Unit 1 Pre-Columbian Societies & Colonial Beginnings

  • Jan 1, 1300

    The Crusades End

    From 1100 to 1300 nine crusades took place. A crusade is a holy war. Each Crusade was fought to win back the Holy Land where Jesus lived. The Roman Catholic Church declared the crusades upon the Muslims. Although the Crusades lost and the Catholic church did not get the Holy Land, the crusades really opened up Europe to the much more advanced Muslim civilization.
  • Jan 1, 1492

    Columbus Discovers the New World

    Christopher Columbus is known as the first European to set foot in the New World. He received funds from King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella from Spain. Because of this, Spain felt they had the right to the New World.
  • Jan 1, 1494

    Treaty of Tordesillas

    Hearing about Columbus's journey to the Americas, both Spain and Portugal wanted to explore the new lands. They made and signed this treaty delegating some land to explore and colonize to each country. Spain received the majority of the land in the Americas with Portugal getting claims to some of the land Africa and Asia.
  • Jan 1, 1522

    Magellan Circumnavigates the World

    Ferdinand Magellan became the first person to ever sail all the way around the World. This led to the discovery of the western route to Asia all of the Europeans wanted to find. Magellan was killed when he and his men stopped in the Philipines where he was killed in battle. Three years after his voyage began one of his ships finally reached Spain in 1522.
  • Jamestown Established

    Jamestown is known as the first English settlement in the New World. It was started by the Virginia Company of London which is wear it eventually got its name Virginia. Famous leader John Smith led the colony through tough winters and a time period known as the "Starving Time".
  • Tobacco Plant Boom

    To get through the tough times it faced, Jamestown needed a cash crop. That crop came in 1613 when John Rolfe developed a process for improving tobacco, which was already a huge hit in England. The Jamestown climate was great for growing tobacco so it provided a much needed economic boost for the first colonists.
  • House of Burgesses established.

    The Virginian House of Burgesses was established to help the governor run the colony. However, as soon as the House was given power they never looked back. They disagreed with what the royal governor had to say so they did what they had to do to get things how they wanted it.
  • Plymouth Established

    In 1620 the famous Pilgrims came to the New World. They, unlike the settlers at Jamestown, got along with the Native Americans. On the way from England, the men on the Mayflower agreed to the Mayflower Compact which stated that their government would be based upon majority rule. The Plymouth colony was fairly succesful relative to the Jamestown settlers but the colony was eventually absorbed by Massachusettes.
  • Massachusettes Bay ColonyEstablished

    A group of Purtians led by John Winthropwho no longer wanter to live with the Pilgrims in Plymouth received a charter from the king for a new colony. This colony was known as the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts was a very successful company because its peoples perfected many trades. Massachusetts' early government also developed some democratic tactics we use today.
  • Maine and New Hampshire Founded

    As the first settlements north of Massachusettes, Maine and New Hampshire were granted from the King to Sir Fernandino Gorges and John Mason. Gorges settled Maine and Fernandino New Hampshire. Massachusetts tried claiming the territories but after court cases these two colonies became the northern-most of the English colonies.
  • Maryland Established

    Maryland was established in 1634 when King Charles I granted a large portion of land just above Virginia to the Calvert family. Lord Baltimore, head of the Calvert family, was a Catholic and seeked a place where he and his people could worship freely. He found this place in the colony Maryland. Since it was right above Virginia, Maryland also served as a very successful place at growing tobacco.
  • Rhode Island Founded

    Roger WIlliams was banished from Massachusetts for disagreeing with the leaders of the colony. He believed the Native Americans should not be completely stripped of their lands. After being exiled, his followers, him, and a local Native American tribe formed the settlement Providence. Still today this is the capital of the state/ colony Rhode Island.
  • Connecticut Established

    Displeased in Massachusetts, Thomas Hooker led three congregations into present-day Connecticut. These towns were based around the rivers in the area. In 1639, The Fundamental Orders of Connecticut were established. This was a representative government that all males could be on. Unlike in Massachusetts, you did not have to be a part of the church to be a part of the government.
  • Troubles in England

    In 1649 England went through a Civil War between supporters of the King and supporters of Parliament. With the English occupied, the colonies had little boundaries and were increasing trade with other European countries. During the Civil War King Charles I was beheaded. When Charles II took the throne years later he accounted for that and gave more power to the parliament.
  • The Carolinas

    The Carolinas were unlike most other colonies in the essence that the land was delegated to eight of the King's associates. The colony split into North Carolina and South Carolina in 1729. North Carolina's economy was based off of small efficient farms intstead of large plantations found in the south. South Carolina did have large plantaions. The South Carolina settlement Charleston, named after King Charles II, would turn into the most important southern city.
  • Bacon's Rebellion

    Nathaniel Bacon was a lower class representative in Jamestown going against the rule of Governor William Berkeley. The lower class was made up of farmers and indentured servants. Both were getting little in return for their hardwork and were also getting attacked by the Native Americans . Bacon and his men attacked the Native Americans and burned down cities. Bacon was killed and the revolt ended but not before it alerted England of what was to come. This was the first revolt agianst the crown.
  • Pennsylvania Founded

    Not welcome in Massachusetts because his lack of Puritan beliefs, William Penn and his Quaker followers were granted a charter from the king to create the colony of Pennsylvania. Penn had big plans for Pennsylvania. He promoted religious freedom in his colony and also set up a representative assebmbly type of government. Penn welcomed a diverse population and generated good relationships with the Natives.
  • New Jersey Unites

    New Jersey was a part of New York colony until the Duke of York granted present-day New Jersey to Lord John Berkeley and Sir George Cartaret. These two each had thier own share of land known as East New Jersey and West New Jersey. In 1702, these two separate colonies were joined together to create New Jersey.
  • Delaware Breaks Off

    Until 1702 Delaware was a part of Pennsylvania even though it wad its own location and culture. Delaware was made up of the three lower counties of Pennsylvania. It also was governed by the governor of Pennsylvania until the America Revolution in 1776.
  • Georgia Founded

    In the early 1700s England was struggling with overcrowding of its jails due to so many debtors. In order to solve that problem, the King chartered the land for another colony, Georgia. Georgia was to be led by, James Oglethorpe, a famous miliatary hero. He banned drinking rum and slavery until Georgia became a royal colony in 1752.