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Socially Progressive Movements: Civil Rights

  • Amendment

    Amendment
    An Amendment is a formal change to the text of the written constitution of a nation or state. In some jurisdictions the text of the constitution itself is altered; in others the text is not changed, but the amendments change its effect.
  • 14th Amendment

    14th Amendment
    The 14th Amendment grants citizenship to all people born in the United States. I t was added to the United States Constitution was on July 9, 1868, as one of the Reconstruction Amendments.
  • 15th Amendment

    15th Amendment
    15th Amendment grants voting rights to African American men. This was added to the United States Constitution prohibiting each government in the United States from denying a citizen the right to vote. It was ratified on February 3, 1870.
  • Jim Crow Laws

    Jim Crow Laws
    Jim Crow Laws mandated segregational laws beginning in 1890. The separation in practice led to conditions for African Americans that tended to be inferior to those provided for white Americans,
  • Plessy v. Ferguson

    Plessy v. Ferguson
    Plessy v. Ferguson is a landmark United States Supreme Court decision of the United States, upholding the constitutionality of state laws requiring racial segregation in public facilities under the doctrine of "separate but equal".
  • National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)

    National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
    The NAACP ffers assistance to African Americans with regards to matters involving civil rights. This association was founded in 1909.
  • 19th Amendment

    19th Amendment
    19th Amendment gives right to vote for women. This was added to the United States Constitution prohibiting any United States citizen to be denied the right to vote based on sex. It was ratified on August 18, 1920.
  • Militant Protests

    Militant Protests
    The Militant Protests were people who engaged in aggressive verbal or physical combat going for their rights.
  • League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC)

    League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC)
    League of United Latin American Citizens was created to combat the discrimination that Hispanics face in the United States. Established February 17, 1929 in Corpus Christi, Texas, LULAC was a consolidation of smaller, like-minded civil rights groups already in existence.
  • Eleanor Roosevelt

    Eleanor Roosevelt
    Eleanor Roosevelt was the longest-serving First Lady of the United States, holding the post from 1933 to 1945 during her husband Franklin D. Roosevelt's four terms in office. President Harry S. Truman later nicknamed her the "First Lady of the World" in tribute to her human rights achievements.
  • Federal Housing Authority

    Federal Housing Authority
    Federal Housing Authority is a United States government agency created as part of the National Housing Act of 1934. It insured loans made by banks and other private lenders for home building and home buying.
  • Social Security

    Social Security
    Social Security refers to the Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) federal program. The original Social Security Act of 1935 and the current version of the Act, as amended encompass several social welfare and social insurance programs.
  • Congress On Racial Equality (CORE)

    Congress On Racial Equality (CORE)
    Congress On Racial Equality is a U.S. civil rights organization that played a pivotal role for African-Americans in the Civil Rights Movement. Membership in CORE is still stated to be open to anyone who believes that 'all people are created equal' and are willing to work towards the ultimate goal of true equality throughout the world.
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    Socially Progressive Movements: Civil Rights

  • Mendez v. Westminster

    Mendez v. Westminster
    Mendez v. Westminster was a 1946 federal court case that challenged racial segregation in Orange County, California schools.
  • Delgado v. Bastrop ISD

    Delgado v. Bastrop ISD
    Delgado v. Bastrop ISD was a landmark case in Texas that dealt with racial segregation.
  • Sweatt v. Painter

    Sweatt v. Painter
    Sweatt v. Painter was a U.S. Supreme Court case that successfully challenged the "separate but equal" doctrine of racial segregation established by the 1896 case Plessy v. Ferguson. The case was influential in the landmark case of Brown v. Board of Education four years later.
  • Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka Kansas

    Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka Kansas
    Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka Kansas was a landmark United States Supreme Court case in which the Court declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students unconstitutional. The decision overturned the Plessy v. Ferguson decision of 1896 which allowed state-sponsored segregation.
  • Hernandez v. Texas

    Hernandez v. Texas
    Hernandez v. Texas was a landmark United States Supreme Court case that decided that Mexican Americans and all other racial groups in the United States had equal protection under the 14th Amendment of the U.S. Constitution.
  • Dolores Huerta

    Dolores Huerta
    Dolores Huerta a labor leader and civil rights activist who, along with César Chávez, co-founded the National Farmworkers Association, which later became the United Farm Workers (UFW). Huerta has received numerous awards for her community service and advocacy for workers', immigrants', and womens' rights.
  • Martin Luther King Jr.

    Martin Luther King Jr.
    Martin Luther King Jr. was an African American actvist during the civil rights movement. He is best known for his role in the advancement of civil rights using nonviolent civil disobedience. King has become a national icon in the history of American progressivism.
  • Orval Faubus

    Orval Faubus
    Orval Faubus was the 36th Governor of Arkansas, serving from 1955 to 1967. He is best known for his 1957 stand against the desegregation of the Little Rock School District during the Little Rock Crisis.
  • Rosa Parks

    Rosa Parks
    Rosa Parks was an African-American civil rights activist, whom the U.S. Congress called "the first lady of civil rights" and "the mother of the freedom movement". She was greatly known for sitting on the front of the bus during segregational times and being arrested for trying to stand up for her rights.
  • Civil Rights Movement

    Civil Rights Movement
    Civil Rights Movement refers to the social movements in the United States aimed at outlawing racial discrimination against black Americans and restoring voting rights to them. The movement began in 1955 and ended in 1968.
  • Montgomery Bus Boycott

    Montgomery Bus Boycott
    Montgomery Bus Boycott was an event in the U.S. civil rights movement that was a political and social protest campaign against the policy of racial segregation on the public transit system of Montgomery, Alabama. The campaign lasted from December 1, 1955, when Rosa Parks, an African American woman, was arrested for refusing to surrender her seat to a white person.
  • Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)

    Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)
    Southern Christian Leadership Conference is an African-American civil rights organization. SCLC was closely associated with its first president, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. The SCLC had a large role in the American Civil Rights Movement.
  • Civil Rights Act of 1957

    Civil Rights Act of 1957
    It was primarily a voting rights bill, was the first civil rights legislation enacted by Congress in the United States since Reconstruction following the American Civil War.
  • Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)

    Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)
    Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee was one of the organizations of the American Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s. It emerged from a series of student meetings led by Ella Baker held at Shaw University in April 1960.
  • Affirmative Action

    Affirmative Action
    Affirmative Action refers to equal opportunity employment measures that Federal contractors and subcontractors are legally required to adopt. Affirmative action in the United States began as a tool to address the persistent discrimination against African Americans in the 1960s. This specific term was first used to describe US government policy in 1961.
  • Betty Friedan (The Feminine Mystique)

    Betty Friedan (The Feminine Mystique)
    Betty Friedan was an American activist that published a nonfiction in 1963 called "The Feminine Mystique." It is widely credited with sparking the beginning of second-wave feminism in the United States.
  • George Wallace

    George Wallace
    George Wallace was an American politician and the 45th governor of Alabama, having served two nonconsecutive terms and two consecutive terms.
  • Lyndon Baines Johnson

    Lyndon Baines Johnson
    Lyndon Baines Johnson (LBJ) was the 36th President of the United States (1963–1969), a position he assumed after his service as the 37th Vice President of the United States. Johnson was greatly supported by the Democratic Party and as President, he was responsible for designing the "Great Society" legislation that included laws that upheld civil rights.
  • March On Washington

    March On Washington
    March On Washington was one of the largest political rallies for human rights in United States history and called for civil and economic rights for African Americans.
  • Great Society

    Great Society
    Great Society Programs was a set of domestic programs in the United States announced by President Lyndon B. Johnson at Ohio University and subsequently promoted by him and fellow Democrats in Congress in the 1960s. Some of the things that fell under the programs were Medicare, Head Start, Upward Bound, etc.
  • 24th Amendment

    24th Amendment
    24th Amendment prohibits both Congress and the states from conditioning the right to vote in federal elections on payment of a poll tax or other types of tax. The amendment was proposed by Congress to the states on August 27, 1962, and was ratified by the states on January 23, 1964.
  • Civil Rights Act of 1964

    Civil Rights Act of 1964
    Civil Rights Act of 1964 differed from earier attempts to address minority rights by focusing on ending discrimination in the work place. It was a landmark piece of legislation in the United States[1] that outlawed major forms of discrimination against racial, ethnic, national and religious minorities, and women.
  • Voting Rights Act of 1965

    Voting Rights Act of 1965
    Voting Rights Act of 1965 was a landmark piece of national legislation in the United States that over powered discriminatory voting practices that had been responsible for equality of African Americans in the U.S
  • Head Start

    Head Start
    Head Start Program is a program of the United States Department of Health and Human Services that provides comprehensive education, health, nutrition, and parent involvement services to low-income children and their families. It was officially first launched in 1965.
  • Medicare

    Medicare
    Medicare is a national social insurance program, administered by the U.S. federal government since 1965, that guarantees access to health insurance for Americans ages 65 and older and younger people with disabilities.
  • Upward Bound

    Upward Bound
    Upward Bound is a federally funded educational program within the United States. The program is one of a cluster of programs referred to as TRIO, all of which owe their existence to the federal Higher Education Act of 1965.
  • Black Panthers

    Black Panthers
    Black Panthers was an African-American revolutionary socialist organization active in the United States from 1966 until 1982. They used strategies to achieve equal rights, which included violent forms of protest as well as militant groups.
  • Non-Violent Protests

    Non-Violent Protests
    Non-Violent Protests was the practice of achieving goals through symbolic protests, civil disobedience, economic or political noncooperation, and other methods, without using violence. The Freedom Riders of the civil rights movement remained non-violent although they were brutally beaten.
  • National Organization for Women (NOW)

    National Organization for Women (NOW)
    National Organization for Women is an organization founded in 1966 and which has a membership of 500,000 contributing members set up for the advancement of women.
  • United Farm Workers Organizing Committee (UFWOC)

    United Farm Workers Organizing Committee (UFWOC)
    United Farm Workers Organizing Committee is a labor union created from the merging of two groups, the Agricultural Workers Organizing Committee (AWOC) led by Filipino organizer Larry Itliong, and the National Farm Workers Association (NFWA) led by César Chávez.
  • Thurgood Marshall

    Thurgood Marshall
    Thurgood Marshall was a distinguished lawyer, supreme court justice, and supporter of rights of Americans with little voice governent. President Johnson nominated him to the United States Supreme Court in 1967.
  • 25th Amendment

    25th Amendment
    25th Amendment to the United States Constitution deals with succession to the Presidency and establishes procedures both for filling a vacancy in the office of the Vice President, as well as responding to Presidential disabilities. The 25th Amendment was adopted on February 23, 1967.
  • Cesar Chavez

    Cesar Chavez
    Cesar Chavez was an American farm worker, labor leader and civil rights activist during the civil rights movement. Chavez became the best known Latino American civil rights activist, and was strongly promoted by the American labor movement, which was eager to enroll Hispanic members.
  • Hector P. Garcia

    Hector P. Garcia
    Hector P. Garcia was a Mexican-American physician, surgeon, World War II veteran, civil rights advocate, and founder of the American G.I. Forum. As a result of the national prominence he earned through his work on behalf of Hispanic Americans.
  • American Indian Movement (AIM)

    American Indian Movement (AIM)
    American Indian Movement is a Native American activist organization in the United States, founded in 1968 in Minneapolis, Minnesota, with an agenda that focuses on spirituality, leadership, and sovereignty.
  • Tinker v. Des Moines

    Tinker v. Des Moines
    Tinker v. Des Moines was a decision by the United States Supreme Court that defined the constitutional rights of students in U.S. public schools. The Tinker test is still used by courts today to determine whether a school's disciplinary actions violate students' First Amendment rights.
  • La Raza Unida (Mexican Americans United)

    La Raza Unida (Mexican Americans United)
    La Raza Unida was an American political party centered on Chicano nationalism. During the 1970s the Party campaigned for better housing, work, and educational opportunities for Mexican-Americans.
  • 26th Amendment

    26th Amendment
    26th Amendment to the United States Constitution barred the states or federal government from setting a voting age higher than eighteen. It was adopted on July 1, 1971.
  • Barbara Jordan

    Barbara Jordan
    Barbara Jordan was born February 21, 1936 and she was an American politician and a leader of the Civil Rights movement. Jordan was the first southern black female elected to the United States House of Representatives.
  • Title IX

    Title IX
    Title IX is a portion of the Education Amendments of 1972. U.S. legislation also identified its principal author's name as the Patsy Mink Equal Opportunity in Education Act.
  • Edgewood ISD v. Kirby

    Edgewood ISD v. Kirby
    Edgewood ISD v. Kirby was a landmark in Texas, redistributed property taxes to poorer districts, led to Robin Hood legislation.
  • Sonia Sotomayor

    Sonia Sotomayor
    Sonia Sotomayor was born June 25, 1954 and is an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, serving since August 2009. Sotomayor is the Court's 111th justice, its first Hispanic justice, and its third female justice.