Socially Progressive Movements: Civil Rights

  • League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC)

    League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC)
    offers assistance to Hispanic Americans regarding civil rights. it also informed the public about social and political issues that affected the Latino population negatively.
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    Unit 10 Key Terms

  • Thurgood Marshall

    Thurgood Marshall
    the first African-American justice on the Supreme Court. before the Supreme Court, his most famous victory against segregation was the Brown vs. Board of Education case.
  • Eleanor Roosevelt

    Eleanor Roosevelt
    mainly known for being the First Lady while FDR was president. she helped fight for racial and women's equality. in 1941, she works to stop Japanese-American internment, and in 1942 she voices her support for the Tuskegee Airmen and women being allowed to enter the war efforts. in 1945, Roosevelt joined the NAACP and the National Council of Negro Women.
  • Cesar Chavez

    Cesar Chavez
    Mexican-American farm worker, labor leader, and civil rights activist. he protested through strikes, negotiations, picketing, marches, boycotts, and was pretty famous for his fast. Chavez strongly advocated non-violent means of protest in order to make improvvements for farm workers and their families. also a major founder of the National Farm Workers Association.
  • George Wallace

    George Wallace
    at first, he was pretty neutral on the subject of segregation, but soon became pro-segregation. in 1946, Wallace became a representative in the Alabama legislature, and is known for his progressive and liberal "dealings" with African-American Alabama citizens. in 1963, Wallace gave a speech when he became governor of Alabama with the phrase, "segregation now, segregation tomorrow and segregation forever."
  • Hector P. Garcia

    Hector P. Garcia
    was a Mexican-American doctor that became a civil rights advocate. in 1947, Garcia joined the League of United Latin American Citizens and helped Mexican-American veterans who were denied their claims. he dedicated his life to equality for Mexican-Americans.
  • Mendez v. Westminster

    Mendez v. Westminster
    the ruling in this case was that equal protection of the laws in the public school system was not upheld my keeping children in separate facilities. this case brought an end to segregation in Orange County public schools against Mexican American children.
  • Delgado v. Bastrop I.S.D.

    Delgado v. Bastrop I.S.D.
    landmark case in Texas that dealt with racial segregation. this segregation of children of Mexican descent is ruled illegal and schools are forced to integrate, which offers better schooling for Mexican American children.
  • Sweatt v. Painter

    Sweatt v. Painter
    in 1946, a black man was denied admittance into the University of Texas Law School. the university then tried to uphold "separate but equal" by scheduling separate facilities for African-Americans. unanimously, the Supreme Court decided that the Equal Protection Clause required Sweatt be admitted into the university.
  • Social Security

    Social Security
    federal program that was established in 1935 that provides benefits to workers and their dependents, such as retirement income, disability income, or unemployment insurance. in 1950, the program was expanded to include several million new workers and their families.
  • Civil Rights Movement

    Civil Rights Movement
    the start of the movement is usually symbolized by Rosa Parks' refusal in Dec. 1, 1955 to give up her bus seat. the civil rights movement can be characterized by voting rights legislation, racial discrimination, and leaders emerging from ordinary circumstances to be symbols for civil rights. it was led by the struggle of African-Americans and their supporters for their basic civil rights.
  • Brown v. Board of Education (Topeka, Kansas)

    Brown v. Board of Education (Topeka, Kansas)
    court case that successfully overturned the decision from Plessy v. Ferguson by noting "separate is inherently unequal." this case changed segregation as it was abolished in the public school systems.
  • Plessy v. Ferguson

    Plessy v. Ferguson
    court case in 1896 that ruled that separate facilities, if equal, did not violate the U.S. Constitution. this caused two of everything, as it was required for African Americans to have the same facilities available to the whites. this did not make things "equal," because African-American facilities were found in poorer conditions. this ruling was overturned in the Brown v. Board of Education case.
  • Amendment

    a change or addition to a legal document, such as the U.S. Constitution
  • 14th Amendment

    14th Amendment
    amendment that guarantees all citizens equal protection of the laws. it was passed in 1868, but did not really "take effect" until it was called into question at the Brown v. Board of Education court case.
  • National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)

    National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
    organization founded in 1909 that offers assistance to African-Americans in regard to civil rights and equality.
  • Hernandez v. Texas

    Hernandez v. Texas
    the Supreme Court ruled that ALL citizens, including Mexican Americans and every other racial group, had equal protection under the 14th amendment. Hernandez was convicted for murder by an all-white jury, and that created controversy.
  • Dolores Huerta

    Dolores Huerta
    in 1955, she helped start the Stockton Chapter of the Community Service Organization, which would fight for economic justice for 1960, Huerta created the AWA, and with Chavez, created the NFWA in 1962. a big advocate for Hispanic rights.
  • Orval Faubus

    Orval Faubus
    Democratic governor of Arkansas from 1955-1967. before he became governor, Faubus had a liberal stance on segregation. however, in order to beat his opponents, he took a "hard-line" stance on segregation, meaning he supported to blacks and whites being completely separated. in 1957, Faubus sent the National Guard to prevent Central High School from integration,
  • Martin Luther King, Jr.

    Martin Luther King, Jr.
    he was a civil rights leader that advocated the use of nonviolent protesting. MLK participated in the Montgomery Bus Boycott that Rosa Parks began and leads his own protest with the March on Washington in 1963, the largest civil rights demonstration in history. in 1957, he formed the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, the purpose of which was to fight segregation and gain civil rights.
  • Rosa Parks

    Rosa Parks
    When she was riding the bus in Montgomery, Alabama, she refused to give up her seat for a white passenger when the bus became really crowded. the bus driver had her arrested because this action was highly not tolerable in the South.
  • Montgomery Bus Boycott

    Montgomery Bus Boycott
    began when Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat on the bus to a white passenger, and was consequently arrested. this act started the bus boycott, in which African-Americans refused to ride the buses as a mode of transportation. this financially hurt the bus companies because most of their passengers were African-Americans. finally, about a year after the boycott started, the bus lines gave in and integrated. this was a huge success in the civil rights movement.
  • Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)

    Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)
    Martin Luther King Jr. helped found this organzation after the Montgomery Bus Boycott, and was elected its first president. its purpose is to fight for civil rights and social justice.
  • Civil Rights Act of 1957

    Civil Rights Act of 1957
    this act represent Congress' first civil rights legislation since the Reconstruction era. its purpose was to provide further protection for the voting rights of all minorities. it also created the Civil Rights Division in the Department of Justice, a Civil Rights Commission in the executive branch, and expanded federal enforcement for the inclusion of civil rights lawsuits.
  • Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)

    Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)
    this organization began as a group of students of all races. they advocated nonviolent protesting, such as sit-ins at restaurants. they also showed support for the Freedom Rides and the March on Washington.
  • 19th Amendment

    19th Amendment
    amendment that gave all women, regardless of race, the right to vote. it was passed in 1920 because when the country entered a war, most of the voting population had to go off and fight. it was a bigger deal in the 1960s when African-American women joined the women's rights movement.
  • Congress on Racial Equality (CORE)

    Congress on Racial Equality (CORE)
    this organization was founded in 1942 and was one of the leading activist organizations during the Civil Rights Movement. they took part in the Freedom Rides, the March on Washington, desegregation of public facilities, and voting rights. at the start of the organization, they used non-violent protest, but, after those means had not been working very effectively, they changed their tactics.
  • Non-Violent Protests

    Non-Violent Protests
    the practice of rejecting violent means of protest for more peaceful tactics in order to achieve political rights. examples of this protest are sit-ins, marches, and boycotts.
  • Betty Friedan

    Betty Friedan
    leader of the second wave of the women's movement which started with her publication of the book "The Feminine Mystique." her goal was to redefine the traditional gender roles. Friedan inspired many women to actively demand equality and seek change.
  • March on Washington

    March on Washington
    most associated with civil rights leader Martin Luther King Jr., and is when he made his "I Have a Dream" speech. it was a nonviolent demonstration for civil rights and economic equality for African Americans. meny organizations participated in this march, and it inspired people in the civil rights movement.
  • Lyndon Baines Johnson

    Lyndon Baines Johnson
    the 36th President of the United States. he passed the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which made the segregation of public places illegal, protected African-American voting rights, and took measures against job discrimination. Johnson actually worked with MLK, Jr. in the months leading up to the passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965.
  • Great Society

    Great Society
    the party under President Lyndon B. Johnson whose goal was to enact domestic programs that would institute federally sponsored social welfare programs for issues such as education, elderly medical care, and poverty
  • Affirmative Action

    Affirmative Action
    a policy that was designed to aid groups that were discriminated against in the past, such as African-Americans, women, and Hispanics, through economic and educational opportunities.
  • 24th Amendment

    24th Amendment
    amendment that got rid of the poll tax. it stated that citizens could not be denied the right to vote because they could not pay the poll tax. it helped prevent voting discrimination of the poor.
  • Civil Rights Act of 1964

    Civil Rights Act of 1964
    signed into law by Lyndon B. Johnson. it prohibited the discrimination of any person based on their race, religion, ethnicity, sexual orientation, or national orientation. this act also ended the Jim Crow Laws, and it was different from other civil acts because it focused on ending discrimination in the workplace.
  • Title IV

    Title IV
    the section of the federal code that establishes government financial aid programs, such as the FSA.
  • Upward Bound

    Upward Bound
    a program that is directed toward high school students to help them prepare for college, providing fundamental assistance, and is usually for kids from low-income homes.
  • 15th Amendment

    15th Amendment
    amendment that was passed after the Civil War, it gave African-American men the right to vote. however, violence, intimidation, and poll taxes were some factors that were used to prevent African-Americans from voting. it took another voting rights act for the majority of African-Americans to vote.
  • Head Start

    Head Start
    federal program that helps preschoolers that come from low-income families. it promotes school readiness by enhancing the social and cognitive development of the child.
  • Medicare

    a federal system of health insurance that is guaranteed for people over the age of 65 and younger people with disabilities.
  • Jim Crow Laws

    Jim Crow Laws
    system of laws that encouraged the segregation of African-Americans, especially in the South. the Jim Crow Laws were abolished in 1965.
  • Voting Rights Act of 1965

    Voting Rights Act of 1965
    this act put an end to the tactics that were used in order to deny African-Americans the right to vote (intimidation, violence, literacy test, etc.) it was pretty much created to further protect the rights stated in the 15th amendment.
  • Barbara Jordan

    Barbara Jordan
    she ran for the Texas senate in 1966 and became the first African-American U.S. state senator since 1883 and the first ever woman state senator.
  • National Organization for Women (NOW)

    National Organization for Women (NOW)
    an organization made up of people that believed in equal rights regardless of gender. its purpose was to "take action to bring women into full participation in the mainstream of American society now."
  • Black Panthers

    Black Panthers
    Huey P. Newton and Bobby Seale, using ideas inspired by activists like Malcolm X, founded the Black Panther Party. they used strategies such as violent forms of protest and militant groups in order to achieve civil rights. this organization was created by African-Americans that felt non-violent protesting was not working.
  • United Farm Workers Organizing Committee (UFWOC)

    United Farm Workers Organizing Committee (UFWOC)
    the National Farm Workers Association (NFWA) and Agricultural Workers Organizing Committee (AWOC) organizations merged together to greate the UFWOC, with Cesar Chavez leading the group. their purpose was to publicize the conditions migrant workers had to endure, and they protested through picketing/strikes, boycotts, and marches mostly.
  • 25th Amendment

    25th Amendment
    amendment that provides a clear account of the president's succession. if the President dies during office, the Vice President will take over office and the Secretary of State will fill the Vice President's seat.
  • Militant Protests

    Militant Protests
    aggressive form of protesting, either through physical or verbal means. examples of this type of protest are riots, sabotage, and symbolic defiance.
  • Federal Housing Authority

    Federal Housing Authority
    established as part of the National Housing Act of 1934, it was supposed to help stimulate the housing industry. it provides insurance to lenders so that more people would qualify for mortgages. nothing was done until 1968, however, when intentional discrimination for who recieved mortgages was prohibited by the Fair Housing Act.
  • American Indian Movement (AIM)

    American Indian Movement (AIM)
    organization during the civil rights movement that gave representation for the Native Americans. its purpose was to encourage the self-determination of Native Americans and have their treaty rights recognized.
  • Tinker v. Des Moines

    Tinker v. Des Moines
    this court case was started because students were being expelled for wearing arm bands that protested U.S. involvement in the /vietnam War. the ruling was that the 1st amendment does apply to public schools in regard to the regulation of speech in the classroom, which meant that schools could not expel students for exercising their freedom of speech and expression.
  • La Raza Unida (Mexican Americans United)

    La Raza Unida (Mexican Americans United)
    this party was first created as a third political party in Texas. their main purpose was to gain social, economic, and political liberties for the Chicanos (Mexican-Americans).
  • 26th Amendment

    26th Amendment
    amendment that lowered the voting age to 18. it was passed because citizens were being drafted into the military as young as 18 years old, but they could not vote.
  • Sonia Sotomayor

    Sonia Sotomayor
    depicts herself as the "product of affirmative action." she was admitted into Princeton University and Yale through affirmative action. she then went on to become a prosecutor, private lawyer, and federal judge. in 2009, she became the first Latina in the Supreme Court and it's third female justice.
  • Edgewood I.S.D. v. Kirby

    Edgewood I.S.D. v. Kirby
    landmark case in Texas that disapproved of Texas' school fainancial funding system. it redistributed property taxes to poorer districts and led to the Rob in Hood legislation.