Unit 2: Civil Rights in America

By mawoods
  • Jim Crow Laws

    Jim Crow Laws
    Jim Crow laws were state and local laws enforcing racial segregation in the Southern United States.
    “It shall be unlawful for a negro and white person to play together or in company with each other in any game of cards or dice, dominoes or checkers.” laws put into place to separate African Americans from the Anglo population; from of social and political control
  • 13th Amendment

    13th Amendment
    adopted in 1865, eight months after the civil war ended, the amendment forbade slavery in the United States.
    Took Lincoln’s Executive Order (the Emancipation Proclamation) and made it a “fix” on the constitution.
  • Black Codes

    Black Codes
    local laws that attempted to control every aspect of Black life in many Southern cities; ranged from “stepping out of the way of a white person on the street” to “noe making eye-contact with whites” to not being able to sell or purchase goods, shop in white owned stores or open your own establishment, own firearms, or gather in groups larger than 20.
  • Sharecropping/ Tenant Farming

    Sharecropping/ Tenant Farming
    Sharecropping is a system of agriculture in which a landowner allows a tenant to use the land in return for a share of the crops produced on their portion of land. tenant farming, but you must also share portion of your harvest with the landowner. similar to renting but you’re renting farm land so that you can work it
  • 14th Amendment

    14th Amendment
    declared that all persons born in the United States ( except American Indian tribes) were citizens, that all citizens were entitled to equal rights regardless of their race, and their rights were protected by due process of the law. (1868) Must make all steps before taking away Unalienable Rights, if step is missed not meeting due process.
    Southern States were required to sign off on it before they were allowed back into the U.S. (after the Civil War)
  • 15th Amendment

    15th Amendment
    one of three amendments to the U.S. Constitution passed during the era of Reconstruction, granted African American men the right to vote. (1870)
    This didn’t stop “tests” from being put into place to limit voting.
    Black Codes - laws passed by southern states that prevented voting, restricted freedom, and encouraged debt and low wages. former slaves had the right to vote (men)
  • Lynching

    originated as frontier justice- killing someone (usually by hanging) deemed guilty of a crime without a trial or even proven to be guilty. By the end of the Civil War this had changed into a way to control the Black population, mainly in the South. Between 1870-1940 there were over 5,000 documented lynchings of African Americans for alleged crimes ranging from “looking across at someone” to “robbery and assault”. The last documented lynching was Michael Donald in 1980.
  • Plessy v. Ferguson

    Plessy v. Ferguson
    The U.S. Supreme court ruled that states can constitutionally enact legislation requiring persons of different races to use "separate but equal" segregated facilities. Examples of effects: Facilities such as bathrooms, theaters, railroad cars, etc., remained segregated and often unequal.
  • Thurgood Marshall

    Thurgood Marshall
    He was a distinguished lawyer and he argued and won the Brown v. Board of Education case. He also worked for the NAACP. He was the 1st African AMerican supreme court justice, He established a record for supporting the voiceless American.
  • Orval Faubus

    Orval Faubus
    He was the governor of Arkansas and was best known for his stand in the desegregation of Little Rock High School, where he ordered Arkansas National Guard to stop African American Students from entering the school. President Eisenhower sent the U.S. Army to escort the students to and from school for a year.
  • Rosa Parks

    Rosa Parks
    She worked for the NAACP, and heard about CLaudette Colvin's story and was inspired to do the same thing, refuse to give her seat up on the bus. The NAACP would think she would be a better figure head since she was older and worked for them, and wa not prgnant. Parks worked closely with MLK Jr. in the Montgomery Bus Boycotts.
  • Hector P. Garcia

    Hector P. Garcia
    Dr. Hector Garcia Perez was a Mexican-American physician, surgeon, World War II veteran, civil rights advocate, and founder of the American G.I. Forum.
  • Lester Maddox

    Lester Maddox
    He was the governor of Georgia, a former restaurant ownerwho refused to serve Blacks. He ran for governor though he had not held a public office before. He was a segregationist, however he oversa many improvements to Black employment rights as governor.
  • George Wallace

    George Wallace
    He was th Governor of Alabama and ran for U.S. President 4 times. He was a Pro-segregationist who said, "I say segregation today, segregation tomrrow, and segregation forever."
  • 19th Amendment

    19th Amendment
    Guarantees all American women the right to vote (1920)
    The women who protested and petitioned were called suffragettes
    Women had been trying to get the vote (officially) since 1848
  • Betty Friedan

    Betty Friedan
    was an American writer, activist, and feminist. A leading figure in the women's movement in the United States, her 1963 book The Feminine Mystique is often credited with sparking the second wave of American feminism in the 20th century. In 1966, Friedan co-founded and was elected the first president of the National Organization for Women, which aimed to bring women "into the mainstream of American society now fully equal partnership with men".
  • Cesar Chavez

    Cesar Chavez
    Cesar Chavez was an American farm worker, labor leader and civil rights activist, who, with Dolores Huerta, co-founded the National Farm Workers Association. "Preservation of one's own culture does not require contempt or disrespect for other cultures.
    You are never strong enough that you don't need help.
    Our language is the reflection of ourselves. A language is an exact reflection of the character and growth of its speakers."
  • Martin Luther KingJr.

    Martin Luther KingJr.
    He was the leader of the Civil Rights Movement. He advocated nonviolent civil disobedience and demanded equal rights for Blacks including desegregation in all public facilities and life. He was a preacher and was arrested for prtesting. He was assassinated in 1968 by James Earl Ray- his death sparked race riots all over America.
  • Civil Disobedience

    Civil Disobedience
    It is the active, professed refusal to obey certain laws, demands, and commands of a government, or of an occupying international power.
  • 20th Amendment

    20th Amendment
    a simple amendment that sets the dates at which federal (United States) government elected offices end. In also defines who succeeds the president if the president dies.
  • Federal Housing Authority

    Federal Housing Authority
    a United States government agency created as part of the National Housing Act of 1934. It sets standards for construction and underwriting and insures loans made by banks and other private lenders for home building.
  • Desegregation

    By executive Order, President Truman ended segregation in the military. More than a million served. Many did mental or dangerous duty. Tuskegee Airmen were the first black Marine Corps troops.
  • Affirmative Action

    Affirmative Action
    Refers to steps taken to increase the representation of women and minorities in areas of employment, education, and business from which they had been historically excluded.
  • Brown v. Board of Education

    Brown v. Board of Education
    This case made it illegal for schools to segregate White and colored children. Schools were unequal.! The supreme court came to the result that the 14th amendment was broken. Brown won the case. It shows that everyone is equal. It over turned the Plessy vs. Ferguson case. Argued by Thurgood MarshallU.S. Supreme Court ruled that “racially segregated schools are inherently unequal.”Made states bring an end to state supported segregation of public facilities.
  • Montgomery Bus Boycott

    Montgomery Bus Boycott
    It lasted from December 1955 to December 1956 and began with Claudette and Rosa. It ended with SCOTUS case Browder v. Gayle that said segregated buses were unconstitutional. The leaders were MLK Jr., Rosa Parks, and NAACP.
  • Civil Rights Act of 1957

    Civil Rights Act of 1957
    1st Civil Rights legislation since Reconstruction. Protested voting rights. Established federal civil rights comission investigates discrimination. Prevented interference in voting
  • Sit-Ins

    They were most well known in Greensboro, North Carolina. 4 University students who sat at a "whites only" counter and were refused service, refused to leave until the store closed. At this time (1960) a "whites only" counter would have been illegal. The protest in a matter of days went from 4 students to over 300. Protests spread and did not subside until the restaurant owner had lost ~$200,000 in revenue and asked 3 of his black employees to sit at the counter and were served. Some had violence
  • Nonviolent Protest/ March on Washington

    Nonviolent Protest/ March on Washington
    One of the largest political rallies for human rights in U.S. History. This called for civil and economic rights for African Americans. It happened in Washington D.C. in 1963. It helped to pass the Civil Rights Act of 1964. This is where MLK Jr. gave his historic "I have a dream" speech.
  • Upward Bound

    Upward Bound
    A national program that more than doubles the chances of low-income, first-generation students graduating from college so they can escape poverty and enter the middle class. The program provides opportunities for participants to succeed in their precollege performance and ultimately in their higher education pursuits. Upward Bound serves: high school students from low-income families; and high school students from families in which neither parent holds a bachelor's degree.
  • 24th Amendment

    24th Amendment
    Passed in 1964
    Prevents Congress and the States from requiring a “poll” tax before you can vote.
    Poll tax- money that you must pay to register to vote. You would be unable to vote if you had not registered and paid first.
    Mississippi, Alabama, and Virginia had (up until 1966) accumulative poll tax. This means that you had to pay all missed payments from previous years, they had to be paid.
    Why didn’t we pass this much sooner?
  • Civil Rights Act of 1964

    Civil Rights Act of 1964
    Abolished racial, religious, and sex discrimmination by employers. Could not be denied hire or fired for any of the above reasons. Introduced by JFK. Ended unfair voting requirements
  • Head Start

    Head Start
    a program of the United States Department of Health and Human Services that provides comprehensive early childhood education, health, nutrition, and parent involvement services to low-income children and their families.
  • Voting Rights Act of 1965

    Voting Rights Act of 1965
    Prohibited racial discrimination when voting: like poll taxes, literacy test etc. Strengthened enforcement of 15th amendment. Banned literacy test as qualifications for voting
  • 26th Amendment

    26th Amendment
    Prohibits the Federal government and the states from denying the ability to vote based on age- thus lowering the voting age to 18 (it had been 21)
  • Title IX

    Title IX
    a comprehensive federal law that prohibits discrimination on the basis of sex in any federally funded education program or activity.