Unification of Italy Timeline

  • Period: to

    Resentment against living under foreign rule grows

  • Congress of Vienna concludes

    A settlement is reached at the conclusion of the Congress of Vienna, restoring Austrian dominance over the Italian peninsula. Italy is broken into a number of small states.
  • The national revolutionary movement, Young Italy, is founded by Giuseppe Mazzini.

  • Reforms take place in the Papal States, Lucca, Tuscany, and the Kingdom of Sardinia

    These reforms were created with the intention of weakening the revolutionary movements. Instead, they lead to revolutions in 1848 in Sicily, Rome, Naples, Florence, Mila, Venice, and Turin.
  • Revolutions of 1848 sweep across Italy

    The revolutions were caused by recently passed reforms, and spread through Sicily, Rome, Naples, Florence, Milan, Venice, and Turin.
  • Liberal constitution adopted

  • Victor Emmanuel II succeeds his father in 1849

    After being defeated by the Austrians, Charles Albert abdicated his throne. He was succeeded by his son, Victor Emmanuel II, in 1849.
  • Count Camillo di Cavour becomes prime minister of Sardinia-Piedmont

  • Napoleon agrees to assist Italy with expelling Austrians from the northern provinces

  • Cavour has heightened tensions to the point that Austrians demand Piedmontese disarmament.

  • Elections are held, in which all northern states vote to join the Kingdom of Sardinia.

    Meanwhile, Napoleon makes peace with Austria and Cavour is left to fight the war without French assistance.
  • Most French soldiers have been withdrawn from Italy

    The only remaining French soldiers are those requested to remain in Rome by the Pope.
  • The Thousand Red Shirts free Sicily and Naples from the Bourbon King

    The Thousand Red Shirts are led by Giuseppe Garibaldi, an Italian revolutionary hero seeking Italian unification. Sicily and Naples are given to Victor Emmanuel.
  • Nationalist led by Giuseppe Garibaldi capture Sicily

  • A united Italy is established under King Victor Emmanuel

    Rome is still ruled by the Pope, and Venetia is still controlled by Austrians.
  • Ventia joins Italy in 1866

    This is the result of Prussia defeating Austria in the Seven Weeks' War. Italy had allied with Prussia, hence the reward of the territory of Venetia.
  • Franco-Prussian War breaks out

    Napoleon withdraws his soldiers from Rome, allowing Italian soldiers to easily secure Rome without resistance.
  • Italian forces take control of the Papal States

  • Rome becomes the capital of united Italy

    This is the result of the citizens of Rome voting to join Italy.