Civil Rights Movement Era

  • 14th Amendment

    14th Amendment
    This amendment defined national citizenship and forbode the states to restrict the basic rights of citizens, no matter their race or ethnicity, or other persons.
  • 15th Amendment

    15th Amendment
    This amendment prohibitted the restriction of voting rights “on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.”
  • Jim Crow Laws

    Jim Crow Laws
    The Jim Crow Laws were a policy of segregating and discriminating against African Americans, in public places, public vehicles, and even employment.
  • Plessy vs. Ferguson

    Plessy vs. Ferguson
    The Supreme Court case ended in the decision that the states could, under state law, require racial segregation in public places if they claimed to be "separate but equal".
  • National Association for the Advancemnt of Colored People

    National Association for the Advancemnt of Colored People
    The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, or the NAACP, was a U.S. civil rights organization set up to oppose rthe acial segregation and discrimination towards African AMericans by nonviolent means.
  • 19th Amendment

    19th Amendment
    This amendment garunteed women the right to vote.
  • League of United Latin American Citizens

    League of United Latin American Citizens
    The League of United Latin American Citizens , or LULAC, was an organization developed to seek better education and housing for underrepresented Hispanic Americans, adn it is the oldest organization of it's kind.
  • Federal Housing Authority

    Federal Housing Authority
    This is a federal agency in the Department of Housing and Urban Development whose job is to insure residential mortgages to home owners.
  • Social Security

    Social Security
    Social security is a federal insurance program that provides benefits to retired persons, the unemployed, and the disabled.
  • Congress on Racial Equality

    Congress on Racial Equality
    Congress on Racial Equality, or CORE, was an organization founded by James Leonard Farmer to work for racial equality.
  • Mendez vs. Westminister

    Mendez vs. Westminister
    This Supreme Court case was brought abou t 7 years before Brown vs. Board and similarly was over desegregation and civil rights. It resulted in the desegregation of public schools in California.
  • Delgado vs. Bastrop ISD

    Delgado vs. Bastrop ISD
    This Supreme Court case was brought about by Mexican Americans who claimed to not be recieving the same education and treatement at school that the white studens do. It resulted in fair treatment to the Mexican Americans and enforced equality.
  • Civil Rights Movement

    Civil Rights Movement
    This was a movemnet enacted by African American in order to gain the equality to match the importance and rights of their fellow citizens whose only difference was that they were simply white.
  • Sweatt vs. Painter

    Sweatt vs. Painter
    This was a Supreme Court case that successfully proved that there was a lack of equality, and was entirely against the "separate but equal" doctrine oestablished by the Plessy v. Ferguson case. This also played a role of evidence for the Brown vs. Board case four years later.
  • Hernandez vs. Texas

    Hernandez vs. Texas
    This Supreme Court case ended in the decision that Mexican Americans and all/any other racial groups in the United States will have equal protection beacuse of the 14th Amendment.
  • Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas

    Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas
    This was a Supreme Court case that dealt with segregation of public schools that ended in said segregation being unconstitutional. This case also changed the way our school systems are now for now our school boundaries are adjusted so that we have interacial classes.
  • Mongomery Bus Boycott

    Mongomery Bus Boycott
    The Montgomery bus boycott was a mass protest by African American citizens in the city of Montgomery, Alabama, against Segregation policies on the city's public buses.
  • Rosa Parks

    Rosa Parks
    Rosa Parks was an African American woman who refused to stand on the bus so that a white man may sit, this starteda revolution adn the Montgomery Bus Boycott. She was also a civil rights activist and was pre desegratation.
  • Civil Rights Act 1957

    Civil Rights Act 1957
    This was the first civil rights legislation in the United States that established the Civil Rights Commission to protect individual’s rights to equal protection. The Act established the Justice Department as a guarantor of the right to vote as well as it ended official racial segregation in the public schools.
  • Southern Christian Leadership Conference

    Southern Christian Leadership Conference
    The Southern Christian Leadership COnference, or SCLC, was an organization founded by Martin Luther King, Jr. Also, it was omposed mostly by African-American clergy from the South and a branch of the Montgomery bus boycott, and it sponsored the March on Washington.
  • Orval Faubus

    Orval Faubus
    Orval Faubus was the 36th Governor of Arkansas, serving from 1955 to 1967. During the Little Rock Crisis he defied a Supreme COurt ruling and had the Arkansas Nationa Gaurd stop the African American students from attending Little Rock Central High School by making their lives a living hell.
  • Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee

    Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee
    The Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee , or SNCC, was an organization formed by students whose goal was to gain political and economic equality for African Americans through local and regional action groups.
  • Affirmative Action

    Affirmative Action
    This is the encouragement of increased representation of women and other minority-group members, especially in employment, it's benefits, and the working areas or environments.
  • Eleanor Roosevelt

    Eleanor Roosevelt
    Eleanor Roosevelt was the wife of President Frnklin Roosevelt and was known to be a strong advocate of human rights.
  • George Wallace

    George Wallace
    Wallace was a persistant politician and was the 45th govenor of Alabama. He also ran 4 times for presidency of the US and came out a loser. George promoted segregation until he was shot in an attempted assassination, where he then chose to be for desegregation that way he died with forgiven sins.
  • Betty Friedan (The Feminine Mystique)

    Betty Friedan (The Feminine Mystique)
    Betty Freidan was a United States feminist who founded a national organization for women and wrote a book titled "The Feminine Mystique" about women and their disagreement with the idea that all women should be the suburban housewife type.
  • March on Washington

    March on Washington
    This was a march for jobs and freedom in Washington D.C., that was attended by some 250,000 people, it was the largest demonstration ever seen in the nation's capital, and one of the first to have extensive television coverage.
  • Lyndon Baines Johnson

    Lyndon Baines Johnson
    Lyndon Baines Johnson was the 36th President of the United States, was elected vice president, and succeeded Kennedy when Kennedy was assassinated.
  • Great Society

    Great Society
    This is a domestic program administerd by President Johnson that instituted federally sponsored social welfare programs in order to imprive educationtion, eliminate poverty, and provide medical care for the elderly.
  • Civil Rights Act of 1964

    Civil Rights Act of 1964
    This outlawed major forms of discrimination against racial, ethnic, national and religious minorities, and women. It also put an end tp unequal application of voter registration requirements and racial segregation in schools, at the workplace and in any other \ facilities that served the general public.
  • 24th Amendment

    24th Amendment
    This amendment forbode the use of the poll tax as a requirement for voting in national or U.S. Congressional elections.
  • Voting Righs Act of 1965

    Voting Righs Act of 1965
    This law eliminated barriers like literacy tests that had been used to restrict black people from voting. It also allowed the enrollment of voters by federal registrars in states where fewer than fifty percent of the eligible voters were actutally registered or had voted.
  • Militant Protests

    Militant Protests
    Militant protests are vigorously active and aggressive protests, that are especially demonstrated in support of a cause, ususally by militant reformers.
  • Non-Violent Protests

    Non-Violent Protests
    Non-violent protests are peacefully resistant, and in response to a protest against injustice, especially on moral or philosophical grounds.
  • Medicare

    Medicare is an insurance program that covers medical bills for those who cannot afford it and agining of 65 years or older, there are also two types of medicare. The first is hospital insurance, where hospital fees will be covered, and the second is Supplementary Medical Insurance that covers necessary physician visits and outpatient hospital costs.
  • Barbara Jordan

    Barbara Jordan
    Barbara Charline Jordan, attorney, legislator, and educator, was the first African-American woman from a Southern state to win election to the U.S. Congress. She attempted three times to run for state senate and on her third election she became a senaye of Texas.
  • National Organization for Women

    National Organization for Women
    The National Organization for Women, or NOW, was established to protect the few rights women had and to demand the rights that women had but were not recieving.
  • United Farm Workers Organizing Committee

    United Farm Workers Organizing Committee
    The United Farm Workers Organizing Committee, or UFWOC, was a labor union formed to define and protect the rights of Mexican Americans and other under-represent minorities who work in agriculture.
  • Cesar Chavez

    Cesar Chavez
    Cesar Chavez was a United States labor leader who organized farm workers to protest and fight against the discrimination of Hispanics and unfair labor laws. He also co-founded the National Farm Workers Association (now the United Farm Workers union).
  • Dolores Huerta

    Dolores Huerta
    Dolores Huerta was co-founder and vice president of the United Farm Workers union and was also a labor leader and civil rights activist.
  • 25th Amendment

    25th Amendment
    This amendment established that the succession to the presidency can occur in the event of the president's death, resignation, or incapacity.
  • Black Panthers

    Black Panthers
    This was a militant group that used strategies to achieve equal rights, which included violent forms of protest.
  • Thurgood Marshall

    Thurgood Marshall
    Marshall was the first African American to serve on the Supreme Court and treated the law system as a starter to change America and the way Americans saw segregation.
  • American Indian Movement (AIM)

    American Indian Movement (AIM)
    This was a militant movement, in some cases a grouping, of American Indians, organized to combat discrimination, injustice, and so on.
  • Martin Luther King, Jr.

    Martin Luther King, Jr.
    Martin Luther King, Jr. was a United States charismatic civil rights leader and Baptist minister who campaigned against the segregation of Blacks. He was an inspiration to many and openly advocated desegregation practices. Also, he was assassinated by James Earl Ray after being threatened many times by others against King's point of view.
  • Hector P. Garcia

    Hector P. Garcia
    Hector led a busy life for he was a Mexican-American physician, surgeon, World War II veteran, civil rights advocate, and founder of the American G.I. Forum. Also, he was appointed to the United States Commission on Civil Rights in 1968.
  • Tinker vs. Des Moines

    Tinker vs. Des Moines
    This Supreme Court case clearly defined the constitutional rights of any and all students in public schools. As a matter of fact, the "Tinker test" is still used by courts today to determine whether a school's disciplinary actions violate students' First Amendment rights.
  • La Raza Unida

     La Raza Unida
    La Raza Unida, or Mexican Americans United, was an American political party, and it campaigned for better housing, work, and educational opportunities for Hispanic-Americans.
  • 26th Amendment

    26th Amendment
    This amendment lowered the voting age from 21 to 18.
  • Title IX

    Title IX
    Title IX allowed women to gain the benefis and knowledge of any educational or agaency financially aided by the government.
  • Edgewood ISD vs. Kirby

    Edgewood ISD vs. Kirby
    In Edgewood ISD vs. Kirby, a landmark case concerning public school finance, the Mexican American Legal Defense and Educational Fund filed suit against commissioner of education William Kirby in Travis County, on behalf of the Edgewood ISD, citing discrimination against students in poor school districts. This case has caused public schools today to be free of charge to those who attend.
  • Upward Bound

    Upward Bound
    Upward Bound is a federally funded program that provides fundamental support fot students or other participants on their way to college.
  • Head Start

    Head Start
    This was a program used to promote the school readiness of low-income children by enhancing their overall development in a learning environment that supports children’s growth ithe educational system. Also, it helps low income children and their families with the health, educational, nutritional, social, and other services if they qualify for such aid.
  • Sonia Sotomayor

    Sonia Sotomayor
    Sonia was the first nominee for the Sureme Court selected by Obama. Also, she is the only the third woman to to be elected into the Supreme Court and is one of the four current female Justices.