Progressive Movement: Civil Rights

  • Amendment 14th

    Amendment 14th
    State and federal ciizenship for all persons regardless of race both born or naturalized in the United States was reaffirmed.
    No state would be allowed to abridge the "privileges and immunities" of citizens.
    No person was allowed to be deprived of life, liberty,or property without "due process of law."
    No person could be denied "equal protection of the laws."
  • Amendment 15th

    Amendment 15th
    To the United States Constitution prohibits each government in the United States from denying a citizen the right to vote based on that citizen's "race, color, or previous condition of servitude" (for example, slavery). It was ratified on February 3, 1870.
  • Eleanor Roosevelt

    Eleanor Roosevelt
    Anna Eleanor Roosevelt was the longest-serving First Lady of the United States, holding the post from 1933 to 1945 during her husband Franklin D. Roosevelt's four terms in office.
  • Jim Crow Laws

    Jim Crow Laws
    State and local laws in the United States enacted between 1876 and 1965. They mandated de jure racial segregation in all public facilities in Southern states of the former Confederacy, with, starting in 1890, a "separate but equal" status for African Americans.
  • Plessy V. Ferguson

    Plessy V. Ferguson
    A landmark United States Supreme Court decision in the jurisprudence of the United States, upholding the constitutionality of state laws requiring racial segregation in public facilities under the doctrine of "separate but equal.
  • Amendment

    Amendment
    A formal change to the text of the written constitution of a nation or state. In some jurisdictions the text of the constitution itself is altered; in others the text is not changed, but the amendments change its effect.
  • Thurgood Marshall

    Thurgood Marshall
    Thurgood Marshall was an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court, serving from October 1967 until October 1991. Marshall was the Court's 96th justice and its first African-American justice.
  • Lyndon Banes Johnson

    Lyndon Banes Johnson
    Lyndon Baines Johnson, often referred to as LBJ, was the 36th President of the United States, a position he assumed after his service as the 37th Vice President of the United States
  • NAACP

    NAACP
    An African-American civil rights organization in the United States, formed in 1909. Its mission is “to ensure the political, educational, social, and economic equality of rights of all persons and to eliminate racial hatred and racial discrimination”.
  • Orval Faubus

    Orval Faubus
    Orval Eugene Faubus was the 36th Governor of Arkansas, serving from 1955 to 1967. He is best known for his 1957 stand against the desegregation of the Little Rock School District.
  • Hector P. Garcia

    Hector P. Garcia
    George Corley Wallace Jr. was an American politician and the 45th governor of Alabama, having served two nonconsecutive terms and two consecutive terms
  • Rosa Parks

    Rosa Parks
    Rosa Louise McCauley Parks was an African-American civil rights activist, whom the U.S. Congress called "the first lady of civil rights" and "the mother of the freedom movement".
  • George Wallace

    George Wallace
    George Corley Wallace Jr. was an American politician and the 45th governor of Alabama, having served two nonconsecutive terms and two consecutive terms
  • Amendment 19th

    Amendment 19th
    The United States Constitution prohibits any United States citizen to be denied the right to vote based on sex. It was ratified on August 18, 1920.
  • Cesar Chavez

    Cesar Chavez
    A Mexican American, Chavez became the best known Latino American civil rights activist, and was strongly promoted by the American labor movement, which was eager to enroll Hispanic members.
  • Matin Luther KIng, Jr.

    Matin Luther KIng, Jr.
    Martin Luther King, Jr. was an American clergyman, activist, and leader in the African-American Civil Rights Movement. He is best known for his role in the advancement of civil rights using nonviolent civil disobedience.
  • LULAC

    LULAC
    Created to combat the discrimination that Hispanics face in the United States.
  • Dolores Huerta

    Dolores Huerta
    Dolores Clara Fernandez Huerta is a labor leader and civil rights activist who, along with César Chávez, co-founded the National Farmworkers Association, which later became the United Farm Workers
  • Federal Housing Authority

    Federal Housing Authority
    A United States government agency created as part of the National Housing Act of 1934. It insured loans made by banks and other private lenders for home building and home buying.
  • Social Security

    Social Security
    Social Security refers to the Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) federal program.The original Social Security Act (1935) and the current version of the Act, as amended, encompass several social welfare and social insurance programs.
  • CORE

    CORE
    A U.S. civil rights organization that played a pivotal role for African-Americans in the Civil Rights Movement. Membership in CORE is still stated to be open to "anyone who believes that 'all people are created equal' and are willing to work towards the ultimate goal of true equality throughout the world.”
  • Mendez V. Westminister

    Mendez V. Westminister
    A 1946 federal court case that challenged racial segregation in Orange County, California schools. In its ruling, the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, in an en banc decision, held that the segregation of Mexican and Mexican American students into separate "Mexican schools" was unconstitutional.
  • Delgado V. Bastrop ISD

    Delgado V. Bastrop ISD
    An argument before the US Supreme Court for the end of a practice of systematic exclusion of Hispanics from jury service in Jackson County, Texas. Even though Mexican-Americans composed more than 10% of the county's population, no person of Mexican ancestry had served on a jury there and in 70 other Texas counties in over 25 years.
  • Sweatt V. Painter

    Sweatt V. Painter
    A U.S. Supreme Court case that successfully challenged the "separate but equal" doctrine of racial segregation established by the 1896 case Plessy v. Ferguson. The case was influential in the landmark case of Brown v. Board of Education four years later.
  • Brown V. Board Of Education Of Topeka Kansas

    Brown V. Board Of Education Of Topeka Kansas
    A landmark United States Supreme Court case in which the Court declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students unconstitutional
  • Hernandez V. Texas

    Hernandez V. Texas
    A landmark United States Supreme Court case that decided that Mexican Americans and all other racial groups in the United States had equal protection under the 14th Amendment of the U.S. Constitution.
  • Sonia Sotomayor

    Sonia Sotomayor
    Sonia Maria Sotomayor is an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, serving since August 2009. Sotomayor is the Court's 111th justice, its first Hispanic justice, and its third female justice.
  • Civil Rights Movement

    Civil Rights Movement
    The social movements in the United States aimed at outlawing racial discrimination against black Americans and restoring voting rights to them.
  • Montgomery Bus Boycott

    Montgomery Bus Boycott
    A seminal event in the U.S. civil rights movement, was a political and social protest campaign against the policy of racial segregation on the public transit system of Montgomery, Alabama.
  • Southern Christian Leadership Confrence (SCLC)

    Southern Christian Leadership Confrence (SCLC)
    An African-American civil rights organization. SCLC was closely associated with its first president, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. The SCLC had a large role in the American Civil Rights Movement.
  • Civil Rights Act of 1957

    Civil Rights Act of 1957
    Primarily a voting rights bill, was the first civil rights legislation enacted by Congress in the United States since Reconstruction following the American Civil War.
  • SNCC

    SNCC
    One of the organizations of the American Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s. It emerged from a series of student meetings led by Ella Baker held at Shaw University in April 1960.
  • Great Society

    Great Society
    A set of domestic programs in the United States announced by President Lyndon B. Johnson at Ohio University and subsequently promoted by him and fellow Democrats in Congress in the 1960s.
  • Affirmative Action

    Affirmative Action
    Known as positive discrimination in the United Kingdom, refers to policies that take factors including "race, color, religion, gender, sexual orientation, or national origin" into consideration in order to benefit an underrepresented group "in areas of employment, education, and business".
  • UFWOC

    UFWOC
    A labor union created from the merging of two groups, the Agricultural Workers Organizing Committee (AWOC) led by Filipino organizer Larry Itliong, and the National Farm Workers Association (NFWA) led by César Chávez.
  • The Feminine Mystique

    The Feminine Mystique
    The Feminine Mystique is a nonfiction book by Betty Friedan first published in 1963. It is widely credited with sparking the beginning of second-wave feminism in the United States.
  • March On Washington

    March On Washington
    The largest demonstration ever seen in the nation's capital, and one of the first to have extensive television coverage. noted for racial unrest and civil rights demonstrations. Nationwide outrage was sparked by media coverage of police actions in Birmingham, Alabama.
  • Amendment 24th

    Amendment 24th
    Prohibits both Congress and the states from conditioning the right to vote in federal elections on payment of a poll tax or other types of tax. Was ratified by the states on January 23, 1964.
  • Civil RIghts Act 1964

    Civil RIghts Act 1964
    A landmark piece of legislation in the United States[1] that outlawed major forms of discrimination against racial, ethnic, national and religious minorities, and women.
  • Medicare

    Medicare
    A national social insurance program, administered by the U.S. federal government since 1965, that guarantees access to health insurance for Americans ages 65 and older and younger people with disabilities as well as people with end stage renal disease
  • Upward Bound

    Upward Bound
    A federally funded educational program within the United States. The program is one of a cluster of programs referred to as TRIO, all of which owe their existence to the federal Higher Education Act of 1965.
  • Voting Rights Act 1965

    Voting Rights Act  1965
    A landmark piece of national legislation in the United States that outlawed discriminatory voting practices that had been responsible for the widespread disenfranchisement of African Americans in the U.S
  • Head Start

    Head Start
    A program of the United States Department of Health and Human Services that provides comprehensive education, health, nutrition, and parent involvement services to low-income children and their families.
  • National Organization For Women (NOW)

    National Organization For Women (NOW)
    An organization founded in 1966 and which has a membership of 500,000 contributing members set up for the advancement of women.
  • Black Panthers

    Black Panthers
    An African-American revolutionary socialist organization active in the United States from 1966 until 1982. The Black Panther Party achieved national and international notoriety through its involvement in the Black Power movement and U.S. politics of the 1960s and 1970s.
  • Barbara Jordan

    Barbara Jordan
    An American politician and a leader of the Civil Rights movement. She was the first African American elected to the Texas Senate after Reconstruction and the first southern black female elected to the United States House of Representatives.
  • La Raza Unida (Mexican Americans United)

    La Raza Unida (Mexican Americans United)
    An American political party centered on Chicano nationalism. During the 1970s the Party campaigned for better housing, work, and educational opportunities for Mexican-Americans.
  • American Indian Movement (AIM)

    American Indian Movement (AIM)
    A Native American activist organization in the United States, founded in 1968 in Minneapolis, Minnesota, with an agenda that focuses on spirituality, leadership, and sovereignty.
  • Tinker V. De Moines

    Tinker V. De Moines
    A decision by the United States Supreme Court that defined the constitutional rights of students in U.S. public schools. The Tinker test is still used by courts today to determine whether a school's disciplinary actions violate students' First Amendment rights.
  • Militant Protests

    Militant Protests
    Fighting or warring.
    Having a combative character; aggressive, especially in the service of a cause: a militant political activist.
    A fighting, warring, or aggressive person or party.
  • Betty Friedan

    Betty Friedan
    An American writer, activist, and feminist.
    A leading figure in the Women's Movement in the United States, her 1963 book The Feminine Mystique is often credited with sparking the "second wave" of American feminism in the 20th century.
  • Amendment 26th

    Amendment 26th
    To the United States Constitution barred the states or federal government from setting a voting age higher than eighteen. It was adopted in response to student activism against the Vietnam War and to partially overrule the Supreme Court's decision in Oregon v. Mitchell. It was adopted on July 1, 1971.
  • Title IX

    Title IX
    A portion of the Education Amendments of 1972, legislation also identified its principal author's name as the Patsy Mink Equal Opportunity in Education Act. It states (in part) that
    No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving federal financial assistance...
  • Amendment 25th

    Amendment 25th
    To the United States Constitution deals with succession to the Presidency and establishes procedures both for filling a vacancy in the office of the Vice President, as well as responding to Presidential disabilities.
  • Non-Violent Protests

    Non-Violent Protests
    Is the practice of achieving goals through symbolic protests, civil disobedience, economic or political noncooperation, and other methods, without using violence.
  • Edgewood ISD V. Kirby

    Edgewood ISD V. Kirby
    A landmark case concerning public school finance, the Mexican American Legal Defense and Educational Fund filed suit against commissioner of education William Kirby on May 23, 1984, in Travis County on behalf of the Edgewood Independent School District, San Antonio, citing discrimination against students in poor school districts.