Capitalist system. The system was nicknamed the "3 Rs" Relief, Recovery, Reform. While it was obvious that we needed recovery this also sparked controversy, it was in a way, the very thing that started Progressivism. Image Caption: Protesters gather for Roosevelt to re-elected as he had a plan to help with recovery from the economic crysis.
  • The Building of Conchas Dam

    The Building of Conchas Dam
    Conchas Dam was built in 1939, this was a cause of large celebration for those living in Tucumcari. Tumcumcari had been suffering floods and the dam was a cause for rejoice, bells and sirens were sounded in celebration. The dam has survived four floods that would have surely destroyed the town if it had not been built. Image Caption: This is a picture of the Dam itself, it still stands today even with the numerous floods it has faced.
  • World War II Begins

    World War II Begins
    On September 1, 1939 the worst war in world history began when Germany invaded Poland. While some consider the war to have begun in 1937 as China and Japan had been fighting since then, there is no doubt that the world impact began at the invasion. Image Caption: This is a picture of Adolf Hitler the leader of the Nazi Party, and the founder of World War II and the Holocaust.