Civil Rights

  • 14th Amendment

    14th Amendment
    Its Equal Protection Clause requires each state to provide equal protection under the law to all people within its jurisdiction.
  • 15th Amendment

    15th Amendment
    prohibits each government in the United States from denying a citizen the right to vote based on that citizen's "race, color, or previous condition of servitude".
  • JIm Crow Laws

    JIm Crow Laws
    The Jim Crow laws were state and local laws in the United States enacted between 1876 and 1965. They mandated de jure racial segregation in all public facilities in Southern states of the former Confederacy, with, starting in 1890, a "separate but equal" status for African Americans.
  • Eleanor Roosevelt

    Eleanor Roosevelt
    Anna Eleanor Roosevelt (October 11, 1884 – November 7, 1962) was the longest-serving First Lady of the United States, holding the post from 1933 to 1945 during her husband Franklin D. Roosevelt's four terms in office. President Harry S. Truman later nicknamed her the "First Lady of the World" in tribute to her human rights achievements.
  • Thurgood Marshall

    Thurgood Marshall
    Thurgood Marshall (July 2, 1908 – January 24, 1993) was an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court, serving from October 1967 until October 1991. Marshall was the Court's 96th justice and its first African-American justice.
  • Lyndon Baines Johnson

    Lyndon Baines Johnson
    Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908 – January 22, 1973), often referred to as LBJ, was the 36th President of the United States, a position he assumed after his service as the 37th Vice President of the United States.
  • National Association for the Advancement of Colored People

    National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
    The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) is an African-American civil rights organization in the United States, formed in 1909. Its mission is “to ensure the political, educational, social, and economic equality of rights of all persons and to eliminate racial hatred and racial discrimination”. Its name, retained in accordance with tradition, uses the once common term colored people.
  • Orval Faubus

    Orval Faubus
    Orval Eugene Faubus (January 7, 1910 – December 14, 1994)[1] was the 36th Governor of Arkansas, serving from 1955 to 1967. He is best known for his 1957 stand against the desegregation of the Little Rock School District during the Little Rock Crisis, in which he defied a unanimous decision of the United States Supreme Court by ordering the Arkansas National Guard to stop African-American students from attending Little Rock Central High School.
  • Rosa Parks

    Rosa Parks
    Rosa Louise McCauley Parks (February 4, 1913 – October 24, 2005) was an African-American civil rights activist, whom the U.S. Congress called "the first lady of civil rights" and "the mother of the freedom movement".
  • Hector P. Garcia

    Hector P. Garcia
    Hector Perez Garcia (January 17, 1914-July 26, 1996) was a Mexican-American physician, surgeon, World War II veteran, civil rights advocate, and founder of the American G.I. Forum. As a result of the national prominence he earned through his work on behalf of Hispanic Americans, he was instrumental in the appointment of Mexican American and American G.I. Forum charter member Vicente T. Ximenes to the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 1966.
  • George Wallace

    George Wallace
    George Corley Wallace Jr. (August 25, 1919 – September 13, 1998) was an American politician and the 45th governor of Alabama, having served two nonconsecutive terms and two consecutive terms: 1963–1967, 1971–1979 and 1983–1987. After four runs for U.S. president, he earned the title "the most influential loser" in 20th-century U.S. politics, according to biographers Dan T. Carter and Stephan Lesher.
  • Martin Luther King Jr.

    Martin Luther King Jr.
    Martin Luther King, Jr. (January 15, 1929 – April 4, 1968) was an American clergyman, activist, and leader in the African-American Civil Rights Movement. He is best known for his role in the advancement of civil rights using nonviolent civil disobedience. King has become a national icon in the history of American progressivism.
  • 19th Amendment

    19th Amendment
    prohibits any United States citizen to be denied the right to vote based on sex.
  • Betty Friedan

    Betty Friedan
    A leading figure in the Women's Movement in the United States, her 1963 book The Feminine Mystique is often credited with sparking the "second wave" of American feminism in the 20th century. In 1966, Friedan founded and was elected the first president of the National Organization for Women, which aimed to bring women "into the mainstream of American society now fully equal partnership with men".
  • Cesar Chavez

    Cesar Chavez
    Cesar Chavez (born César Estrada Chávez, locally; March 31, 1927 – April 23, 1993) was an American farm worker, labor leader and civil rights activist, who, with Dolores Huerta, co-founded the National Farm Workers Association (later the United Farm Workers union, UFW).
  • League of United Latin American Citizens

    League of United Latin American Citizens
    The League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC) was created to combat the discrimination that Hispanics face in the United States. Established February 17, 1929 in Corpus Christi, Texas, LULAC was a consolidation of smaller, like-minded civil rights groups already in existence. Since its creation, the organization has grown; it has a national headquarters, active councils in many states, and a professional staff. LULAC continues to operate.
  • Dolores Huerta

    Dolores Huerta
    Dolores Clara Fernandez Huerta is a labor leader and civil rights activist who, along with César Chávez, co-founded the National Farmworkers Association, which later became the United Farm Workers (UFW). Huerta has received numerous awards for her community service and advocacy for workers', immigrants', and womens' rights, including the Eugene V. Debs Foundation Outstanding American Award.
  • Barbara Jordan

    Barbara Jordan
    Barbara Charline Jordan (February 21, 1936 – January 17, 1996) was an American politician and a leader of the Civil Rights movement. She was the first African American elected to the Texas Senate after Reconstruction and the first southern black female elected to the United States House of Representatives. She received the Presidential Medal of Freedom, among numerous other honors. On her death she became the first African-American woman to be buried in the Texas State Cemetery.
  • Congress on Racial Equality

    Congress on Racial Equality
    The Congress of Racial Equality or CORE is a U.S. civil rights organization that played a pivotal role for African-Americans in the Civil Rights Movement. Membership in CORE is still stated to be open to "anyone who believes that 'all people are created equal' and are willing to work towards the ultimate goal of true equality throughout the world.”
  • Civil Rights Movement

    Civil Rights Movement
    The civil rights movement was a worldwide political movement for equality before the law occurring between approximately 1950 and 1980. In many situations it took the form of campaigns of civil resistance aimed at achieving change by nonviolent forms of resistance. In some situations it was accompanied, or followed, by civil unrest and armed rebellion.
  • Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka Kansas

    Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka Kansas
    Brown v. Board of Education, 347 U.S. 483 (1954), was a landmark United States Supreme Court case in which the Court declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students unconstitutional.
  • Sonia Sotomayor

    Sonia Sotomayor
    Sonia Maria Sotomayor is an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, serving since August 2009. Sotomayor is the Court's 111th justice, its first Hispanic justice, and its third female justice.
  • Montgomery Bus Boycott

    Montgomery Bus Boycott
    The Montgomery Bus Boycott, a seminal event in the U.S. civil rights movement, was a political and social protest campaign against the policy of racial segregation on the public transit system of Montgomery, Alabama.
  • Southern Christian Leadership Conference

    Southern Christian Leadership Conference
    The Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) is an African-American civil rights organization. SCLC was closely associated with its first president, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. The SCLC had a large role in the American Civil Rights Movement.
  • Great Society

    Great Society
    a set of domestic programs in the United States announced by President Lyndon B. Johnson at Ohio University and subsequently promoted by him and fellow Democrats in Congress in the 1960s. Two main goals of the Great Society social reforms were the elimination of poverty and racial injustice.
  • United Farm Workers Organizing Committee

    United Farm Workers Organizing Committee
    The United Farm Workers of America (UFWA) is a labor union created from the merging of two groups, the Agricultural Workers Organizing Committee (AWOC) led by Filipino organizer Larry Itliong, and the National Farm Workers Association (NFWA) led by César Chávez.
  • March on Washington

    March on Washington
    The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom (or "The Great March on Washington", as styled in a sound recording released after the event)[1][2] was one of the largest political rallies for human rights in United States history [3] and called for civil and economic rights for African Americans. It took place in Washington, D.C. on Wednesday, August 28, 1963.
  • 24th Amendment

    24th Amendment
    prohibits both Congress and the states from conditioning the right to vote in federal elections on payment of a poll tax or other types of tax.
  • Voting Rights Act of 1965

    Voting Rights Act of 1965
    is a landmark piece of national legislation in the United States that outlawed discriminatory voting practices that had been responsible for the widespread disenfranchisement of African Americans in the U.S.
  • National Organization for Women

    National Organization for Women
    The National Organization for Women (NOW) is an organization founded in 1966 and which has a membership of 500,000 contributing members set up for the advancement of women. The organization consists of 550 chapters in all 50 U.S. states and the District of Columbia.
  • Black Panthers

    Black Panthers
    The Black Panther Party (originally the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense) was an African-American revolutionary socialist organization active in the United States from 1966 until 1982. The Black Panther Party achieved national and international notoriety through its involvement in the Black Power movement and U.S. politics of the 1960s and 1970s.
  • 25th Amendment

    25th Amendment
    deals with succession to the Presidency and establishes procedures both for filling a vacancy in the office of the Vice President, as well as responding to Presidential disabilities.
  • La Raza Unida

    La Raza Unida
    Partido Nacional de La Raza Unida (National United Peoples Party or United Race Party) was an American political party centered on Chicano nationalism. During the 1970s the Party campaigned for better housing, work, and educational opportunities for Mexican-Americans.
  • 26th Amendment

    26th Amendment
    barred the states or federal government from setting a voting age higher than eighteen.
  • Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee

    Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee
    The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) was one of the organizations of the American Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s. It emerged from a series of student meetings led by Ella Baker held at Shaw University in April 1960.