Defines citizenship, contains the Privileges or Immunities Clause, the Due Process Clause, the Equal Protection Clause, and deals with post-Civil War issues
Prohibits the denial of suffrage based on race, color, or previous condition of servitude
Jim Crow Laws
practice led to conditions for African Americans that tended to be inferior to those provided for white Americans, systematizing a number of economic, educational and social disadvantages
Plessy v. Ferguson
Upholding the constitutionality of state laws requiring racial segregation in public facilities under the doctrine of "separate but equal"
He was the Court's 96th justice and its first African-American justice.
Lyndon Baines Johnson
He was the 36th President. He is one of only four people who served in all four elected federal offices of the United States: Representative, Senator, Vice President, and President.
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
Its mission is “to ensure the political, educational, social, and economic equality of rights of all persons and to eliminate racial hatred and racial discrimination”
He was the 36th Governor of Arkansas, serving from 1955 to 1967. He is best known for his 1957 stand against the desegregation of the Little Rock School District during the Little Rock Crisis
Hector P. Garcia
He was a Mexican-American physician, surgeon, World War II veteran, civil rights advocate, and founder of the American G.I. Forum
He was an American politician and the 45th governor of Alabama.
Establishes women's suffrage
League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC)
created to combat the discrimination that Hispanics face in the United States
the practice of achieving goals through symbolic protests, civil disobedience, economic or political noncooperation, and other methods, without using violence.
She is a labor leader and civil rights activist who, along with César Chávez, co-founded the National Farmworkers Association
March on Washington
a tool to organize a mass march on Washington, D.C., designed to pressure the U.S. government into desegregating the armed forces and providing fair working opportunities for African Americans.
Tax deposits are formally entrusted to the Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance
Congress on Racial Equality (CORE)
U.S. civil rights organization that played a pivotal role for African-Americans in the Civil Rights Movement. Membership in CORE is still stated to be open to "anyone who believes that 'all people are created equal' and are willing to work towards the ultimate goal of true equality throughout the world.”
Mendez v. Westminster
They held that the segregation of Mexican and Mexican American students into separate "Mexican schools" was unconstitutional
Delgado v. Bastrop ISD
California found that separation "within one of the great races" without a specific state law requiring the separation was not permitted; therefore, segregation of Mexican-American children, who were considered Caucasian, was illegal.
Sweatt v. Painter
U.S. Supreme Court case that successfully challenged the "separate but equal" doctrine of racial segregation established by the 1896 case Plessy v. Ferguson. The case was influential in the landmark case of Brown v. Board of Education four years later.
Hernandez v. Texas
They decided that Mexican Americans and all other racial groups in the United States had equal protection under the 14th Amendment of the U.S. Constitution.
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka Kansas
It was a landmark United States Supreme Court case in which the Court declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students unconstitutional
She is the Court's 111th justice, its first Hispanic justice, and its third female justice
Montgomery Bus Boycott
U.S. civil rights movement, was a political and social protest campaign against the policy of racial segregation on the public transit system of Montgomery, Alabama.
In Montgomery, Alabama, Parks refused to obey bus driver James F. Blake's order that she give up her seat in the colored section to a white passenger, after the white section was filled.
Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)
African-American civil rights organization.
Having a combative character; aggressive, especially in the service of a cause
She wrote the book The Feminine Mystique. In 1966, Friedan founded and was elected the first president of the National Organization for Women, which aimed to bring women "into the mainstream of American society now fully equal partnership with men".
Two main goals of the Great Society social reforms were the elimination of poverty and racial injustice.
Civil Rights Movement
a worldwide political movement for equality before the law occurring
Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)
a large organization with many supporters in the North who helped raise funds to support SNCC's work in the South,
Married to Franklin Roosevelt. She was the first presidential spouse to hold press conferences, write a syndicated newspaper column, and speak at a national convention. On a few occasions, she publicly disagreed with her husband's policies.
National Organization for Women (NOW)
"To take action to bring women into full participation in the mainstream of American society now, exercising all privileges and responsibilities thereof in truly equal partnership with men."
Prohibits the revocation of voting rights due to the non-payment of poll taxes
made it easier to move civil rights cases from state courts with segregationist judges and all-white juries to federal court
Civil Rights Act 1964
landmark piece of legislation in the United States that outlawed major forms of discrimination against racial, ethnic, national and religious minorities, and women
federally funded educational program within the United States
United Farm Workers Organizing Committee (UFWOC)
This union changed from a workers' rights organization that helped workers get unemployment insurance to that of a union of farmworkers almost overnight
guarantees access to health insurance for Americans ages 65 and older and younger people with disabilities as well as people with end stage renal disease
refers to policies that take factors including "race, color, religion, gender, sexual orientation, or national origin" into consideration in order to benefit an underrepresented group "in areas of employment, education, and business"
African-American revolutionary socialist organization active in the United State
Shes an American politician and a leader of the Civil Rights movement. She was the first African American elected to the Texas Senate after Reconstruction and the first southern black female elected to the United States House of Representatives.
Codifies the Tyler Precedent; defines the process of presidential succession
American Indian Movement (AIM)
an agenda that focuses on spirituality, leadership, and sovereignty
Martin Luther King Jr.
He was an American clergyman, activist, and leader in the African-American Civil Rights Movement. He is best known for his role in the advancement of civil rights using nonviolent civil disobedience.
Tinker v. De Moines
decision by the United States Supreme Court that defined the constitutional rights of students in U.S. public schools.
La Raza Unida (Mexican Americans United)
Party campaigned for better housing, work, and educational opportunities for Mexican-Americans.
Establishes the right to vote for those age 18 years or older.
Edgewood ISD v. Kirby,
To provide court-mandated equitable school financing for all school districts in the state
He was the best known Latino American civil rights activist. His unionism and aggressive but nonviolent tactics made the farm workers' struggle a moral cause with nationwide support.
a program of the United States Department of Health and Human Services