Civil rights

Socially Progressive Movements: Civil Rights

  • 15th amendment

    15th amendment
    The Fifteenth Amendment (Amendment XV) to the United States Constitution prohibits each government in the United States from denying a citizen the right to vote based on that citizen's "race, color, or previous condition of servitude" (for example, slavery).
  • Plessy V Ferguson

    Plessy V Ferguson
    Plessy v. Ferguson (1896), is a landmark United States Supreme Court decision in the jurisprudence of the United States, upholding the constitutionality of state laws requiring racial segregation in public facilities under the doctrine of "separate but equal".[1]

    The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) is an African-American civil rights organization in the United States, formed in 1909. Its mission is “to ensure the political, educational, social, and economic equality of rights of all persons and to eliminate racial hatred and racial discrimination”. Its name, retained in accordance with tradition, uses the once common term colored people.
  • 19th amendment

    19th amendment
    The Nineteenth Amendment (Amendment XIX) to the United States Constitution prohibits any United States citizen to be denied the right to vote based on sex.

    The League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC) was created to combat the discrimination that Hispanics face in the United States. Established February 17, 1929 in Corpus Christi, Texas, LULAC was a consolidation of smaller, like-minded civil rights groups already in existence.
  • Social Security

    Social Security
    In the United States, Social Security refers to the Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) federal program. The original Social Security Act (1935) and the current version of the Act, as amended, encompass several social welfare and social insurance programs.
  • Thurgood Marshall

    Thurgood Marshall
    Thurgood Marshall had one of the most recognizable names and faces of the civil rights movement in America. He gained everlasting fame as the first African-American justice of the U.S. Supreme Court.
  • Federal housing authority

    Federal housing authority
    The Federal Housing Administration (FHA) is a United States government agency created as part of the National Housing Act of 1934. It insured loans made by banks and other private lenders for home building and home buying.
  • Eleanor Roosevelt

    Eleanor Roosevelt
    she challenged the segregation ordninance when at a convention in Birmingham in 1938.
  • Hector P Garcia

    Hector P Garcia
    a Mexican-American physician, surgeon, World War II veteran, civil rights advocate, and founder of the American G.I. Forum.
  • CORE

    The Congress of Racial Equality or CORE is a U.S. civil rights organization that played a pivotal role for African-Americans in the Civil Rights Movement. Membership in CORE is still stated to be open to "anyone who believes that 'all people are created equal' and are willing to work towards the ultimate goal of true equality throughout the world.”
  • Mendez V. Westminster

    Mendez V. Westminster
    Mendez, et al v. Westminster School District, et al, 64 F.Supp. 544 (C.D. Cal. 1946), aff'd, 161 F.2d 774 (9th Cir. 1947) (en banc), was a 1946 federal court case that challenged racial segregation in Orange County, California schools. In its ruling, the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, in an en banc decision, held that the segregation of Mexican and Mexican American students into separate "Mexican schools" was unconstitutional.
  • Delgado V. Bastrop ISD

    Delgado V. Bastrop ISD
    segregation of tejano children in public schools declared unconstitutional
  • civil rights movement

    civil rights movement
    The civil rights movement was a worldwide political movement for equality before the law occurring between approximately 1950 and 1980. In many situations it took the form of campaigns of civil resistance aimed at achieving change by nonviolent forms of resistance. In some situations it was accompanied, or followed, by civil unrest and armed rebellion.
  • Sweatt v painter

    Sweatt v painter
    Sweatt v. Painter, 339 U.S. 629 (1950), was a U.S. Supreme Court case that successfully challenged the "separate but equal" doctrine of racial segregation established by the 1896 case Plessy v. Ferguson. The case was influential in the landmark case of Brown v. Board of Education four years later.
  • Hernandez V. Texas

    Hernandez V. Texas
    Hernandez v. Texas, 347 U.S. 475 (1954),[1] was a landmark United States Supreme Court case that decided that Mexican Americans and all other racial groups in the United States had equal protection under the 14th Amendment of the U.S. Constitution.
  • Brown V. Board of Education of Topeka Kansas

    Brown V. Board of Education of Topeka Kansas
    was a landmark United States Supreme Court case in which the Court declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students unconstitutional.
  • Rosa Parks

    Rosa Parks
    Rosa Parks was an American civil rights activist who was considered by many as the "Mother of the modern day civil rights movement."
  • Montgomery Bus Boycott

    Montgomery Bus Boycott
    The Montgomery Bus Boycott, a seminal event in the U.S. civil rights movement, was a political and social protest campaign against the policy of racial segregation on the public transit system of Montgomery, Alabama.
  • Southern Christian Leadeeship Conference

    Southern Christian Leadeeship Conference
    The Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) is an African-American civil rights organization. SCLC was closely associated with its first president, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. The SCLC had a large role in the American Civil Rights Movement.
  • Civil rights act of 1957

    Civil rights act of 1957
    The Civil Rights Act of 1957, Pub.L. 85–315, 71 Stat. 634, enacted September 9, 1957, primarily a voting rights bill, was the first civil rights legislation enacted by Congress in the United States since Reconstruction following the American Civil War.
  • Orval Faubus

    Orval Faubus
    In 1957, Governor Faubus deployed National Guardsmen to block Supreme Court-ordered school integration. Ultimately, President Dwight Eisenhower used federal authority to force Faubus to comply with the desegregation orders. Interestingly, in a Gallup Poll administered in 1958, Americans chose Faubus as one of their "ten most admired men."
  • Great Society

    Great Society
    The Great Society was a set of domestic programs in the United States announced by President Lyndon B. Johnson at Ohio University and subsequently promoted by him and fellow Democrats in Congress in the 1960s.
  • Student Non-Violent Coordinating Comitee (SNCC)

    Student Non-Violent Coordinating Comitee (SNCC)
    The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) (pron.: /ˈsnɪk/) was one of the organizations of the American Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s. It emerged from a series of student meetings led by Ella Baker held at Shaw University in April 1960. SNCC grew into a large organization with many supporters in the North who helped raise funds to support SNCC's work in the South, allowing full-time SNCC workers to have a $10 per week salary.
  • amendment

    This is the complete list of the ratified and unratified amendments to the United States Constitution which received the approval of the United States Congress. Twenty-seven amendments have been ratified since the original signing of the Constitution, the first ten of which are known collectively as the Bill of Rights.
  • affirmative action

    affirmative action
    Affirmative action, known as positive discrimination in the United Kingdom, refers to policies that take factors including "race, color, religion, gender, sexual orientation, or national origin" into consideration in order to benefit an underrepresented group "in areas of employment, education, and business"
  • 24th amendment

    24th amendment
    The Twenty-fourth Amendment (Amendment XXIV) prohibits both Congress and the states from conditioning the right to vote in federal elections on payment of a poll tax or other types of tax.
  • Betty Friedan

    Betty Friedan
    Betty Friedan was a revolutionary feminist. Elected to be the first president of NOW, she was also the author of The Feminine Mystique.
  • Militant protests

    Militant protests
    and is usually used to mean vigorously active, combative and aggressive, especially in support of a cause, as in 'militant reformers'
  • March on Washington

    March on Washington
    The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom took place in Washington, D.C., on August 28, 1963. Attended by some 250,000 people, it was the largest demonstration ever seen in the nation's capital, and one of the first to have extensive television coverage.
  • Martin Luther King, Jr.

    Martin Luther King, Jr.
    "I Have a Dream", a speech he delivered during the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom at Lincoln Memorial.
    other than this Dr. King had many contributions to the civil rights movement
  • Lyndon Baines Johnson

    Lyndon Baines Johnson
    Lyndon Baines Johnson has been credited with being one of the most important figures in the civil rights movement. Johnson does have some distracters who believe that he was merely an unprincipled politician who used the civil rights issue when he realised the worth of the "Black Vote". However Johnson himself claimed to be an idealist who dreamed of making America a "Great Society". It was Johnson who put the presidential signature to the 1964 Civil Rights Act and the 1965 Voting Rights Act.
  • Civil rights act of 1964

    Civil rights act of 1964
    The Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Pub.L. 88–352, 78 Stat. 241, enacted July 2, 1964) was a landmark piece of legislation in the United States[1] that outlawed major forms of discrimination against racial, ethnic, national and religious minorities, and women
  • Dolores Huerta

    Dolores Huerta
    Huerta directed the UFW's national boycott during the Delano grape strike, taking the plight of the farm workers to the consumers. The boycott resulted in the entire California table grape industry signing a three-year collective bargaining agreement with the United Farm Workers in 1970.
  • Medicare

    In the United States, Medicare is a national social insurance program, administered by the U.S. federal government since 1965, that guarantees access to health insurance for Americans ages 65 and older and younger people with disabilities as well as people with end stage renal disease (, 2012).
  • Head Start

    Head Start
    The Head Start Program is a program of the United States Department of Health and Human Services that provides comprehensive education, health, nutrition, and parent involvement services to low-income children and their families.
  • Voting rights act 1965

    Voting rights act 1965
    is a landmark piece of national legislation in the United States that outlawed discriminatory voting practices that had been responsible for the widespread disenfranchisement of African Americans in the U.S
  • Upward Bound

    Upward Bound
    Upward Bound is a federally funded educational program within the United States. The program is one of a cluster of programs referred to as TRIO, all of which owe their existence to the federal Higher Education Act of 1965.
  • Jim Crow laws

    Jim Crow laws
    The Jim Crow laws were state and local laws in the United States enacted between 1876 and 1965. They mandated de jure racial segregation in all public facilities in Southern states of the former Confederacy, with, starting in 1890, a "separate but equal" status for African Americans.
  • George Wallace

    George Wallace
    In March 1965, under pressure from civil rights leaders, President Lyndon Johnson commanded Governor Wallace to mobilize Alabama's National Guard units to protect Selma marchers. Wallace refused, claiming the state was "financially unable" to do so. Wallace became perhaps the most prominent national icon of segregationist resistance to the civil rights movement.
  • Barbara Jordan

    Barbara Jordan
    was an American politician and a leader of the Civil Rights movement. She was the first African American elected to the Texas Senate after Reconstruction and the first southern black female elected to the United States House of Representatives.
  • Black Panthers

    Black Panthers
    The Black Panther Party (originally the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense) was an African-American revolutionary socialist organization active in the United States from 1966 until 1982. The Black Panther Party achieved national and international notoriety through its involvement in the Black Power movement and U.S. politics of the 1960s and 1970s.
  • National Organization for Women (NOW)

    National Organization for Women (NOW)
    The National Organization for Women (NOW) is an organization founded in 1966 and which has a membership of 500,000 contributing members set up for the advancement of women. The organization consists of 550 chapters in all 50 U.S. states and the District of Columbia.
  • Non Violent Protests

    Non Violent Protests
    Nonviolent resistance (or nonviolent action) is the practice of achieving goals through symbolic protests, civil disobedience, economic or political noncooperation, and other methods, without using violence.
  • United Farm Workers Organizing Committee(UFWOC)

    United Farm Workers Organizing Committee(UFWOC)
    The United Farm Workers of America (UFWA) (Spanish: Unión de Campesinos) is a labor union created from the merging of two groups, the Agricultural Workers Organizing Committee (AWOC) led by Filipino organizer Larry Itliong, and the National Farm Workers Association (NFWA) led by César Chávez.
  • 25th amendment

    25th amendment
    The Twenty-fifth Amendment (Amendment XXV) to the United States Constitution deals with succession to the Presidency and establishes procedures both for filling a vacancy in the office of the Vice President, as well as responding to Presidential disabilities.
  • Cesar Chavez

    Cesar Chavez
    when he staged a 25-day water only fast to bring attention to the dismal working conditions farm workers faced.
  • American Indian Movement (Aim)

    American Indian Movement (Aim)
    is a Native American activist organization in the United States, founded in 1968 in Minneapolis, Minnesota, with an agenda that focuses on spirituality, leadership, and sovereignty. The founders included Dennis Banks, George Mitchell, Herb Powless, Clyde Bellecourt, Harold Goodsky, Eddie Benton-Banai, and a number of others in the Minneapolis Native American community. Russell Means, born Oglala Lakota, was an early leader in 1970s protests.
  • 14th amendment

    14th amendment
    The Fourteenth Amendment (Amendment XIV) to the United States Constitution was adopted on July 9, 1868, as one of the Reconstruction Amendments.
  • Tinker v. De Moines

    Tinker v. De Moines
    Tinker v. Des Moines Independent Community School District, 393 U.S. 503 (1969) was a decision by the United States Supreme Court that defined the constitutional rights of students in U.S. public schools. The Tinker test is still used by courts today to determine whether a school's disciplinary actions violate students' First Amendment rights.
  • La Raza Unida

    La Raza Unida
    Partido Nacional de La Raza Unida (National United Peoples Party or United Race Party was an American political party centered on Chicano nationalism. During the 1970s the Party campaigned for better housing, work, and educational opportunities for Mexican-Americans.
  • 26th amendment

    26th amendment
    The Twenty-sixth Amendment (Amendment XXVI) to the United States Constitution barred the states or federal government from setting a voting age higher than eighteen. It was adopted in response to student activism against the Vietnam War and to partially overrule the Supreme Court's decision in Oregon v. Mitchell.
  • Title IX

    Title IX
    Title IX is a portion of the Education Amendments of 1972, Public Law No. 92‑318, 86 Stat. 235 (June 23, 1972), codified at 20 U.S.C. sections 1681 through 1688, U.S. legislation also identified its principal author's name as the Patsy Mink Equal Opportunity in Education Act
  • Edgewood ISD v. Kirby

    Edgewood ISD v. Kirby
    n Edgewood Independent School District et al. v. Kirby et al., a landmark case concerning public school finance, the Mexican American Legal Defense and Educational Fund filed suit against commissioner of education William Kirby on May 23, 1984, in Travis County on behalf of the Edgewood Independent School District, San Antonio, citing discrimination against students in poor school districts.
  • Sonia Sotomayor

    Sonia Sotomayor
    Her contributions to the American judicial system are evident for all to see. What’s more, she help saved America’s pastime. As a federal district judge, Sotomayor in 1995 saved baseball from itself by “ruling with players over owners in a labor strike that had led to the cancellation of the World Series.”