Unit II Historic Vocab Timeline

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    Westward Expansion

    Mass movement of American settlers to the western part of the United States, forming many new territories
  • Bureau of Indian Affairs

    Part of U.S. Interior Department responsible for sending funds and supplies to Native American reservations
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    Chief Joseph Lifetime

    A chief forced to give up his father’s land in Northwest and never returned; died of a “broken heart” after losing his land and family
  • Manifest Destiny

    the idea that the United States were fated to expand across all of North America
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    Frederic Remington Lifetime

    An American visual artist whose main muse was the old American West
  • Homestead Act

    Settlers could own 160 acres of land if they could pay a small fee, be at least 21, were American citizens or filing to be, built a 12x14 house, lived there at least half of the year, and farmed for five years
  • Pacific Rail Act

    Land grants equalling over 175 million acres of land (over 1/10 the size of the U.S.) given to Union Pacific and Pacific Railways to build the transcontinental railroad
  • Morrill Act

    Gave each state 30,000 acres of land to sell to land speculators to fund the institution of mechanical and agricultural colleges and created the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)
  • Radical Republicans

    Group that formed a political party against Lincoln’s re-election that believed in the punishment of Confederate leaders
  • Sand Creek Massacre

    Attack on peaceful Cheyennes by Col. John Chivington killing hundreds and forcing rest into reservations
  • Forty Acres and a Mule

    General Sherman redistributed land for thousands of freed men (usually 40 acres along with Thaddeus Stevens’ request for each allotment to come with a Union Army mule), but under the reconstruction President Johnson forced all land to be given back to previous owners
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    Black Codes

    Laws restricting freedom of newly freed men during Johnson’s Reconstruction
  • 13th Amendment

    Abolished slavery in the US
  • Ku Klux Klan

    Secret society started by former Confederates aimed at defending white supremacy that spread throughout the South
  • Civil Rights Act of 1866

    Outlaws black codes (originally vetoed by Johnson, then veto was overridden by Congress, leads to 14th Amendment)
  • Seward's Folly

    William H. Seward purchased Alaska and added it as an American territory despite protests that it was worthless, which earned it the name “Seward’s Folly”
  • Reconstruction Act

    The military rule of the Southern states by the Congress in order to agreeably reenter the Union
  • Treaty of Ft. Laramie

    End of 2-year war when Sioux reservation was built in [now] South Dakota and the Bozeman Trail construction was stopped
  • 14th Amendment

    All people born/naturalized in US are citizens and get rights (even former slaves)
  • Sharecropping

    Farming a portion of the land of a planter who in return provided housing and a portion of the crops (which many newly freed slaves did when they still had no rights)
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    Enforcement Acts

    Banned the use of terror (specifically by the KKK) to prevent people (specifically newly enfranchised freedmen) from voting
  • 15th Amendment

    Everyone (no matter race or previous slavery) can vote
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    Credit Mobilier Scandal

    Credit Mobilier built the railroad for Union Pacific and charged more than necessary to sell to shareholders (including politicians from both parties), stealing money from Congress through Union Pacific
  • Barbed Wire, Joseph Glidden, Open Range

    Barbed wire was patented by Joseph Glidden, ending open range, or free grazing animals, in the West
  • Civil Rights Act of 1875

    Gave African Americans rights in public places
  • Battle of Little Bighorn, Sitting Bull

    Col. Custer and troops were attacked by Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull, Sioux who didn’t sign Fort Laramie Act, and 2,000+ Sioux warriors upon rounding up Indians for reservation (Crazy Horse died upon Sioux surrender)
  • Jim Crow Laws

    Act enforcing segregation of races in the South
  • United States v. Sioux Nation of Indians

    The US had previously (in Ft. Laramie Treaty) granted the Sioux the Black hills but then (in 1877) reclaimed the land, which the Sioux wanted back
  • Exodusters, Benjamin Singleton

    thousands of African Americans fleeing westward during Reconstruction led by Benjamin Singleton
  • Booker T. Washington

    Taught students to focus on vocational skills and economic stability as opposed to advocating for political equality (Established Tuskagee University on this date)
  • Dawes Act

    Divided reservation land into individual lots to inspire a sense of pride of ownership
  • Battle at Wounded Knee

    After police killing of Sitting Bull and surrender of followers, someone fired a shot instigating open fire and killing of 200+ Sioux on the way to Wounded Knee, a creek where they would get to a reservation
  • W.E.B. DuBois

    First African American to earn PhD from Harvard in this year; taught students to become leaders in civil rights movements and to seek political and social equality
  • Plessy v. Ferguson

    African American Homer Plessy argued that he wasn’t being treated equally by being forced to sit separately from the white people on a train by Louisiana law. Verdict: 14th Amendment “not intended to give Negroes social equality but only political and civil equality”. As long as black and white facilities were separate but equal, segregation was okay (not always the case)

    National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, started by Moorfield Storey, Mary White Ovington and W. E. B. DuBois